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John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio. In 1962 he was the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times. Before joining NASA, Glenn was a distinguished fighter pilot in World War II and Korea with six Distinguished Flying Crosses and eighteen Air Medals.

John Glenn
John Glenn dressed in a suit, leaning against a globe in his official Mercury 7 portrait
Chair of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee
In office
January 3, 1987 – January 3, 1995
Preceded by William V. Roth Jr.
Succeeded by William V. Roth Jr.
United States Senator
from Ohio
In office
December 24, 1974 – January 3, 1999
Preceded by Howard Metzenbaum
Succeeded by George Voinovich
Personal details
Born John Herschel Glenn Jr.
(1921-07-18)July 18, 1921
Cambridge, Ohio, U.S.
Died December 8, 2016(2016-12-08) (aged 95)
Columbus, Ohio, U.S.
Resting place Arlington National Cemetery
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Annie Castor (m. 1943–2016)
Children 2
Education Muskingum University (BS)
University of Maryland, College Park
Civilian awards Congressional Gold Medal
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Congressional Space Medal of Honor
NASA Distinguished Service Medal
Signature
Military service
Service/branch U.S. Navy
U.S. Marine Corps
Years of service 1941–1965
Rank US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel
Unit VMJ-353
VMO-155
VMF-218
VMA-311
25th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
Battles/wars World War II
Chinese Civil War
Korean War
Military awards
NASA astronaut
Other occupation
Test pilot
Time in space
4h 55m 23s
Selection 1959 NASA Group 1
Missions Mercury-Atlas 6
Mission insignia
Friendship 7 (Mercury–Atlas 6) insignia
Retirement January 16, 1964
Awards Distinguished Flying Cross (United States) Congressional Space Medal of Honor NASA Distinguished Service Medal.jpg
An elderly John Glenn dressed in a bright orange spacesuit, leaning against his astronaut helmet, with an American flag and shuttle model in the background, for his official shuttle portrait.
NASA Payload Specialist
Time in space
9d 2h 39m
Missions STS-95
Mission insignia
STS-95 patch
Awards Presidential Medal of Freedom

He was one of the Mercury Seven, military test pilots selected in 1959 by NASA as the United States' first astronauts. On February 20, 1962, Glenn flew the Friendship 7 mission; the first American to orbit the Earth, he was the fifth person in space. He received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1962 and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990, and was the last surviving member of the Mercury Seven.

After Glenn resigned from NASA in 1964 and retired from the Marine Corps the following year, he planned to run for a U.S. Senate seat from Ohio. An injury in early 1964 forced his withdrawal, and he lost a close primary election in 1970. A member of the Democratic Party, Glenn first won election to the Senate in 1974 and served for 24 years until January 3, 1999.

In 1998, still a sitting senator, Glenn was the oldest person to fly in space as a crew member of the Discovery space shuttle and the only person to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012.

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

John Herschel Glenn, Jr., was born on July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, Ohio, the son of John Herschel Glenn, Sr., the owner of the Glenn Plumbing Company, and Clara Teresa née Sproat, a teacher.[1][2][3] He was raised in nearby New Concord[4] along with his adopted sister Jean,[5] and attended New Concord Elementary School.[6]

After graduating from New Concord High School in 1939, Glenn studied engineering at Muskingum College. He earned a private pilot license for credit in a physics course in 1941.[7] He did not complete his senior year in residence or take a proficiency exam, both required by the school for its Bachelor of Science degree. Muskingum awarded his degree in 1962, after Glenn's Mercury space flight.[8]

Military careerEdit

World War IIEdit

When the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II, Glenn quit college to enlist in the U.S. Army Air Corps.[9] Never called to duty, he enlisted as a U.S. Navy aviation cadet in March 1942. Glenn attended the University of Iowa in Iowa City for pre-flight training and continued at Naval Air Station Olathe in Kansas for primary training, where he made his first solo flight in a military aircraft. During advanced training at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, he accepted an offer to transfer to the U.S. Marine Corps.[10]

Having completed his training in March 1943, Glenn was commissioned as a second lieutenant. After advanced training at Camp Kearny, California, he was assigned to Marine Squadron VMJ-353 and flew R4D transport planes. Glenn was posted to the Marine Corps Air Station El Centro in California in July 1943 and joined VMO-155, which flew the F4F Wildcat fighter.[11] VMO-155 re-equipped with the F4U Corsair in September 1943.[12]

He was promoted to first lieutenant in October 1943, and shipped out to Hawaii in January 1944.[11] It was intended that VMO-155 would move to the Marshall Islands but this was delayed, and on February 21 it moved to Midway Atoll and became part of the garrison.[13] Beginning in June 1944, Glenn flew 57 combat missions in the area.[11][14] He received two Distinguished Flying Crosses and ten Air Medals.[15]

Glenn returned to the United States at the end of his one-year tour of duty in 1945, and was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point in North Carolina and then to Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland. Although he was promoted to captain in July 1945, shortly before the Pacific War's end, he was uncertain of a regular commission in the Marine Corps. He was ordered back to Cherry Point, joined VMF-913 (another Corsair squadron), and learned that he had qualified for a regular commission.[16][11]

In March 1946, he was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in southern California. Glenn volunteered for service with the occupation in North China, believing that it would be a short tour. He joined VMF-218 (yet another Corsair squadron), based at Nanyuan Field near Beijing, in December 1946.[17] He flew patrol missions until VMF-218 was transferred to Guam in March 1947, and he returned home in December 1948.[18][11]

Glenn was re-posted to NAS Corpus Christi, first as a student at the Naval School of All-Weather Flight, and then as a flight instructor.[11] In July 1951, he was sent to the Amphibious Warfare School at Marine Corps Base Quantico in northern Virginia for a six-month course.[19] He then joined the staff of the Commandant, Marine Corps Schools. Given only four hours of flying time per month, he maintained his proficiency (and flight pay) by flying on weekends.[20] He was promoted to major in July 1952.[11]

Korean WarEdit

Glenn was ordered to South Korea in October 1952, late in the Korean War.[21] On February 3, 1953, he reported to K-3 and was assigned to VMF-311, one of two Marine fighter squadrons there, as its operations officer.[22] VMF-311, equipped with the F9F Panther jet fighter-bomber, was assigned a variety of missions. Glenn flew his first, a reconnaissance flight, on February 26.[23]

 
John Glenn sitting in the cockpit of a jet aircraft at the U.S. Navy Test Station at Patuxent River, Maryland, 1954.

Glenn flew 63 combat missions in Korea with VMF-311,[24] and was nicknamed "Magnet Ass" because of his ability to attract enemy flak (an occupational hazard of low-level close air support missions);[25] twice, he returned to base with over 250 holes in his plane.[25][26] He flew for a time with Marine reservist Ted Williams (a future Hall of Fame baseball player with the Boston Red Sox) as his wingman,[27] and also flew with future major general Ralph H. Spanjer.[28]

Before Glenn left for Korea, he applied for an inter-service exchange position with the U.S. Air Force to fly the F-86 Sabre jet fighter-interceptor. In preparation, he arranged with Colonel Leon W. Gray to check out the F-86 at Otis Air Force Base in Massachusetts.[29] Glenn later wrote, "Since the days of the Lafayette Escadrille during World War I, pilots have viewed air-to-air combat as the ultimate test not only of their machines but of their own personal determination and flying skills. I was no exception."[30] In June 1953 he reported for duty with the 25th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, and flew 27 combat missions in the faster F-86.[31][32]

Glenn shot down his first MiG-15 in a dogfight on July 12, 1953. He shot down a second MiG on July 19, and a third on July 22 during an aerial engagement in which four Sabres shot down three MiGs. These were the final air victories of the war, which ended with an armistice five days later.[33] For his service in Korea, Glenn received two more Distinguished Flying Crosses and eight more Air Medals.[34][35]

Test pilotEdit

 
Glenn's USAF F-86F, dubbed "MiG Mad Marine", during the Korean War in 1953

With combat experience as a fighter pilot, Glenn applied for training as a test pilot while he was still in Korea. He reported to the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School at NAS Patuxent River in Maryland in January 1954, and graduated in July.[36] [37][38] At Pax River he was tutored in physics and math by the future Medal of Honor recipient, James Stockdale.[39] His first assignment, testing the FJ-3 Fury, nearly killed him when its cockpit depressurized and its oxygen system failed.[40] He also tested the armament of aircraft such as the Vought F7U Cutlass and F8U Crusader.[41] From November 1956 to April 1959, Glenn was assigned to the Fighter Design Branch of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics in Washington, D.C. and attended the University of Maryland.[42]

On July 16, 1957, he made the first supersonic transcontinental flight.[43] At that time, the transcontinental speed record, held by an Air Force Republic F-84 Thunderjet, was 3 hours 45 minutes and Glenn calculated that an F8U Crusader could do it faster. Since its 586-mile-per-hour (943 km/h) air speed was faster than that of a .45 caliber bullet, Glenn called his project Project Bullet.[44] He flew an F8U Crusader 2,445 miles (3,935 km) from Los Alamitos, California to Floyd Bennett Field in New York City in under 3 12 hours. The actual time was 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8.3 seconds,[42] averaging supersonic speed despite three in-flight refuelings when speeds dropped below 300 miles per hour (480 km/h). Glenn's on-board camera took the first continuous, transcontinental panoramic photograph of the United States.[45][46] Glenn received his fifth Distinguished Flying Cross for this mission,[47] and he was promoted to lieutenant colonel on April 1, 1959.[48] He now had nearly 9,000 hours of flying time, including about 3,000 hours in jets.[42]

NASA careerEdit

Pre-selectionEdit

 
Glenn in his Mercury spacesuit

While Glenn was on duty at Patuxent and in Washington, he began reading everything he could find about space. His office was asked to send a test pilot to Langley Air Force Base in Virginia to make runs on a spaceflight simulator, as part of research by the newly formed National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) into re-entry vehicle shapes. The pilot would also be sent to the Naval Air Development Center in Johnsville, Pennsylvania, and would be subjected to high g-forces in a centrifuge for comparison with data collected in the simulator. Glenn's request for the position was granted, and he spent several days at Langley and a week in Johnsville for the testing.[49]

Before Glenn's appointment as an astronaut in the Mercury program, he participated in spacecraft design. NASA had asked military-service members to participate in planning the mockup of a capsule. Since Glenn had participated in the research at Langley and Johnsville, been on mock-up boards in the Navy and understood capsules, he was sent to the McDonnell plant in St. Louis as a service adviser to the mockup board.[49]

SelectionEdit

In 1958, NASA began a recruiting program for astronauts.[a] Glenn barely met the requirements; he was near the age cutoff (40) and lacked a science-based degree at the time,[50] but he was on a list of 110 test pilots who met the minimum requirements to become an astronaut. The candidates were screened, and the number of potential astronauts was reduced to 32. The candidates underwent a battery of tests, including physical tests to measure stamina and psychological tests to measure maturity, alertness, and motivation.[49]

After testing, the candidates had to wait 10 to 12 days for the results. Glenn had returned to his position at the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics when he received a call from the associate director of Project Mercury, Charles Donlan, offering him a position as one of the Mercury Seven.[49] He remained an officer in the Marine Corps after his selection in 1959,[51] and was assigned to the NASA Space Task Group at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.[50] The task force moved to Houston in 1962, and became part of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.[50]

Project MercuryEdit

TrainingEdit

The astronauts trained at Langley. A portion of the training included graduate-level introductory space science. The training also had a practical aspect, which included scuba diving and work in simulators.[49] Astronauts were given an additional role in the spaceflight program, to ensure pilot input in design. Glenn's role was cockpit layout design and control functioning for the Mercury and early Apollo programs,[49][50] and he was a backup pilot for Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom on the Freedom 7 and Liberty Bell 7 sub-orbital missions.[50]

Friendship 7 flightEdit

The Friendship 7 flight took off on February 20, 1962, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. There were eleven delays during the countdown due to equipment malfunctions, improvements to equipment functioning properly and the weather. During Glenn's first orbit, a scheduled 30-minute test to see if he could fly the spacecraft manually became significant when a failure of the automatic-control system was detected at the end of the first orbit; this forced Glenn to operate in manual mode for the second and third orbits and re-entry.[52]

Later in the flight, telemetry indicated that the heat shield had loosened. If this reading were accurate, Glenn and his spacecraft would be incinerated on reentry.[52] After a lengthy discussion over how to deal with this problem, ground controllers decided that leaving the solid-fueled retrorocket pack in place might keep the heat shield in place. They relayed these instructions to Glenn, but did not tell him that the heat shield was possibly loose; although confused at this order, he complied. Leaving the retrorocket pack on made large chunks of flaming debris fly past the window of his capsule during re-entry, although Glenn thought it might have been the heat shield. He told an interviewer, "Fortunately it was the rocket pack—or I wouldn't be answering these questions."[52] After the flight, it was determined that the heat shield was not loose, but that the sensor was faulty.[53]

 
Glenn is honored by President Kennedy at temporary Manned Spacecraft Center facilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida, three days after his flight.

Friendship 7 safely splashed down 800 miles (1,290 km) southeast of Cape Canaveral after Glenn's 4-hour, 55-minute flight.[49][b] He carried a note on the flight which read, "I am a stranger. I come in peace. Take me to your leader and there will be a massive reward for you in eternity" in several languages, in case he landed near southern Pacific Ocean islands.[54] Although the original procedure called for Glenn to exit through the top hatch, he was uncomfortably warm and decided that egress through the side hatch would be faster.[49][54] During the flight, he endured 7.8 G's of acceleration and traveled 75,679 miles (121,794 km) at about 17,500 miles per hour (28,200 km/h).[49][c] The flight made Glenn the first American to orbit the Earth;[55] the third American in space, he was the fifth human in space.[56][d] The mission, which Glenn called "best day of his life", renewed U.S. confidence.[62] His flight occurred while the U.S. and the Soviet Union were embroiled in the Cold War and competing in the Space Race.[63]

As the first American in orbit Glenn became a national hero, met President John F. Kennedy, and received a ticker-tape parade in New York City reminiscent of those honoring Charles Lindbergh and other dignitaries.[53] He became "so valuable to the nation as an iconic figure", according to NASA administrator Charles Bolden, that Kennedy would not "risk putting him back in space again."[64] Glenn's fame and political potential were noted by the Kennedys, and he became a friend of the Kennedy family. On February 23, 1962, President Kennedy gave him the NASA Distinguished Service Medal.[53]

 
President John F. Kennedy receives a gift of an American flag Glenn carried in his space suit during his orbital flight aboard Mercury-Atlas 6

In June 1963, the Soviet Union orbited a female cosmonaut, Valentina Tereshkova. In response, NASA contemplated recruiting women to the astronaut corps, but John Glenn gave a speech before the House Space Committee detailing his opposition to sending women into space. Although NASA had no official policy prohibiting women, in practice, the requirement that astronauts had to be military test pilots effectively excluded them, and no women of any nationality would fly in space for another 20 years, when the Soviet Union launched another female cosmonaut, Svetlana Savitskaya.[65] During the late 1970s, Glenn reportedly supported Space Shuttle Mission Specialist Judith Resnik in her career.[66]

ResignationEdit

At 42, Glenn was the oldest member of the astronaut corps and would likely be close to 50 by the time the lunar landings took place. Since it seemed unlikely that he would be selected for Project Apollo missions,[49] he resigned from NASA on January 16, 1964, and announced his Democratic Party candidacy for the U.S. Senate from his home state of Ohio the following day.[67] On February 26 Glenn received a concussion from hitting his head against a bathtub,[68] and he withdrew from the race on March 30.[69][70] He went on convalescent leave from the Marine Corps until he fully recovered, which was required for his retirement. He retired as a colonel on January 1, 1965, and became an executive with Royal Crown Cola.[53]

Political careerEdit

1964 Senate attemptEdit

During Glenn's training, NASA psychologists determined that he was the astronaut best suited for public life.[71] Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy suggested to Glenn and his wife in December 1962 that he run for the U.S. Senate from Ohio in 1964, challenging aging incumbent Stephen M. Young (1889–1984) in the Democratic primary election. In early 1964, Glenn announced his resignation from the space program to run against Young. He withdrew from the race several weeks after his hospitalization for a concussion sustained in a fall against a bathtub in late February;[68] an inner-ear injury from the accident left him unable to campaign.[72] Both his wife and Scott Carpenter campaigned on his behalf during February and March, but doctors gave Glenn a recovery time of one year. Glenn did not want to win solely due to his astronaut fame, so he dropped out of the race on March 31.[73]

1970 Senate attemptEdit

In 1970, Young did not seek reelection and the seat was open. Businessman Howard Metzenbaum was backed by the Ohio Democratic party and major labor unions, which provided him a significant funding advantage over Glenn. Glenn was defeated in the Democratic primary by Metzenbaum (who received 51 percent of the vote to Glenn's 49 percent), but Metzenbaum lost the general election to Robert Taft Jr.[73] Glenn continued to remain active in the political scene following his defeat. John J. Gilligan, the Ohio Governor at the time, appointed Glenn to be the chairman of the Citizens Task Force on Environmental Protection in 1970. The task force was created to survey environmental problems in the state and released a report in 1971 detailing the issues. The results of the task force were a major factor leading to the formation of Ohio's Environmental Protection Agency.[73]

Senate careerEdit

In 1974, Glenn declined Gilligan's and the state Democratic party's request that he run for lieutenant governor and challenged Metzenbaum again for the other Ohio Senate seat (vacated by Republican William B. Saxbe, who became U.S. Attorney General in early 1974). Metzenbaum was the short-term incumbent, appointed by Gilligan in January.[73] In the primary, Metzenbaum contrasted his strong business background with Glenn's military and astronaut credentials and said that his opponent had "never held a payroll". Glenn's reply became known as the "Gold Star Mothers" speech. He told Metzenbaum to go to a veterans' hospital and "look those men with mangled bodies in the eyes and tell them they didn't hold a job. You go with me to any Gold Star mother and you look her in the eye and tell her that her son did not hold a job".[74] He defeated Metzenbaum 54 to 46 percent before defeating Ralph Perk (the Republican mayor of Cleveland) in the general election, beginning a Senate career which would continue until 1999. Glenn was reelected in 1980, defeating Republican challenger Jim Betts by over 40 percent.[75] Metzenbaum ran again in 1976 against the incumbent, Taft, winning a close race on Jimmy Carter's coattails.[76]

Late 70s and 80s campaigningEdit

 
The results of the 1992 election for Senator, with the red indicating Mike DeWine and the blue Glenn

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the relationship between Glenn and Metzenbaum was strained. There was a thaw in 1983 (when Metzenbaum endorsed Glenn for president) and in 1988 when Metzenbaum was opposed for reelection by Cleveland mayor George Voinovich.[77] Metzenbaum won, 57 to 41 percent. In his 1980 reelection campaign, Glenn won by the largest margin ever for an Ohio Senator. Glenn defeated Representative Tom Kindness in 1986.[73]

IssuesEdit

Glenn was on several committees during his first term as Senator, including the Government Operations Committee, Interior and Insular Affairs Committee, and Energy Research and Water Resources Subcommittee, and was chair of the Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Services Subcommittee of the Governmental Affairs Committee. Glenn introduced bills on energy policy to try to counter the energy crisis in the 70s. Glenn also introduced legislation based on nuclear non-proliferation, and was the chief author of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978,[78] the first of six major pieces of legislation that he produced on the subject.[73]

Glenn was considered an expert in matters in science and technology due to his background. He was a supporter of continuing the B-1 bomber program, which he considered successful. This conflicted with President Carter's desire to fund the B-2 bomber program. Glenn did not fully support development of the B-2 because he had doubts about the feasibility of the stealth technology. Glenn joined the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1978. He became the chairman of the East Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee, for which he traveled to Japan, Korea, the Republic of China, and the People's Republic of China. Glenn helped to pass the Taiwan Enabling Act of 1979. In 1979, another dispute Glenn had with President Carter was Glenn's stance on the SALT II treaty. He did not believe that the U.S. had the capability to monitor the Soviet Union accurately enough to verify compliance with the treaty. During the launching ceremony for the USS Ohio, he spoke about his doubts about verifying treaty compliance. First Lady Rosalynn Carter also spoke at the event, during which she criticized Glenn for speaking publicly about the issue. The Senate never ratified the treaty, in part because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.[73]

 
Glenn delivers remarks during a Congressional Gold Medal ceremony honoring Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins in the Rotunda at the U.S. Capitol in 2011

Glenn chaired the Committee on Governmental Affairs from 1987 to 1995. It was in this role that he discovered a host of safety and environmental problems with the nation's nuclear weapons facilities. Glenn was made aware of the problem at the Fernald Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, and soon found that it was an issue that occurred at several sites around the nation. Glenn requested investigations from the General Accounting Office of Congress and held several hearings on the issue. He spent the remainder of his Senate career acquiring funding to clean up the nuclear waste left at the facilities.[73] He also sat on the Foreign Relations and Armed Services committees and the Special Committee on Aging.[79]

When the Republican Party regained control of the Senate in 1996, Glenn was the ranking minority member on the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (chaired by Maine senator Susan Collins) which investigated illegal foreign donations by China to U.S. political campaigns for the 1996 election.[80] Considerable acrimony existed between Glenn and committee chair Fred Thompson of Tennessee.[81]

Savings and loan scandalEdit

Glenn was one of the Keating Five—the U.S. senators involved with the savings and loan crisis— after Glenn accepted a $200,000 campaign contribution from Lincoln Savings and Loan Association head Charles Keating. Glenn and Republican senator John McCain were the only senators who were exonerated, although the Senate commission found that Glenn had exercised "poor judgment". The association of his name with the scandal made Republicans hopeful that he could be defeated in the 1992 campaign, but Glenn defeated lieutenant governor Mike DeWine to retain his seat.[82]

RetirementEdit

On February 20, 1997, which was the 35th anniversary of his Friendship 7 flight, Glenn announced that his retirement from the Senate would occur at the end of his term in December 1998.[83][73]

In 1998 Glenn helped found the John Glenn Institute for Public Service and Public Policy at Ohio State University to encourage public service. On July 22, 2006, the institute merged with OSU's School of Public Policy and Management to become the John Glenn School of Public Affairs; Glenn held an adjunct professorship at the school.[84] In February 2015, it was announced that the school would become the John Glenn College of Public Affairs in April.[85]

Presidential politicsEdit

Glenn remained close to the Kennedy family; he was with Robert Kennedy in Los Angeles when he was assassinated in 1968, and was a pallbearer at Kennedy's funeral in New York City.[86] He campaigned for Robert Kennedy during his 1968 presidential campaign.[73]

In 1976, Glenn was a candidate for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination. After his keynote address at the Democratic National Convention failed to impress the delegates, the nomination went to veteran politician Walter Mondale.[87] Glenn also ran for the 1984 Democratic presidential nomination but that too went to Mondale.[88]

The movie [The Right Stuff] seems to fit Mr. Glenn's political purposes almost ideally since it depicts him as an heroic square with a self-depreciating sense of humor about his squareness, as a devoted protector of his family and as a fierce, driven patriot.
New York Times[88]

During Glenn's 1983 run for the presidential nomination, The Right Stuff, a film about the Mercury Seven astronauts, was released. Reviewers saw Ed Harris' portrayal of Glenn as heroic and his staff began to publicize the film to the press.[89] One reviewer said that "Harris’ depiction helped transform Glenn from a history-book figure into a likable, thoroughly adoration-worthy Hollywood hero," turning him into a big-screen icon.[89]

Aide Greg Schneiders suggested an unusual strategy, inspired by Glenn's personal campaign and voting style, of avoiding appealing to special interest groups and instead seeking support from ordinary Democratic primary voters.[72] After Mondale defeated him for the nomination, Glenn carried $3 million in campaign debt for over 20 years before receiving a reprieve from the Federal Election Commission.[90][91] He was considered as a vice-presidential candidate in 1984, 1988, and 1992.[92]

Return to spaceEdit

 
Senator-astronaut John Glenn on the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1998

On January 16, 1998, NASA administrator Dan Goldin announced that Glenn would be part of the STS-95 crew;[49] this made him, at age 77, the oldest person to fly in space. NASA and the National Institute of Aging (NIA) planned to use Glenn as a test subject for research, with biometrics taken before, during and after his flight. Some experiments (in circadian rhythms, for example) compared him with the younger crew members. In addition to these tests, he was in charge of the flight's photography and videography. Glenn returned to space on the Space Shuttle on October 29, 1998, as a Payload Specialist on Discovery.[49] According to The New York Times, Glenn "won his seat on the Shuttle flight by lobbying NASA for two years to fly as a human guinea pig for geriatric studies"; this was cited as the main reason for his participation in the mission.[93] Shortly before the flight, researchers disqualified Glenn from one of the flight's two major human experiments (on the effect of melatonin) because he did not meet the study's conditions; he participated in experiments on sleep monitoring and protein use.[93][94]

On November 6, 1998, President Bill Clinton sent the first ever presidential email to Glenn aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. Clinton sent the email from the home of a friend in Arkansas using a Toshiba Satellite laptop computer that belonged to White House physician Robert Darling.[95]

 
STS-95 official crew photo.

Glenn wrote in his memoir that he had no idea that NASA was willing to send him back into space when the agency made its announcement.[96] His participation in the nine-day mission was criticized by some members of the space community as a favor granted by Clinton; John Pike, director of the Federation of American Scientists' space-policy project, said: "If he was a normal person, he would acknowledge he's a great American hero and that he should get to fly on the shuttle for free ... He's too modest for that, and so he's got to have this medical research reason. It's got nothing to do with medicine".[53][97]

In a 2012 interview, Glenn said that the purpose of his flight was "to make measurements and do research on me at the age of 77 ... comparing the results on me in space with the younger [astronauts] and maybe get [insights] on the immune system or protein turnover or vestibular functions and other things—heart changes". Glenn also said that after reading a study on aerospace medicine, he was intrigued at how the physiological changes experienced by the human body in space (such as loss of bone and muscle mass and blood plasma) were similar to those of the human body as it ages.[94] He regretted that NASA did not continue its research on aging by sending additional elderly people into space.[94] After STS-95 returned safely, its crew received a ticker-tape parade. On October 15, 1998, NASA Road 1 (the main route to the Johnson Space Center) was renamed John Glenn Parkway for several months.[98] In 2001, Glenn strenuously opposed sending Dennis Tito, the world's first space tourist, to the International Space Station because Tito's trip had no scientific purpose.[99]

Personal lifeEdit

 
Annie and John Glenn in 1965

On April 6, 1943, Glenn married his high school sweetheart, Anna Margaret Castor (born 1920). Glenn and his wife attended Muskingum College in New Concord, Ohio, where he was a member of the Stag Club fraternity.[100] They had two children—John David (born 1945) and Carolyn Ann (born 1947)—and two grandchildren,[101] and remained married for 73 years until his death. Glenn's NASA friend Charles Bolden was inspired by the marriage.[e] His boyhood home in New Concord has been restored as a historic house museum and education center.[103]

A Freemason, Glenn was a member of Concord Lodge #688 in New Concord, Ohio. He received all of his degrees in full in a Mason at Sight ceremony from the Grand Master of Ohio in 1978, 14 years after petitioning his lodge. In 1998, Glenn became a 32nd-degree Scottish Rite Mason in the Valley of Cincinnati (NMJ); the following year, he received the 33rd degree of the Scottish rite. As an adult, he was honored as part of the DeMolay Legion of Honor by DeMolay International, a Masonic youth organization for boys (although he did not belong to the organization as a youth).[104][105]

Glenn was an ordained elder of the Presbyterian Church.[106] Although his religious faith was kindled before he became an astronaut, it was reinforced after he traveled in space. "To look out at this kind of creation and not believe in God is to me impossible," said Glenn after his second (and final) space voyage.[107] He saw no contradiction between belief in God and the knowledge that evolution is "a fact" and believed evolution should be taught in schools:[108] "I don't see that I'm any less religious that I can appreciate the fact that science just records that we change with evolution and time, and that's a fact. It doesn't mean it's less wondrous and it doesn't mean that there can't be some power greater than any of us that has been behind and is behind whatever is going on."[109]

He was an original owner of a Holiday Inn franchise near Orlando, Florida, which is today the Seralago Hotel & Suites Main Gate East.[110] Glenn's business partner was Henri Landwirth, a Holocaust survivor who became his best friend.[111] He remembered learning about Landwirth's background: "Henri doesn't talk about it much. It was years before he spoke about it with me and then only because of an accident. We were down in Florida during the space program. Everyone was wearing short-sleeved Ban-Lon shirts—everyone but Henri. Then one day I saw Henri at the pool and noticed the number on his arm. I told Henri that if it were me I'd wear that number like a medal with a spotlight on it."[111]

Public appearancesEdit

 
Glenn at the ceremony transferring the space shuttle Discovery to the Smithsonian Institution

Glenn was an honorary member of the International Academy of Astronautics and a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Marine Corps Aviation Association, Order of Daedalians, National Space Club Board of Trustees, National Space Society Board of Governors, International Association of Holiday Inns, Ohio Democratic Party, State Democratic Executive Committee, Franklin County (Ohio) Democratic Party and the 10th District (Ohio) Democratic Action Club.[7] In 2001 he guest-starred as himself on the American television sitcom Frasier.[112]

On September 5, 2009, John and Annie Glenn dotted the "i" in Ohio State University's Script Ohio marching band performance during the Ohio StateNavy football-game halftime show.[113] To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Friendship 7 flight on February 20, 2012, he had an unexpected opportunity to speak with the orbiting crew of the International Space Station when he was onstage with NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden at Ohio State University.[114] On April 19, 2012, Glenn participated in the ceremonial transfer of the retired Space Shuttle Discovery from NASA to the Smithsonian Institution for permanent display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. He used the occasion to criticize the "unfortunate" decision to end the Space Shuttle program, saying that grounding the shuttles delayed research.[115]

Illness and deathEdit

 
Glenn's casket carried by Marine Corps pallbearers.

Glenn was in good health for most of his life. He retained a private pilot's license well into his 80s, eventually quitting flying when he and his wife found it too difficult to get into the cockpit due to knee problems. In June 2014, Glenn underwent successful heart valve replacement surgery at the Cleveland Clinic.[116] In early December 2016, he was hospitalized at the James Cancer Hospital of Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus.[117][118][119] According to a family source, Glenn had been in declining health, and his condition was grave; his wife and their children and grandchildren were at the hospital.[120]

Glenn died on December 8, 2016, at the OSU Wexner Medical Center; he was 95 years old.[121][122] No cause of death was disclosed. After his death, his body lay in state at the Ohio Statehouse. There was a memorial service at Mershon Auditorium at Ohio State University.[121] His body was interred at Arlington National Cemetery on April 6, 2017.[123][124]

Handling of remainsEdit

The Military Times reported that William Zwicharowski, a senior mortuary official at Dover Air Force Base, had offered to let visiting inspectors view Glenn's remains, sparking an official investigation.[125][126] Zwicharowski has denied the remains were disrespected.[127]

TributesEdit

President Barack Obama said that John Glenn, "the first American to orbit the Earth, reminded us that with courage and a spirit of discovery there's no limit to the heights we can reach together".[128] Tributes were also paid by President-elect Donald Trump,[129] and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.[130]

"Godspeed", which hailed Glenn's launch into space, became part of his social-media hashtag: #Godspeedjohnglenn. Former and current astronauts added tributes; so did NASA Administrator and former shuttle astronaut Charles Bolden, who wrote: "John Glenn's legacy is one of risk and accomplishment, of history created and duty to country carried out under great pressure with the whole world watching."[131] President Obama ordered flags to be flown at half-mast until Glenn's burial.[132]

Awards and honorsEdit

 
      
          
     
     
 
 
 
     
Naval Aviator Astronaut Insignia[32]
Distinguished Flying Cross
with three stars and two clusters[32]
Air Medal
with fifteen stars and two custers[32]
Navy Presidential Unit Citation[133] Navy Unit Commendation[32]
Presidential Medal of Freedom[134] Congressional Space Medal of Honor[32] NASA Distinguished Service Medal[32]
NASA Space Flight Medal[32] Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal[133] China Service Medal[32]
American Campaign Medal[32] Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
with one star[133]
World War II Victory Medal[32]
Navy Occupation Service Medal[133] National Defense Service Medal
with one star[32]
Korean Service Medal
with two stars[133]
Presidential Unit Citation (Korea)[32] United Nations Korea Medal[32] Korean War Service Medal[32]
 
Quincy Jones presents platinum copies of "Fly Me to the Moon" (from It Might as Well Be Swing) to Glenn and Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong in 2008

In 1961, Glenn received an honorary LL.D from Muskingum University, the college he attended before joining the military in World War II.[8] He received honorary doctorates from Nihon University in Tokyo; Wagner College in Staten Island, New York; and New Hampshire College (now Southern New Hampshire University) in Manchester, New Hampshire.[140][141] He was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1976,[142] the International Space Hall of Fame in 1977,[56] the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990.[143] In 2000, he received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for public service by an elected or appointed official, one of the annual Jefferson Awards.[144] Four years later, he received the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars of the Smithsonian Institution.[145][146] Glenn was awarded the NCAA's Theodore Roosevelt Award for 2008.[147] In 2009, he was awarded an honorary LL.D from Williams College,[148] and the following year, he received an honorary doctorate of public service degree from Ohio Northern University.[149] In 2013, Flying magazine ranked Glenn 26th on its "51 Heroes of Aviation" list.[150]

 
Receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama in 2012

The Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland is named after him, and the Senator John Glenn Highway runs along a stretch of I-480 in Ohio across from the Glenn Research Center.[151][152] Colonel Glenn Highway (which passes Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and Wright State University near Dayton, Ohio), John Glenn High School in his hometown of New Concord, and the former Col. John Glenn Elementary in Seven Hills, Ohio, are also named for him.[153][154] High schools in Westland and Bay City, Michigan; Walkerton, Indiana; San Angelo, Texas, and Norwalk, California bear Glenn's name.[155][156][157][158][159] The fireboat John H. Glenn Jr., operated by the District of Columbia Fire and Emergency Medical Services Department and protecting sections of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers which run through Washington, D.C., was named for him, as was USNS John Glenn (T-MLP-2), a mobile landing platform delivered to the U.S. Navy on March 12, 2014.[160] In June 2016, the Port Columbus, Ohio, airport was renamed John Glenn Columbus International Airport. Glenn and his family attended the ceremony, during which he spoke about how visiting the airport as a child had kindled his interest in flying.[161] On September 12, 2016, Blue Origin announced the New Glenn, a rocket.[162] Orbital ATK named the Cygnus space capsule used in the NASA CRS OA-7 mission to the international space station "S.S. John Glenn" in his honor. The mission successfully lifted off on April 16, 2017.[163]

On April 5, 2017, President Donald Trump issued presidential proclamation 9588, titled "Honoring the Memory of John Glenn".[164][165]

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Each astronaut had to be a military test pilot between the ages of 25 and 40 with sufficient flight hours, no more than 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m) in height, and possess a degree in a Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subject. The group was narrowed down to seven astronauts (Glenn, Alan Shepard, Gus Grissom, Scott Carpenter, Wally Schirra, Gordon Cooper, and Deke Slayton), who were introduced to the public at a NASA press conference in April 1959.
  2. ^ The spacecraft landed 41 miles (66 km) west and 19 miles (31 km) north of the target landing site. Friendship 7 was recovered by the USS Noa, which had the spacecraft on the deck 21 minutes after landing; Glenn was in the capsule during the recovery operation.
  3. ^ The flight took Glenn to a maximum altitude (apogee) of about 162 miles (261 km) and a minimum altitude of 100 miles (160 km) (perigee) at a speed of about 17,500 miles per hour (28,200 km/h).[54]
  4. ^ Perth, Western Australia, became known worldwide as the "City of Light"[57] when residents turned on their house, car and streetlights as Glenn passed overhead.[58][59] The city repeated the act when Glenn rode the Space Shuttle in 1998.[60][61]
  5. ^ "For anyone who's contemplating marriage, you ought to go to school on the Glenns, because they can teach us a lot about what unending love with undying respect and admiration for each other means ... There was never a question whether Annie was the love of his life."[102]

CitationsEdit

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  159. ^ "John Glenn Middle School". Glenn Middle School. Archived from the original on February 13, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  160. ^ "John Glenn (T-ESD-2)". Naval Vessel Register. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  161. ^ "John Glenn honored as Columbus airport is renamed for him". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  162. ^ Victor, Daniel (September 12, 2016). "Meet New Glenn, the Blue Origin Rocket That May Someday Take You to Space". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2016. 
  163. ^ James Dean (18 April 2017). "Atlas V launches SS John Glenn; en route to ISS". Florida Today. WTSP. 
  164. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (April 5, 2017). "A Proclamation by President Donald J. Trump Honoring the Memory of John Glenn". whitehouse.gov. Washington, D.C.: White House. Archived from the original on April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017. 
  165. ^ "Honoring the Memory of John Glenn". Federal Register. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. April 8, 2017. Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017. 

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Fenno, Richard F, Jr (1990). The Presidential Odyssey of John Glenn. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. ISBN 978-0-87187-567-9. 
  • Shettle Jr., M. L. (2001). United States Marine Corps Air Stations of World War II. Bowersville, Georgia: Schaertel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9643388-2-1. 

External linksEdit