Skylab 3

Skylab 3 (also SL-3 and SLM-2[2]) was the second crewed mission to the first American space station, Skylab. The mission began July 28, 1973, with the launch of three astronauts in the Apollo command and service module on the Saturn IB rocket, and lasted 59 days, 11 hours and 9 minutes. A total of 1,084.7 astronaut-utilization hours were tallied by the Skylab 3 crew performing scientific experiments in the areas of medical activities, solar observations, Earth resources, and other experiments.

Skylab 3
Skylab 3 Close-Up - GPN-2000-001711.jpg
Skylab as seen by the arriving Skylab 3 crew
OperatorNASA
COSPAR ID1973-050A
SATCAT no.6757
Mission duration59 days, 11 hours, 09 minutes, 01 seconds
Distance travelled39,400,000 kilometers (24,500,000 mi)
Orbits completed858
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftApollo CSM-117
ManufacturerNorth American Rockwell
Launch mass20,121 kilograms (44,359 lb)
Crew
Crew size3
Members
Start of mission
Launch dateJuly 28, 1973, 11:10:50 (1973-07-28UTC11:10:50Z) UTC
RocketSaturn IB SA-207
Launch siteKennedy LC-39B
End of mission
Recovered byUSS New Orleans
Landing dateSeptember 25, 1973, 22:19:51 (1973-09-25UTC22:19:52Z) UTC
Landing site30°47′N 120°29′W / 30.783°N 120.483°W / 30.783; -120.483
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude423 kilometers (263 mi)
Apogee altitude441 kilometers (274 mi)
Inclination50.0 degrees
Period93.2 minutes
EpochAugust 8, 1973[1]
Docking with Skylab
Docking portForward
Docking dateJuly 28, 1973, 19:37:00 UTC
Undocking dateSeptember 25, 1973, 11:16:42 UTC
Time docked58 days, 15 hours, 39 minutes, 42 seconds
Skylab2-Patch.png
Due to a NASA management error, crewed Skylab mission patches were designed in conflict with the official mission numbering scheme.
S73-28714.jpg
L-R: Garriott, Lousma and Bean
Skylab program
 

The crewed Skylab missions were officially designated Skylab 2, 3, and 4. Mis-communication about the numbering resulted in the mission emblems reading "Skylab I", "Skylab II", and "Skylab 3" respectively.[2][3]

CrewEdit

Position Astronaut
Commander Alan L. Bean
Second and last spaceflight
Science Pilot Owen K. Garriott
First spaceflight
Pilot Jack R. Lousma
First spaceflight

Backup crewEdit

Position Astronaut
Commander Vance D. Brand
Science Pilot William B. Lenoir
Pilot Don L. Lind

Support crewEdit

Mission parametersEdit

Days in Space
Mission
Skylab 2
28
Skylab 3
60
Skylab 4
84
  • Mass: about 20,121 kg (44,359 lb)
  • Maximum Altitude: 440 km
  • Distance: 24.5 million miles (39.4 million km)
  • Launch Vehicle: Saturn IB
  • Perigee: 423 km
  • Apogee: 441 km
  • Inclination: 50°
  • Period: 93.2 min

DockingEdit

  • Docked: July 28, 1973 – 19:37:00 UTC
  • Undocked: September 25, 1973 – 11:16:42 UTC
  • Time Docked: 58 days, 15 hours, 39 minutes, 42 seconds

Space walksEdit

Garriott and Lousma — EVA 1
Start: August 6, 1973, 17:30 UTC
End: August 7, 00:01 UTC
Duration: 6 hours, 31 minutes
Garriott and Lousma — EVA 2
Start: August 24, 1973, 16:24 UTC
End: August 24, 20:55 UTC
Duration: 4 hours, 31 minutes
Bean and Garriott — EVA 3
Start: September 22, 1973, 11:18 UTC
End: September 22, 13:59 UTC
Duration: 2 hours, 41 minutes

Mission highlightsEdit

 
Skylab 3 heads into orbit aboard a Saturn IB
 
Astronaut Jack Lousma participates in an EVA
 
This shows an extreme ultraviolet view of the Sun (the Apollo Telescope Mount SO82A Experiment) taken during Skylab 3, with the Earth added for scale. On the right an image of the Sun shows a helium emissions, and there is an image on the left showing emissions from iron

While approaching Skylab a propellant leak developed in one of the Apollo Service Module's reaction control system thruster quads. The crew was able to safely dock with the station, but troubleshooting continued with the problem. Six days later, another thruster quad developed a leak, creating concern amongst Mission Control. For the first time, an Apollo spacecraft was rolled out to Launch Complex 39 for Skylab Rescue, made possible by the ability for the station to have two Apollo CSMs docked at the same time. It was eventually determined that the CSM could be safely maneuvered using only two working thruster quads, and the rescue mission was never launched.

After recovering from space sickness[4] the crew, during their first EVA, installed the twin-pole sunshade, one of the two solutions for the destruction of the micrometeoroid shield during Skylab's launch to keep the space station cool. It was installed over the parasol, which was originally deployed through a porthole airlock during Skylab 2. Both were brought to the station by Skylab 2.

Skylab 3 continued a comprehensive medical research program that extended the data on human physiological adaptation and readaptation to space flight collected on the previous Skylab 2 mission. In addition, Skylab 3 extended the astronauts' stay in space from approximately one month to two months. Therefore, the effects of flight duration on physiological adaptation and readaptation could be examined.

A set of core medical investigations were performed on all three Skylab crewed missions. These core investigations were the same basic investigations that were performed on Skylab 2, except that the Skylab 3 inflight tests were supplemented with extra tests based on what researchers learned from the Skylab 2 science results. For example, only leg volume measurements, preflight and postflight stereophotogrammetry, and in-flight maximum calf girth measurements were originally scheduled for all three Skylab missions.

In-flight photographs from Skylab 2 revealed the "puffy face syndrome" which prompted the addition of in-flight torso and limb girth measurements to gather more data on the apparent headward fluid shift on Skylab 3. Other additional tests included arterial blood flow measurements by an occlusive cuff placed around the leg, facial photographs taken before flight and during flight to study the "puffy face syndrome", venous compliance, hemoglobin, urine specific gravity, and urine mass measurements. These inflight tests gave additional information about fluid distribution and fluid balance to get a better understanding of the fluid shift phenomena.

The Skylab 3 biological experiments studied the effects of microgravity on mice, fruit flies, single cells and cell culture media. Human lung cells were flown to examine the biochemical characteristics of cell cultures in the microgravity environment. The two animal experiments were entitled Chronobiology of Pocket Mice and Circadian Rhythm in Vinegar Gnats. Both experiments were unsuccessful due to a power failure 30 hours after launch, which killed the animals.[5]

High school students from across the United States participated in the Skylab missions as the primary investigators of experiments that studied astronomy, physics, and fundamental biology. The student experiments performed on Skylab 3 included the study of libration clouds, X-rays from Jupiter, in-vitro immunology, spider web formation, cytoplasmic streaming, mass measurement, and neutron analysis.

The crew's health was assessed on Skylab by collecting data on dental health, environmental and crew microbiology, radiation, and toxicological aspects of the Skylab orbital workshop. Other assessments were made of astronaut maneuvering equipment and of the habitability of the crew quarters, and crew activities/maintenance experiments were examined on Skylab 2 through 4 to better understand the living and working aspects of life in space.

S150 Galactic X-Ray MappingEdit

 
S150 instrument for galactic X-Ray mapping, sent up with Skylab 3

The S150 X-ray experiment was sent up with Skylab 3. The 1,360 kg X-ray astronomy satellite experiment was designed to look for soft galactic x-rays. Short missions had been done before, and S150 would be a longer project. S150 had a large soft x-ray detector, and was mounted atop the Saturn S-IVB upper stage. When released, S150 flew behind and below Skylab on 28 July 1973. The S150 experiment deployed after the Apollo capsule separated from the S-IVB stage. S150 had its own protective housing for the flight. The experiment on S150 ran for 5 hours, as its batteries allowed S150 to measure half of the sky. Experiment data was recorded on tape-recorder and sent to ground stations when available. S150 was designed by University of Wisconsin scientists Dr. William L. Kraushaar and Alan Bunner. S150 could detect 40-100 angstrom photons. [6][7][8][9] The 2001 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe gave a more detailed soft galactic X-ray map, confirming the S150 Galactic X-Ray Mapping finding.[10][11]

Mission insigniaEdit

The circular crew patch was Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man, representing the mission's medical experiments and retouched to remove the genitalia. In the background is a disk that is half Sun (including sunspots) and half Earth to represent the experiments done on the flight. The patch has a white background, the crew's names and "Skylab II" with a red, white and blue border. The wives of the crew secretly had an alternate graphic made of a 'universal woman' with their first names in place of the crew's. Stickers with this on them were put in lockers aboard the Command Module to surprise the crew.[12]

GalleryEdit

Spacecraft locationEdit

 
The Skylab 3 Command Module being moved to the Great Lakes Science Center

The Sklyab 3 command module returned to Earth with Alan L. Bean, Jack R. Lousma, and Owen K. Garriott on September 25, 1973.[13] In 1977 the command module was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution by NASA.[13]

The Apollo Command Module used on Skylab 3 was for a time on display at the visitor's center of the NASA Glenn Research Center at the Great Lakes Science Center in Cleveland, Ohio.[14]

The module was moved to the Great Lakes Science Center in June 2010.[15] It took a year to plan and US$120,000 to move the capsule.[15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "SATCAT". Jonathan's Space Pages. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Skylab Numbering Fiasco". Living in Space. William Pogue Official WebSite. 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009. Retrieved February 7, 2009.
  3. ^ Pogue, William. "Naming Spacecraft: Confusion Reigns". collectSPACE. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
  4. ^ Elder, Donald C. (1998). "The Human Touch: The History of the Skylab Program". In Mack, Pamela E. (ed.). From Engineering Science to Big Science: The NACA and NASA Collier Trophy Research Project Winners. The NASA History Series. NASA. SP-4219.
  5. ^ Souza, Kenneth; Hogan, Robert; Ballard, Rodney. "Programs, Missions, and Payloads – Skylab 3". Life into Space: Space Life Sciences Experiment. NASA. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
  6. ^ NASA, Skylab S150 X-ray Experiment
  7. ^ NASA, NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive Header Soft X-Ray Sky Survey
  8. ^ Skylab's Astronomy and Space Sciences, By United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Scientific and Technical Information Branch
  9. ^ NASA, Skylab S150 X-ray Experiment
  10. ^ "WMAP News: Events Timeline".
  11. ^ Citrin, L. "WMAP: The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe" (PDF). Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  12. ^ Lattimer, Dick All We Did Was Fly To The Moon pp.107–9 with image ISBN 0961122803
  13. ^ a b "Command Module, Skylab 3". National Air and Space Museum. March 18, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  14. ^ "NASA Glenn Visitor Center". NASA Glenn Visitor Center. Great Lakes Science Center. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
  15. ^ a b Navratil, Liz. "Skylab space capsule lands at Cleveland's Great Lakes Science Center". Cleveland.com. Retrieved April 15, 2019.

External linksEdit