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The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi- meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.
|Mission duration||179 days, 43 minutes, 45 seconds|
|Launch mass||7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)|
|Crew size||2 up|
|Callsign||Вулка́н (Vulkan - Volcano)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||January 24, 1993, 05:58:05UTC|
|End of mission|
|Landing date||July 22, 1993, 06:41:50UTC|
|Landing site||140 kilometres (87 mi) S of Dzhezkazgan|
|Perigee altitude||393 kilometres (244 mi)|
|Apogee altitude||394 kilometres (245 mi)|
|Docking with Mir|
|Position||Launching crew||Landing crew|
|Commander|| Gennadi Manakov|
|Flight Engineer|| Alexander Poleshchuk|
|Research Cosmonaut||None|| Jean-Pierre Haigneré|
16th expedition to Mir.
First Soyuz without a probe and drogue docking system since 1976. It carried an APAS-89 androgynous docking unit different from the APAS-75 unit used for ASTP in 1975, yet similar in general principles. Soyuz-TM 16 used it to dock with an androgynous docking port on the Kristall module. This was a test of the docking system in preparation for dockings by the Space Shuttles with Mir.
- The mission report is available here:http://www.spacefacts.de/mission/english/soyuz-tm16.htm
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