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The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi- meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

Soyuz TM-16
OperatorRosaviakosmos
COSPAR ID1993-005A
SATCAT no.22319Edit this on Wikidata
Mission duration179 days, 43 minutes, 45 seconds
Orbits completed~2,790
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeSoyuz-TM
ManufacturerNPO Energia
Launch mass7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)
Crew
Crew size2 up
3 down
MembersGennadi Manakov
Alexander Poleshchuk
LandingJean-Pierre Haigneré
CallsignВулка́н (Vulkan - Volcano)
Start of mission
Launch dateJanuary 24, 1993, 05:58:05 (1993-01-24UTC05:58:05Z) UTC
RocketSoyuz-U2
End of mission
Landing dateJuly 22, 1993, 06:41:50 (1993-07-22UTC06:41:51Z) UTC
Landing site140 kilometres (87 mi) S of Dzhezkazgan
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude393 kilometres (244 mi)
Apogee altitude394 kilometres (245 mi)
Inclination51.6 degrees
Docking with Mir
Soyuz TM-16 patch.png
Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
 

Soyuz TM-16 was the sixteenth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.[1]

CrewEdit

Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander   Gennadi Manakov
Second spaceflight
Flight Engineer   Alexander Poleshchuk
First spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut None   Jean-Pierre Haigneré
First spaceflight

Mission highlightsEdit

 
Soyuz TM-16 shown with the APAS-89 docking mechanism
 
APAS-89

16th expedition to Mir.

First Soyuz without a probe and drogue docking system since 1976. It carried an APAS-89 androgynous docking unit different from the APAS-75 unit used for ASTP in 1975, yet similar in general principles. Soyuz-TM 16 used it to dock with an androgynous docking port on the Kristall module. This was a test of the docking system in preparation for dockings by the Space Shuttles with Mir.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The mission report is available here:http://www.spacefacts.de/mission/english/soyuz-tm16.htm