Parker Solar Probe

The Parker Solar Probe (abbreviated PSP; previously Solar Probe, Solar Probe Plus or Solar Probe+)[8] is a NASA space probe launched in 2018 with the mission of making observations of the outer corona of the Sun.[3][6][9] It will approach to within 9.86 solar radii (6.9 million km or 4.3 million miles)[10][11] from the center of the Sun, and by 2025 will travel, at closest approach, as fast as 690,000 km/h (430,000 mph), or 0.064% the speed of light.[10][12]

Parker Solar Probe
Digital model of a spacecraft with a bus attached to a larger sun-shield. Two small solar panels are attached to the side of the bus, along with four rear-facing antennas.
An artistic rendition of the Parker Solar Probe.
NamesSolar Probe (before 2002)
Solar Probe Plus (2010–2017)
Parker Solar Probe (since 2017)
Mission typeHeliophysics
OperatorNASA / Applied Physics Laboratory
COSPAR ID2018-065A
SATCAT no.43592
Mission duration7 years (planned)
Elapsed: 3 years, 1 month and 10 days
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerApplied Physics Laboratory
Launch mass685 kg (1,510 lb)[1]
Dry mass555 kg (1,224 lb)
Payload mass50 kg (110 lb)
Dimensions1.0 m × 3.0 m × 2.3 m (3.3 ft × 9.8 ft × 7.5 ft)
Power343 W (at closest approach)
Start of mission
Launch date12 August 2018, 07:31 UTC [2][3][4]
RocketDelta IV Heavy / Star-48BV[5]
Launch siteCape Canaveral, SLC-37
ContractorUnited Launch Alliance
Orbital parameters
Reference systemHeliocentric orbit
Semi-major axis0.388 AU (58.0 million km; 36.1 million mi)
Perihelion altitude0.046 AU (6.9 million km; 4.3 million mi; 9.86 R)[note 1]
Aphelion altitude0.73 AU (109 million km; 68 million mi)[6]
Period88 days
Artwork of the spacecraft next to the Sun, enclosed in a circle with a yellow border. The words "Parker Solar Probe" are placed around the interior of the border, while the words "a mission to touch the Sun" are written inline in a smaller font in the bottom right of the image.
The official insignia for the Parker Solar Probe mission.  

The project was announced in the fiscal 2009 budget year. The cost of the project is US$1.5 billion. Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory designed and built the spacecraft,[13] which was launched on 12 August 2018.[2] It became the first NASA spacecraft named after a living person, honoring nonagenarian physicist Eugene Newman Parker, professor emeritus at the University of Chicago.[14]

A memory card containing the names of over 1.1 million people was mounted on a plaque and installed below the spacecraft's high-gain antenna on 18 May 2018.[15] The card also contains photos of Parker and a copy of his 1958 scientific paper predicting important aspects of solar physics.[16]

On 29 October 2018, at about 18:04 UTC, the spacecraft became the closest ever artificial object to the Sun. The previous record, 42.73 million kilometres (26.55 million miles) from the Sun's surface, was set by the Helios 2 spacecraft in April 1976.[17] As of its perihelion 29 April 2021, the Parker Solar Probe's closest approach is 10.5 million kilometres (6.5 million miles).[18] This will be surpassed after each successive flyby of Venus.


A light bar testing in the Astrotech processing facility.
The launch of the probe.

The Parker Solar Probe concept originates in the 1958 report by the Fields and Particles Group (Committee 8 of the National Academy of Sciences' Space Science Board [19][20]) which proposed several space missions including "a solar probe to pass inside the orbit of Mercury to study the particles and fields in the vicinity of the Sun".[21][22] Studies in the 1970s and 1980s reaffirmed its importance,[21] but it was always postponed due to cost. A cost-reduced Solar Orbiter mission was studied in the 1990s, and a more capable Solar Probe mission served as one of the centerpieces of the eponymous Outer Planet/Solar Probe (OPSP) program formulated by NASA in the late 1990s. The first three missions of the program were planned to be: the Solar Orbiter, the Pluto and Kuiper belt reconnaissance mission Pluto Kuiper Express, and the Europa Orbiter astrobiology mission focused on Europa.[23][24]

The original Solar Probe design used a gravity assist from Jupiter to enter a polar orbit which dropped almost directly toward the Sun. While this explored the important solar poles and came even closer to the surface (3 R, a perihelion of 4 R),[24] the extreme variation in solar irradiance made for an expensive mission and required a radioisotope thermal generator for power. The trip to Jupiter also made for a long mission (3+12 years to first solar perihelion, 8 years to second).

Following the appointment of Sean O'Keefe as Administrator of NASA, the entirety of the OPSP program was canceled as part of President George W. Bush's request for the 2003 United States federal budget.[25] Administrator O'Keefe cited a need for a restructuring of NASA and its projects, falling in line with the Bush Administration's wish for NASA to refocus on "research and development, and addressing management shortcomings".[25]

The cancellation of the program also resulted in the initial cancellation of New Horizons, the mission that eventually won the competition to replace Pluto Kuiper Express in the former OPSP program.[26] That mission, which would eventually be launched as the first mission of the New Frontiers program, a conceptual successor to the OPSP program, would undergo a lengthy political battle to secure funding for its launch, which occurred in 2006.[27]

In the early 2010s, plans for the Solar Probe mission were incorporated into a lower-cost Solar Probe Plus.[28] The redesigned mission uses multiple Venus gravity assists for a more direct flight path, which can be powered by solar panels. It also has a higher perihelion, reducing the demands on the thermal protection system.

In May 2017, the spacecraft was renamed Parker Solar Probe in honor of astrophysicist Eugene Newman Parker,[29][30] who coined the term "solar wind". The solar probe cost NASA US$1.5 billion.[31][32] The launch rocket bore a dedication in memory of APL engineer Andrew A. Dantzler who had worked on the project.[33]


The thermal testing of the spacecraft.
The NASA's Parker Solar Probe during extensive environmental testing.

The Parker Solar Probe is the first spacecraft to fly into the low solar corona. It will assess the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal plasma and magnetic field, the energy flow that heats the solar corona and impels the solar wind, and the mechanisms that accelerate energetic particles.

The spacecraft's systems are protected from the extreme heat and radiation near the Sun by a solar shield. Incident solar radiation at perihelion is approximately 650 kW/m2, or 475 times the intensity at Earth orbit.[1][34]: 31  The solar shield is hexagonal, mounted on the Sun-facing side of the spacecraft, 2.3 m (7 ft 7 in) in diameter,[35] 11.4 cm (4.5 in) thick, and is made of reinforced carbon–carbon composite, which is designed to withstand temperatures outside the spacecraft of about 1,370 °C (2,500 °F).[1]

A white reflective alumina surface layer minimizes absorption. The spacecraft systems and scientific instruments are located in the central portion of the shield's shadow, where direct radiation from the Sun is fully blocked. If the shield were not between the spacecraft and the Sun, the probe would be damaged and become inoperative within tens of seconds. As radio communication with Earth will take about eight minutes in each direction, the Parker Solar Probe will have to act autonomously and rapidly to protect itself. This will be done using four light sensors to detect the first traces of direct sunlight coming from the shield limits and engaging movements from reaction wheels to reposition the spacecraft within the shadow again. According to project scientist Nicky Fox, the team describe it as "the most autonomous spacecraft that has ever flown".[8]

The primary power for the mission is a dual system of solar panels (photovoltaic arrays). A primary photovoltaic array, used for the portion of the mission outside 0.25 au, is retracted behind the shadow shield during the close approach to the Sun, and a much smaller secondary array powers the spacecraft through closest approach. This secondary array uses pumped-fluid cooling to maintain operating temperature of the solar panels and instrumentation.[36][37]


An animation of Parker Solar Probe's trajectory from August 7, 2018 to August 29, 2025:
  Parker Solar Probe ·   Sun ·   Mercury ·   Venus ·   Earth
For more detailed animation, see this video.

The Parker Solar Probe mission design uses repeated gravity assists at Venus to incrementally decrease its orbital perihelion to achieve a final altitude (above the surface) of approximately 8.5 solar radii, or about 6×10^6 km (3.7×10^6 mi; 0.040 au).[35] The spacecraft trajectory will include seven Venus flybys over nearly seven years to gradually shrink its elliptical orbit around the Sun, for a total of 24 orbits.[1] The near Sun radiation environment is predicted to cause spacecraft charging effects, radiation damage in materials and electronics, and communication interruptions, so the orbit will be highly elliptical with short times spent near the Sun.[34]

The trajectory requires high launch energy, so the probe was launched on a Delta IV Heavy class launch vehicle and an upper stage based on the Star 48BV solid rocket motor.[34] Interplanetary gravity assists will provide further deceleration relative to its heliocentric orbit, which will result in a heliocentric speed record at perihelion.[5][38] As the probe passes around the Sun, it will achieve a velocity of up to 200 km/s (120 mi/s), which will temporarily make it the fastest human-made object, almost three times as fast as the previous record holder, Helios-2.[39][40][41] Like every object in an orbit, due to gravity the spacecraft will accelerate as it nears perihelion, then slow down again afterward until it reaches its aphelion.


Launch of Parker Solar Probe in 2018.
The overall goal is to increase understanding of Earth's star, the Sun — an astronomical body of immense impact on the Earth and the Solar System due to its release of light and solar wind, in addition to its strong gravity. The spacecraft must contend with these forces as it approaches closer to the Sun than any probe before it.

Within each orbit of the Parker Solar Probe around the Sun, the portion within 0.25 AU is the Science Phase, in which the probe is actively and autonomously making observations. Communication with the probe is largely cut off in that phase.[42]: 4  Science phases run for a few days both before and after each perihelion. They lasted 11.6 days for the earliest perihelion, and will drop to 9.6 days for the final, closest perihelion.[42]: 8 

Much of the rest of each orbit is devoted to transmitting data from the science phase. But during this part of each orbit, there are still periods when communication is not possible. First, the requirement that the heat shield of the probe be pointed towards the Sun sometimes puts the heat shield between the antenna and Earth. Second, even when the probe is not particularly near the Sun, when the angle between the probe and the Sun (as seen from Earth) is too small, the Sun's radiation can overwhelm the communication link.[42]: 11–14 

Science goalsEdit

An apparent size of the Sun as seen from Parker Solar Probe at perihelion compared to its apparent size seen from Earth.

The goals of the mission are:[34]

  • Trace the flow of energy that heats the corona and accelerates the solar wind.
  • Determine the structure and dynamics of the magnetic fields at the sources of solar wind.
  • Determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles.


The EPI-Lo instrument for IS☉IS is prepared.

To achieve these goals, the mission will perform five major experiments or investigations:[34]

  • Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (IS☉IS) – This investigation will measure energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The instrument suite comprises two independent Energetic Particle Instruments, the EPI-Hi and EPI-Lo studying higher and lower energy particles [43] The Principal investigator is David McComas, at the Princeton University.


After the first Venus flyby, the probe will be in an elliptical orbit with a period of 150 days (two-thirds the period of Venus), making three orbits while Venus makes two. On the second flyby, the period shortens to 130 days. After less than two orbits (only 198 days later) it encounters Venus a third time at a point earlier in the orbit of Venus. This encounter shortens its period to half of that of Venus, or about 112.5 days. After two orbits it meets Venus a fourth time at about the same place, shortening its period to about 102 days. After 237 days, it meets Venus for the fifth time and its period is shortened to about 96 days, three-sevenths that of Venus. It then makes seven orbits while Venus makes three. The sixth encounter, almost two years after the fifth, brings its period down to 92 days, two-fifths that of Venus. After five more orbits (two orbits of Venus), it meets Venus for the seventh and last time, decreasing its period to 88 or 89 days and allowing it to approach closer to the Sun.[44]

The speed of the probe and distance from the Sun, from launch until 2026. Events: : Perihelion; : Venus flyby

List of eventsEdit

List of events[44][34]: 31 [45]
Year Date Event Distance
from Sun (Gm)[a]
Orbital period
Flyby altitude
over Venus
Leg of
Parker's orbit
orbit of Venus
2018 12 August
07:31 UTC
Launch 151.6 174[e]
3 October
08:44 UTC
Venus flyby #1 2548 km[f] Inbound Inside Flybys 1 and 2 occur at the
same point in Venus's orbit
6 November
03:27 UTC
Perihelion #1 24.8[g] 95 150 Solar encounter phase
31 October – 11 November[49]
2019 4 April
22:40 UTC
Perihelion #2 Solar encounter phase
30 March – 10 April[50]
1 September
17:50 UTC[51]
Perihelion #3 Solar encounter phase
16 August – 20 September [h]
26 December
18:14 UTC[53]
Venus flyby #2 3023 km Inbound Inside Flybys 1 and 2 occur at the
same point in Venus's orbit
2020 29 January
09:37 UTC[54]
Perihelion #4 19.4 109 130 Solar encounter phase
23 January – 29 February[55]
7 June
08:23 UTC[56]
Perihelion #5 Solar encounter phase
9 May – 28 June[57]
11 July
03:22 UTC[58]
Venus flyby #3 834 km Outbound Outside[i] Flybys 3 and 4 occur at the
same point in Venus's orbit
27 September Perihelion #6 14.2 129 112.5
2021 17 January Perihelion #7
20 February Venus flyby #4 2392 km Outbound Outside Flybys 3 and 4 occur at the
same point in Venus's orbit
29 April Perihelion #8 11.1 147 102
9 August Perihelion #9
16 October Venus flyby #5 3786 km Inbound Inside Flybys 5 and 6 occur at the
same point in Venus's orbit
21 November Perihelion #10 9.2 163 96
2022 25 February Perihelion #11
1 June Perihelion #12
6 September Perihelion #13
11 December Perihelion #14
2023 17 March Perihelion #15
22 June Perihelion #16
21 August Venus flyby #6 3939 km Inbound Inside Flybys 5 and 6 occur at the
same point in Venus's orbit
27 September Perihelion #17 7.9 176 92
29 December Perihelion #18
2024 30 March Perihelion #19
30 June Perihelion #20
30 September Perihelion #21
6 November Venus flyby #7 317 km Outbound Outside
24 December Perihelion #22 6.9 192 88
2025 22 March Perihelion #23
29 June Perihelion #24
15 September Perihelion #25
12 December Perihelion #26
  1. ^ The perihelion distances above are from the center of the Sun. For altitude above the surface, subtract one solar radius ≈0.7 Gm.
  2. ^ Details on Venus flybys from Guo et al.[42]: 6  This was published in 2014, four years before the mission began. For a variety of reasons, including the fact that the launch had to be delayed at the last minute, actual details could differ from the ones presented in the work.
  3. ^ Inbound indicates that the Venus flyby will take place after Parker's aphelion (in the case of the first flyby, after its launch), on its way to perihelion. Outbound indicates that the Venus flyby will take place after Parker's perihelion, on its way to aphelion.
  4. ^ Inside indicates that the probe will pass in between Venus and the Sun. Outside indicates that the probe will pass beyond Venus from the Sun; the probe will briefly pass through Venus's shadow in those instances.
  5. ^ The first orbital period of 174 days was the orbit established by the launch and course adjustments, and was the orbit the probe would have taken had nothing further happened to change it. That orbit was, per mission plan, never completed. On the probe's first inbound course towards the Sun, it made its first planned encounter with Venus, which shortened its orbit considerably.
  6. ^ The altitude is from the source cited,[42]: 6  dated 2014. 2548 km comes to 1583 mi. NASA's [46] and Johns Hopkins's [47] press releases (identical), say "...came within about 1500 miles of Venus' surface..." A NASA blog,[48] says, "...completed its flyby of Venus at a distance of about 1500 miles..." Other news reports, presumably taking that information, also provide a figure of 2414 km. But neither the NASA/Hopkins press release nor the blog gives a figure in kilometers.
    Both the NASA and Hopkins press releases say that the flyby reduced the speed of the Parker Solar Probe (relative to the Sun) by about 10%, or 7000 mph. This altered the orbit, bringing perihelion about 4 million miles closer to the Sun than it would have been without the gravity assist.
  7. ^ By way of comparison, the planet Mercury orbits the Sun at a distance varying from about 46.0 Gm (46,001,200 km) at its closest to about 69.8 Gm (69,816,900 km) at its farthest.
  8. ^ After the second solar encounter phase, Parker Solar Probe was able to download much more data than NASA had expected. So NASA announced a substantial extension of the third solar encounter phase from 11 days to about 35 days. The observational instruments were turned on when Parker Solar Probe came within 0.45 au on the inbound trip, and are planned to run until the probe reaches about 0.50 au outbound.[52]
  9. ^ The third flyby of Venus was the first to pass behind Venus from the point of view of the Sun. The probe was in Venus's shadow, obscured from the Sun, for about 11 minutes, and passed through a so-called "tail" of Venus -- a trail of charged particles from the atmosphere of Venus. The probe's instruments were to be turned on to make observations.[58]

Operational historyEdit

The second flyby of Venus on December 26, 2019. The velocity decreases by 2.9 km/s to 26 km/s (red circle), shifting the spacecraft to a new orbit closer to the Sun.
Venus flyby
  • Launch occurred on 12 August 2018, at 07:31 UTC. The spacecraft operated nominally after launching. During its first week in space it deployed its high-gain antenna, magnetometer boom, and electric field antennas.[59] The spacecraft performed its first scheduled trajectory correction on 20 August 2018, while it was 8.8 million km from Earth, and travelling at 63,569 kilometres per hour (39,500 mph)[60]
  • Instrument activation and testing began in early September 2018. On 9 September 2018, the two WISPR telescopic cameras performed a successful first-light test, transmitting wide-angle images of the background sky towards the galactic center.[61]
  • The probe successfully performed the first of the seven planned Venus flybys on 3 October 2018, where it came within about 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) of Venus in order to reduce the probe's speed and orbit closer to the Sun.[48]
  • The first scientific observations were transmitted in December 2018.[62][63]
  • NASA announced that on 19 January 2019, the Parker Solar Probe reached its first aphelion, thus completing its first full orbit.[64] According to the Horizons system,[65] on 20 January 2019 at 01:12 UTC, the space ship reached a distance of 0.9381 au.
  • On 12 November 2019, the data from the first two flybys of the Sun (31 October – 12 November 2018, and 30 March – 19 April 2019) was released to the public.[66]
  • On 15 September 2020, data from the fourth orbit around the Sun, including its first two Venus flybys was released to the public.[67]


On 4 December 2019, the first four research papers were published describing findings during the spacecraft's first two dives near the Sun.[68][69][70][71][72] They reported the direction and strength of the Sun's magnetic field, and described the unusually frequent and short-lived changes in the direction of the Sun's magnetic field. These measurements confirm the hypothesis that Alfvén waves are the leading candidates for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the coronal heating problem.[69][73] The probe observed approximately a thousand "rogue" magnetic waves in the solar atmosphere that instantly increase solar winds by as much as 300,000 miles per hour (480,000 km/h) and in some cases completely reverse the local magnetic field.[69][70][74][75] They also reported that, using the "beam of electrons that stream along the magnetic field", they were able to observe that "the reversals in the Sun's magnetic field are often associated with localized enhancements in the radial component of the plasma velocity (the velocity in the direction away from the Sun's centre)". The researchers found a "surprisingly large azimuthal component of the plasma velocity (the velocity perpendicular to the radial direction). This component results from the force with which the Sun's rotation slingshots plasma out of the corona when the plasma is released from the coronal magnetic field".[69][70]

Parker discovered evidence of a cosmic dust-free zone of 3.5 million miles (5.6 million kilometres) radius from the Sun, due to vaporisation of cosmic dust particles by the Sun's radiation.[76]

See alsoEdit

Sun observation spacecraft
  • Solar and Heliospheric Observatory – European space observatory studying the Sun and its solar wind; cornerstone mission in the ESA Science Programme, launched 1995
  • Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO, launched 2010
  • Helios – Pair of sun-orbiting probes launched in 1974-76 by the American and West German space agencies, a pair of spacecraft launched in the 1970s to approach the Sun inside the orbit of Mercury, 63 R
  • Solar Orbiter – European solar observatory studying the Sun's heliosphere; medium-class mission in the ESA Science Programme (launched 2020), 60 R
  • STEREO, launched 2006
  • TRACE – Transition Region and Coronal Explorer, a NASA heliophysics and solar observatory 1998-2010, launched 1998
  • WIND, launched 1994
  • Ulysses – 1990 robotic space probe; studied the Sun from a near-polar orbit (carried no camera, and studied from 1.35 au distant)
Spacecraft design


  1. ^ Mission planning used a perihelion of 9.5 R (6.6 Gm; 4.1×10^6 mi), or 8.5 R (5.9 Gm; 3.7×10^6 mi) altitude above the surface,[6] but later documents all say 9.86 R. The exact value will not be finalized until the seventh Venus gravity assist in 2024. Mission planners might decide to alter it slightly before then.


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External linksEdit

  Media related to Parker Solar Probe at Wikimedia Commons