Physical disability

A physical disability is a limitation on a person's physical functioning, mobility, dexterity or stamina.[1] Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facets of daily living, such as respiratory disorders, blindness, epilepsy[2] and sleep disorders.

CausesEdit

Prenatal disabilities are acquired before birth. These may be due to diseases or substances that the mother has been exposed to during pregnancy, embryonic or fetal developmental accidents or genetic disorders.[3][4]

Perinatal disabilities are acquired between some weeks before to up to four weeks after birth in humans.[5] These can be due to prolonged lack of oxygen or obstruction of the respiratory tract, damage to the brain during birth (due to the accidental misuse of forceps, for example) or the baby being born prematurely. These may also be caused due to genetic disorders[4] or accidents.

Post-natal disabilities are gained after birth. They can be due to accidents, injuries, obesity, infection or other illnesses. These may also be caused due to genetic disorders.

TypesEdit

Mobility impairment includes upper or lower limb loss or impairment, poor manual dexterity, and damage to one or multiple organs of the body. Disability in mobility can be a congenital or acquired problem or a consequence of disease. People who have a broken skeletal structure also fall into this category.

Visual impairment is another type of physical impairment. There are hundreds of thousands of people with minor to various serious vision injuries or impairments. These types of injuries can also result in severe problems or diseases such as blindness and ocular trauma. Some other types of vision impairment include scratched cornea, scratches on the sclera, diabetes-related eye conditions, dry eyes and corneal graft, macular degeneration in old age and retinal detachment.

Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear. Deaf and hard of hearing people have a rich culture[6][7] and benefit from learning sign language for communication purposes.[8][citation needed] People who are only partially deaf can sometimes make use of hearing aids to improve their hearing ability. Speech and language disability : the person with deviations of speech and language processes which are outside the range of acceptable deviation within a given environment and which prevent full social or educational development

Physical impairment can also be attributed to disorders causing, among others, sleep deficiency, chronic fatigue, chronic pain, and seizures.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "What is disability?". Education to employment. National Disability Coordination Officer Program. University of Western Sydney. 2012. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
  2. ^ Physical Disabilities, California State University, Northridge
  3. ^ "Prenatal Injury". ScienceDirect. Elsevier B.V. 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  4. ^ a b "Birth Defects Research & Prevention" (Government website). Bureau of Family Health and Nutrition. Massachusetts Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention. Boston: Department of Public Health. 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  5. ^ Wright, Joyce A. (2008). "Prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of infant disability: Breaking the news to mothers". The Journal of Perinatal Education. Springer: Lamaze International. 17 (3): 27–32. doi:10.1624/105812408X324543. eISSN 1548-8519. ISSN 1058-1243. PMC 2517190. PMID 19436417. ProQuest 1844560198.
  6. ^ Cooke, Michele L. (2018-10-11). "What is my deaf way of science?". UMass Magazine. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Archived from the original on 2019-05-03. Retrieved 2020-04-09.
  7. ^ Dolnick, Edward (September 1993). "Deafness as Culture" (PDF). The Atlantic. MasterFILE Complete: EBSCO. 272 (3): 37. ISSN 0276-9077. OCLC 936540106. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-10-04.
  8. ^ Mindess, Anna (2006). Reading Between the Signs: Intercultural Communication for Sign Language Interpreters. Sharon Neumann Solow, Thomas K. Holcomb. Boston: International Press. ISBN 978-1-931930-26-0. OCLC 829736204.

Further readingEdit