Open main menu

Wikipedia β

John Glenn
John Glenn Low Res.jpg
United States Senator
from Ohio
In office
December 24, 1974 – January 3, 1999
Preceded by Howard Metzenbaum[1]
Succeeded by George Voinovich[2]
Chair of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee
In office
January 3, 1987 – January 3, 1995
Preceded by William V. Roth Jr.[3]
Succeeded by William V. Roth Jr.[4]
Personal details
Born John Herschel Glenn Jr.
(1921-07-18)July 18, 1921
Cambridge, Ohio, U.S.
Died December 8, 2016(2016-12-08) (aged 95)
Columbus, Ohio, U.S.
Resting place Arlington National Cemetery
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Annie Castor (m. 1943)
Children 2
Education Muskingum University (BS)
University of Maryland, College Park
Civilian awards Congressional Gold Medal
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Congressional Space Medal of Honor
NASA Distinguished Service Medal
Signature
Military service
Service/branch U.S. Navy
U.S. Marine Corps
Years of service 1941–1965
Rank US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel
Unit VMJ-353
VMO-155
VMF-218
VMA-311
25th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
Battles/wars World War II
Chinese Civil War
Korean War
Military awards
John Glenn Portrait.jpg
NASA astronaut
Other names
John Herschel Glenn Jr.
Other occupation
Test pilot
Time in space
4h 55m 23s
Selection 1959 NASA Group 1
Missions Mercury-Atlas 6
Mission insignia
Friendship 7 (Mercury–Atlas 6) insignia
Retirement January 16, 1964
Awards Distinguished Flying Cross (United States) Congressional Space Medal of Honor NASA Distinguished Service Medal.jpg
JohnGlenn.jpg
NASA Payload Specialist
Time in space
9d 2h 39m
Missions STS-95
Awards Presidential Medal of Freedom

Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio. In 1962, he became the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times.

Before joining NASA, Glenn was a distinguished fighter pilot in World War II, China and Korea. He shot down three MiG-15 aircraft, and was awarded six Distinguished Flying Crosses and eighteen Air Medals. In 1957, he made the first supersonic transcontinental flight across the United States. His on-board camera took the first continuous, panoramic photograph of the United States.

He was one of the Mercury Seven, military test pilots selected in 1959 by NASA as the United States' first astronauts. On February 20, 1962, Glenn flew the Friendship 7 mission, becoming the first American to orbit the Earth, and the fifth person and third American in space. He received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal in 1962 and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990, and was the last surviving member of the Mercury Seven.

Glenn resigned from NASA in January 1964. He planned to run for a U.S. Senate seat from Ohio, but an injury in February 1964 forced his withdrawal. He retired from the Marine Corps the following year. He lost a close primary election in 1970. A member of the Democratic Party, Glenn first won election to the Senate in 1974 and served for 24 years until January 1999. In 1998, while still a sitting Senator, Glenn became the oldest person to fly in space as a crew member of the Discovery space shuttle and the only person to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2012.

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

John Herschel Glenn Jr. was born on July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, Ohio, the son of John Herschel Glenn Sr., who worked for a plumbing firm, and Clara Teresa née Sproat, a teacher.[5][6][7] His parents had married shortly before his father, a member of the American Expeditionary Force, left for the Western Front during World War I. The family moved to New Concord, Ohio, soon after his birth, and his father started his own business, the Glenn Plumbing Company.[8][9] He took his first flight in an airplane with his father when he was eight years old. He became fascinated by flight, and built model airplanes from balsa wood kits.[10] Along with his adopted sister Jean,[8] he attended New Concord Elementary School.[11] He washed cars and sold rhubarb to earn money to buy a bicycle, after which he took a job delivering The Columbus Dispatch newspaper.[12] He was a member of the Ohio Rangers, an organization similar to the Cub Scouts.[13] His boyhood home in New Concord has been restored as a historic house museum and education center.[14]

Glenn attended New Concord High School, where he played on the varsity football team as a center and linebacker. He also made the varsity basketball and tennis teams, and was involved with Hi-Y, a junior branch of the YMCA.[15] After graduating in 1939, Glenn entered Muskingum College, where he studied engineering,[16] and Annie majored in music, with minors in secretarial studies and physical education, as she was on the swimming and volleyball teams.[17] Glenn was a member of the Stag Club fraternity there,[18] and played on the football team.[17] He earned a private pilot license under the Civilian Pilot Training Program in 1941,[19] gaining credit in his physics course,[16] since the course included aerodynamics, combustion and heat transfer.[19] He did not complete his senior year in residence or take a proficiency exam, both required by the school for its Bachelor of Science degree. Muskingum awarded his degree in 1962, after Glenn's Mercury space flight.[20]

Military careerEdit

World War IIEdit

When the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor brought the United States into World War II, Glenn quit college to voluntarily enlist in the U.S. Army Air Corps.[21] Never called to duty, he enlisted as a U.S. Navy aviation cadet in March 1942. Glenn attended the University of Iowa in Iowa City for pre-flight training and continued at Naval Air Station Olathe in Kansas for primary training, where he made his first solo flight in a military aircraft. During advanced training at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, he accepted an offer to transfer to the U.S. Marine Corps.[22]

Having completed his flight training in March 1943, Glenn was commissioned as a second lieutenant. After advanced training at Camp Kearny, California, he was assigned to Marine Squadron VMJ-353, which flew R4D transport planes from there.[23] Also at Camp Kearny there was a fighter squadron, VMO-155, which flew the Grumman F4F Wildcat. Glenn approached the squadron's commander, Major J. P. Haines, who suggested that he could put in for a transfer. This was approved, and Glenn was posted to VMO-155 on July 2, 1943. Two days later, the squadron moved to Marine Corps Air Station El Centro in California.[24] The Wildcat was obsolete by this time, and VMO-155 re-equipped with the F4U Corsair in September 1943.[25] He was promoted to first lieutenant in October 1943, and shipped out to Hawaii in January 1944.[23] It was intended that VMO-155 would move to the Marshall Islands but this was delayed, and on February 21 it moved to Midway Atoll and became part of the garrison. This had been the site of the Battle of Midway in 1942, but was a backwater by this time.[26] VMO-155 moved to the Marshall Islands in June 1944, and flew 57 combat missions in the area.[23][27] He received two Distinguished Flying Crosses and ten Air Medals.[28][29]

Glenn returned to the United States at the end of his one-year tour of duty in February 1945, and was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point in North Carolina and then to Naval Air Station Patuxent River in Maryland. He was promoted to captain in July 1945, shortly before the end of the war in the Pacific, but was uncertain of securing a regular commission in the Marine Corps. He was ordered back to Cherry Point, where he joined VMF-913, another Corsair squadron, and learned that he had qualified for a regular commission.[30][23] In March 1946, he was assigned to Marine Corps Air Station El Toro in southern California. He volunteered for service with the occupation in North China, believing that it would be a short tour. He joined VMF-218 (another Corsair squadron), which was based at Nanyuan Field near Beijing, in December 1946,[31] and flew patrol missions until VMF-218 was transferred to Guam in March 1947. He returned home in December 1948.[32][23]

Glenn was re-posted to NAS Corpus Christi, first as a student at the Naval School of All-Weather Flight, and then as a flight instructor.[23] In July 1951, he was sent to the Amphibious Warfare School at Marine Corps Base Quantico in northern Virginia for a six-month course.[33] He then joined the staff of the Commandant, Marine Corps Schools. Given only four hours of flying time per month, he maintained his proficiency (and flight pay) by flying on weekends.[34] He was promoted to major in July 1952.[23]

Korean WarEdit

 
Glenn's USAF F-86F, dubbed "MiG Mad Marine", during the Korean War in 1953. The names of his wife and children are also written on the aircraft.

Glenn took a short period of leave during which he moved his family back to New Concord, and after two and a half months of jet training at Cherry Point, Glenn was ordered to South Korea in October 1952, late in the Korean War. [35] Before he set out for Korea in February 1953, he applied for an inter-service exchange position with the U.S. Air Force (USAF) to fly the F-86 Sabre jet fighter-interceptor. In preparation, he arranged with Colonel Leon W. Gray to check out the F-86 at Otis Air Force Base in Massachusetts.[36] Pending this exchange assignment, Glenn reported to K-3, an airbase in South Korea, on February 3, 1953, and was assigned to VMF-311, one of two Marine fighter squadrons there, as its operations officer.[37] VMF-311, equipped with the F9F Panther jet fighter-bomber, was assigned a variety of missions. Glenn flew his first, a reconnaissance flight, on February 26.[38] He flew 63 combat missions in Korea with VMF-311,[39] and was nicknamed "Magnet Ass" because of his ability to attract enemy flak (an occupational hazard of low-level close air support missions);[40] twice, he returned to base with over 250 holes in his plane.[40][41] He flew for a time with Marine reservist Ted Williams (a future Hall of Fame baseball player with the Boston Red Sox) as his wingman,[42] and also flew with future major general Ralph H. Spanjer.[43]

In June 1953, Glenn's USAF exchange position came through and he reported for duty with the USAF's 25th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, and flew 27 combat missions in the F-86, a much faster aircraft than the F9F Panther, patrolling MiG Alley.[44][45] Combat with a MiG-15, which was faster and better armed still,[46] was regarded as the apogee for a fighter pilot. On the USAF buses that took the pilots out to the airfields before dawn, pilots who had been shot at by a MiG could sit while those who had not had to stand.[47] Glenn later wrote, "Since the days of the Lafayette Escadrille during World War I, pilots have viewed air-to-air combat as the ultimate test not only of their machines but of their own personal determination and flying skills. I was no exception."[48] He hoped to become the second Marine jet flying ace after John F. Bolt. When Glenn complained about there not being any MiGs to shoot at, his USAF squadron mates painted "MiG Mad Marine" on his aircraft.[49] He shot down his first MiG in a dogfight on July 12, 1953, downed a second one on July 19, and a third on July 22 during an aerial engagement in which four Sabres shot down three MiGs. These were the final air victories of the war, which ended with an armistice five days later.[50] For his service in Korea, Glenn received two more Distinguished Flying Crosses and eight more Air Medals.[51][52]

Test pilotEdit

 
John Glenn sitting in the cockpit of a jet aircraft at the U.S. Navy Test Station at Patuxent River, Maryland, 1954.

With combat experience as a fighter pilot, Glenn applied for training as a test pilot while he was still in Korea. He reported to the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School at NAS Patuxent River in Maryland in January 1954, and graduated in July.[53] [54][55] At Patuxent River he was tutored in physics and math by the future Medal of Honor recipient, James Stockdale.[56] Glenn's first flight test assignment, testing the FJ-3 Fury, nearly killed him when its cockpit depressurized and its oxygen system failed.[57] He also tested the armament of aircraft such as the Vought F7U Cutlass and F8U Crusader.[58] From November 1956 to April 1959, he was assigned to the Fighter Design Branch of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics in Washington, D.C., and attended the University of Maryland.[59]

On July 16, 1957, he made the first supersonic transcontinental flight.[60] At that time, the transcontinental speed record, held by an Air Force Republic F-84 Thunderjet, was 3 hours 45 minutes and Glenn calculated that an F8U Crusader could do it faster. Since its 586-mile-per-hour (943 km/h) air speed was faster than that of a .45 caliber bullet, Glenn called his project Project Bullet.[61] He flew an F8U Crusader 2,445 miles (3,935 km) from Los Alamitos, California to Floyd Bennett Field in New York City in under ​3 12 hours. The actual time was 3 hours, 23 minutes and 8.3 seconds,[59] averaging supersonic speed despite three in-flight refuelings when speeds dropped below 300 miles per hour (480 km/h). His on-board camera took the first continuous, transcontinental panoramic photograph of the United States.[62][63] He received his fifth Distinguished Flying Cross for this mission,[64] and he was promoted to lieutenant colonel on April 1, 1959.[65] His cross-country flight made him a minor celebrity. A profile piece appeared in The New York Times and he appeared on the television show Name That Tune.[62] He now had nearly 9,000 hours of flying time, including about 3,000 hours in jets.[59]

NASA careerEdit

SelectionEdit

 
Glenn in his Mercury spacesuit

On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite. This shattered American confidence in its technological superiority, creating a wave of anxiety known as the Sputnik crisis. Among his responses, President Dwight D. Eisenhower launched the Space Race. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established on October 1, 1958, as a civilian agency to develop space technology. One of its first initiatives was publicly announced on December 17, 1958. This was Project Mercury,[66] which aimed to launch a man into Earth orbit, return him safely to the Earth, and evaluate his capabilities in space.[67]

While Glenn was on duty at Patuxent and in Washington, he read everything he could find about space. His office was asked to send a test pilot to Langley Air Force Base in Virginia to make runs on a spaceflight simulator, as part of research by the newly formed NASA into re-entry vehicle shapes. The pilot would also be sent to the Naval Air Development Center in Johnsville, Pennsylvania, and would be subjected to high G-forces in a centrifuge for comparison with data collected in the simulator. His request for the position was granted, and he spent several days at Langley and a week in Johnsville for the testing.[68] NASA asked military-service members to participate in planning the mockup of a spacecraft. Since he had participated in the research at Langley and Johnsville, he was sent to the McDonnell plant in St. Louis as a service adviser to NASA's spacecraft mockup board.[68]

NASA received permission from Eisenhower to recruit its first astronauts from the ranks of military test pilots. The service records of 508 graduates of test pilot schools were obtained from the United States Department of Defense. From these, 110 were found that matched the minimum standards:[69] the candidates had to be younger than 40, possess a bachelor's degree or equivalent and to be 5 feet 11 inches (1.80 m) or less. Only the height requirement was strictly enforced, owing to the size of the Project Mercury spacecraft.[70] This was fortunate for Glenn, who barely met the requirements, as he was near the age cutoff and lacked a science-based degree.[71] The 110 were then split into three groups, with the most promising in the first group.[72] The first group of 35, which included Alan Shepard, assembled at the Pentagon on February 2, 1959. The Navy and Marine Corps officers were welcomed by the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Arleigh Burke, and the USAF officers were addressed by the Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, General Thomas D. White. Both pledged their support to the Space Program, and promised that the careers of volunteers would not be adversely affected. NASA officials then briefed them on Project Mercury. They conceded that it would be a hazardous undertaking, but emphasized that it was of great national importance.[73][74]

The briefing process was repeated with a second group of 34 candidates a week later. Of the 69, six were found to be over the height limit, 15 were eliminated for other reasons, and 16 declined. This left NASA with 32 candidates. Since this was more than expected, NASA decided not to bother with the remaining 41 candidates, as 32 candidates seemed a more than adequate number from which to select 12 astronauts as planned. The degree of interest also indicated that far fewer would drop out during training than anticipated, which would result in training astronauts who would not be required to fly Project Mercury missions. It was therefore decided to cut the number of astronauts selected to just six.[75] Then came a grueling series of physical and psychological tests at the Lovelace Clinic and the Wright Aerospace Medical Laboratory.[76] Only one candidate, Jim Lovell, was eliminated on medical grounds at this stage, and the diagnosis was later found to be in error;[77] thirteen others were recommended with reservations. The director of the NASA Space Task Group, Robert R. Gilruth, found himself unable to select only six from the remaining eighteen, and ultimately seven were chosen.[77]

After testing, the astronaut candidates had to wait 10 to 12 days for the results. Glenn had returned to his position at the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics when he received a call from the associate director of Project Mercury, Charles Donlan, offering him a position.[68] The identities of the seven were announced at a press conference at Dolley Madison House in Washington, D.C., on April 9, 1959:[78] Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, and Deke Slayton.[79] Glenn, wrote Tom Wolfe, "came out of it as tops among seven very fair-haired boys. He had the hottest record as a pilot, he was the most quotable, the most photogenic, and the lone Marine."[80] The magnitude of the challenge ahead of them was made clear a few weeks later, on the night of May 18, 1959, when the seven astronauts gathered at Cape Canaveral to watch their first rocket launch, of an SM-65D Atlas, which was similar to the one that was to carry them into orbit. A few minutes after liftoff, it spectacularly exploded, lighting up the night sky. The astronauts were stunned. Shepard turned to Glenn and said: "Well, I'm glad they got that out of the way."[81]

Glenn remained an officer in the Marine Corps after his selection,[82] but was assigned to the NASA Space Task Group at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.[71] The task force moved to Houston, Texas, in 1962, and became part of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center.[71] A portion of the astronauts' training was in space science, but it had a practical aspect, which included scuba diving and work in simulators.[68] Astronauts secured an additional role in the spaceflight program: to provide pilot input in design. The astronauts divided the various tasks between them. Glenn's specialization was cockpit layout design and control functioning for the Mercury and early Apollo programs.[68][71] He pressed the other astronauts to set a moral example, living up to the squeaky-clean image of them that had been portrayed by Life magazine, a position that was not popular with the other astronauts.[83]

Friendship 7 flightEdit

 
Glenn entering his spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of Mercury-Atlas 6 on February 20, 1962.

Glenn was a backup pilot for Shepard and Grissom on the first two manned Project Mercury flights, Mercury-Redstone 3 and Mercury-Redstone 4 sub-orbital missions.[71] Glenn was selected for Mercury-Atlas 6, NASA's first manned orbital flight, with Carpenter as his backup. Putting a man in orbit would achieve one of Project Mercury's most important goals.[84] Shepard and Grissom had named their spacecraft Freedom 7 and Liberty Bell 7. The numeral 7 had originally been the production number of Shepard's spacecraft, but had come to represent the Mercury 7. Glenn named his spacecraft, number 13, Friendship 7, and had the name hand-painted on the side like the one on his F-86 had been.[85] Glenn and Carpenter completed their training for the mission in January 1962, but postponement of the launch allowed them to continue rehearsing. Glenn spent 25 hours and 25 minutes in the spacecraft performing hanger and altitude tests, and 59 hours and 45 minutes in the simulator. He flew 70 simulated missions and reacted to 189 simulated system failures.[86]

After a long series of delays,[87] Friendship 7 lifted off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on February 20, 1962. There were eleven delays during the countdown due to equipment malfunctions and improvements and the weather. During Glenn's first orbit, a failure of the automatic-control system was detected. This forced Glenn to operate in manual mode for the second and third orbits, and for re-entry. Later in the flight, telemetry indicated that the heat shield had loosened. If this reading were accurate, Glenn and his spacecraft would burn up on re-entry. After a lengthy discussion on how to deal with this problem, ground controllers decided that leaving the solid-fueled retrorocket pack in place might help keep the loose heat shield in place. They relayed these instructions to Glenn, but did not tell him that the heat shield was possibly loose; although confused at this order, he complied. Leaving the retrorocket pack on made large chunks of flaming debris fly past the window of his capsule during re-entry, which Glenn thought might have been the heat shield. He told an interviewer, "Fortunately it was the rocket pack—or I wouldn't be answering these questions."[88] After the flight, it was determined that the heat shield was not loose, but rather that the sensor was faulty.[89]

 
Glenn being honored by U.S. President Kennedy at temporary Manned Spacecraft Center facilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida, three days after his flight.

Friendship 7 safely splashed down 800 miles (1,290 km) southeast of Cape Canaveral after Glenn's 4-hour, 55-minute flight.[68][a] He carried a note on the flight which read, "I am a stranger. I come in peace. Take me to your leader and there will be a massive reward for you in eternity" in several languages, in case he landed near southern Pacific Ocean islands.[90] The original procedure called for Glenn to exit through the top hatch, but he was uncomfortably warm and decided that egress through the side hatch would be faster.[68][90] During the flight, he endured 7.8 G's of acceleration and traveled 75,679 miles (121,794 km) at about 17,500 miles per hour (28,200 km/h).[68] The flight took Glenn to a maximum altitude (apogee) of about 162 miles (261 km) and a minimum altitude of 100 miles (160 km) (perigee).[90] The flight made Glenn the first American to orbit the Earth,[91] the third American in space, and the fifth human in space.[92][b] The mission, which Glenn called "best day of his life", renewed U.S. confidence.[98] His flight occurred while the U.S. and the Soviet Union were embroiled in the Cold War and competing in the Space Race.[99]

As the first American in orbit Glenn became a national hero, met President John F. Kennedy, and received a ticker-tape parade in New York reminiscent of those honoring Charles Lindbergh and other dignitaries.[89] He became "so valuable to the nation as an iconic figure", according to NASA administrator Charles Bolden, that Kennedy would not "risk putting him back in space again."[100] Glenn's fame and political potential were noted by the Kennedys, and he became a friend of the Kennedy family. On February 23, 1962, President Kennedy gave him the NASA Distinguished Service Medal.[89]

In June 1963, the Soviet Union launched a female cosmonaut, Valentina Tereshkova into orbit. In response, NASA contemplated recruiting women to the astronaut corps, but Glenn gave a speech before the House Space Committee detailing his opposition to sending women into space, in which he said:

I think this gets back to the way our social order is organized, really. It is just a fact. The men go off and fight the wars and fly the airplanes and come back and help design and build and test them. The fact that women are not in this field is a fact of our social order.[101]

NASA had no official policy prohibiting women, but the requirement that astronauts had to be military test pilots effectively excluded them.[102] NASA dropped this requirement in 1965,[103] but did not select any women as astronauts until 1978, when six women were selected, although none as pilots.[104] After Tereshkova, no women of any nationality would fly in space again until August 1982, when the Soviet Union launched pilot-cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya.[105] During the late 1970s, Glenn reportedly supported Space Shuttle Mission Specialist Judith Resnik in her career.[106]

Political campaigningEdit

1964 Senate campaignEdit

At 42, Glenn was the oldest member of the astronaut corps and would likely be close to 50 by the time the lunar landings took place. During Glenn's training, NASA psychologists determined that he was the astronaut best suited for public life.[107] Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy suggested to Glenn and his wife in December 1962 that he run for the U.S. Senate for Ohio in 1964, challenging aging incumbent Stephen M. Young (1889–1984) in the Democratic primary election. Since it seemed unlikely that he would be selected for Project Apollo missions,[68] he resigned from NASA on January 16, 1964, and announced his Democratic Party candidacy for the U.S. Senate from his home state of Ohio the following day.[108]

While attempting to fix a mirror in a hotel room, he was hospitalized for a concussion sustained in a fall against a bathtub in late February;[1] an inner-ear injury from the accident left him unable to campaign.[109][110] He withdrew from the race on March 30.[111] Both his wife and Scott Carpenter campaigned on his behalf during February and March, but doctors gave Glenn a recovery time of one year. Glenn did not want to win solely due to his astronaut fame, so he dropped out of the race on March 31.[112]

Glenn went on convalescent leave from the Marine Corps until he fully recovered, which was required for his retirement. He retired as a colonel on January 1, 1965, and became an executive with RC Cola.[89]

1970 Senate campaignEdit

In 1970, Young did not seek reelection and the seat was open. Businessman Howard Metzenbaum was backed by the Ohio Democratic party and major labor unions, which provided him a significant funding advantage over Glenn. Glenn was defeated in the Democratic primary by Metzenbaum (who received 51 percent of the vote to Glenn's 49 percent). Some prominent Democrats said Glenn was a "hapless political rube",[1] and one newspaper called him "the ultimate square".[1]

Metzenbaum later lost the general election to Robert Taft Jr.[1] Glenn continued to remain active in the political scene following his defeat. John J. Gilligan, the Ohio Governor at the time, appointed Glenn to be the chairman of the Citizens Task Force on Environmental Protection in 1970. The task force was created to survey environmental problems in the state and released a report in 1971 detailing the issues. The meetings and the final report of the task force were major contributors to the formation of Ohio's Environmental Protection Agency.[112]

1974 Senate campaignEdit

In 1974, Gilligan and Democratic party leaders attempted to persuade Glenn to campaign for the lieutenant governor position of Ohio. Glenn declined, denouncing their attempts as "bossism" and "blackmail".[1] He challenged Metzenbaum again for the other Ohio Senate seat, which had been vacated by Republican William B. Saxbe, who became U.S. Attorney General in early 1974. Metzenbaum was the short-term incumbent, appointed by Gilligan in January.[1]

In the primary, Metzenbaum contrasted his strong business background with Glenn's military and astronaut credentials and said that his opponent had "never held a payroll". Glenn's reply became known as the "Gold Star Mothers" speech. He told Metzenbaum to go to a veterans' hospital and "look those men with mangled bodies in the eyes and tell them they didn't hold a job. You go with me to any Gold Star mother and you look her in the eye and tell her that her son did not hold a job".[113] He defeated Metzenbaum 54 to 46 percent before defeating Ralph Perk (the Republican mayor of Cleveland) in the general election, beginning a Senate career which would continue until 1999.[114]

1976 vice-presidential campaignEdit

 
Glenn presents President Kennedy with an American flag he carried inside his space suit on Friendship 7.

Glenn remained close to the Kennedy family, and campaigned for Robert F. Kennedy during his 1968 presidential campaign.[115][116][117] Glenn was with him in Los Angeles when he was assassinated in 1968, and was a pallbearer at the funeral in New York.[118]

 
Buttons of Carter's options for vice president

In 1976, Glenn was a candidate for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination. He was considered because he was a senator in a pivotal state and for his fame and straightforwardness.[119] Some thought he was too much like Carter, partially because they both had military backgrounds, and that he did not have enough experience to potentially become president.[120] Glenn's keynote address at the Democratic National Convention failed to impress the delegates, due to Barbara Jordan stealing the show and that he was hard to hear.[121] The nomination went to veteran politician Walter Mondale.[122]

1980 Senate campaignEdit

In Glenn's first reelection campaign, Jim Betts challenged him for the seat. Betts publicly stated that Glenn's policies were part of the reason for inflation increases and a lower standard of living.[123] Betts' campaign also attacked Glenn's voting record, saying that he often voted for spending increases. Glenn's campaign's response was that he has been a part of over 3,000 roll calls and "any one of them could be taken out of context".[124] Glenn was projected to win the race by a large margin.[125] After the votes were tallied, Glenn won by the largest margin ever for an Ohio Senator, defeating Betts by over 40 percent.[114][126]

1984 presidential campaignEdit

The movie [The Right Stuff] seems to fit Mr. Glenn's political purposes almost ideally since it depicts him as an heroic square with a self-depreciating sense of humor about his squareness, as a devoted protector of his family and as a fierce, driven patriot.

New York Times[127]

Glenn announced his candidacy for president on April 21, 1983 in the John Glenn High School gymnasium.[128] During his run for the presidential nomination, The Right Stuff, a film about the Mercury Seven astronauts, was released. Reviewers saw Ed Harris' portrayal of Glenn as heroic and his staff began to publicize the film to the press.[129] One reviewer said that "Harris’ depiction helped transform Glenn from a history-book figure into a likable, thoroughly adoration-worthy Hollywood hero," turning him into a big-screen icon.[129] Others considered the movie to be damaging to Glenn's campaign, serving as only a reminder that Glenn's most significant achievement occurred decades earlier.[130] Glenn ran for the 1984 Democratic presidential nomination but he lost again to Mondale.[127]

Glenn's press secretary Greg Schneiders suggested an unusual strategy, inspired by Glenn's personal campaign and voting style, of avoiding appealing to special interest groups and instead seeking support from ordinary Democratic primary voters.[109] After Mondale defeated him for the nomination, Glenn carried $3 million in campaign debt for over 20 years before receiving a reprieve from the Federal Election Commission.[131][132] He was considered as a vice-presidential candidate in 1984, 1988, and 1992.[133]

1986 Senate campaignEdit

Glenn kept the Senate seat in 1986. He was challenged by Thomas Kindness. Glenn believed he and other Democrats were the targets of a negative campaign thought up by the GOP strategists in Washington. Kindness focused on Glenn's campaign debts for his failed presidential run, and the fact he stopped payments on it while campaigning for the Senate seat.[134] After winning the race, Glenn remarked, "We proved that in 1986, they couldn't kill Glenn with Kindness."[135] He won the race with 62% of the vote.[136]

1992 Senate campaignEdit

In 1992, Republican Mike DeWine won the Republican primary and challenged Glenn in the Senate election. His campaign focused on the need for change and for term limits for Senators. This would be Glenn's fourth term as Senator.[137] DeWine also criticized Glenn's campaign debts, using a bunny dressed as an astronaut beating a drum, with an announcer saying, "He just keeps owing and owing and owing", a play on the Energizer Bunny.[138] Glenn won the Senate seat.[136] It was DeWine's first-ever campaign loss. DeWine later worked on the intelligence committee with Glenn and watched his second launch into space.[139]

Senate careerEdit

Committee on Governmental AffairsEdit

In 1977, Glenn wanted to chair the Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Services Subcommittee of the Governmental Affairs Committee. Abraham Ribicoff, chair of the Governmental Affairs Committee, said he could chair the subcommittee if he also chaired the less popular Federal Services Subcommittee, which was in charge of the U.S. Postal Service. Although previous chairs of the Federal Services Subcommittee lost elections due in part to negative campaigns that tied in the poorly regarded mail service with the chairmen, Glenn accepted the offer and became the chair of both subcommittees.[140] One of his goals as a freshman senator was developing environmental policies.[141] Glenn introduced bills on energy policy to try to counter the energy crisis in the 70s. Glenn also introduced legislation promoting nuclear non-proliferation, and was the chief author of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978,[142] the first of six major pieces of legislation that he produced on the subject.[112][143]

Glenn chaired the Committee on Governmental Affairs from 1987 to 1995.[144] It was in this role that he discovered a host of safety and environmental problems with the nation's nuclear weapons facilities. Glenn was made aware of the problem at the Fernald Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, and soon found that it was an issue that occurred at several sites around the nation. Glenn requested investigations from the General Accounting Office of Congress and held several hearings on the issue. He also released a report on the potential costs of hazardous waste cleanup at former nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities, known as the Glenn Report.[145] He spent the remainder of his Senate career acquiring funding to clean up the nuclear waste left at the facilities.[146]

In 1995 Glenn became the ranking minority member of the Committee on Governmental Affairs. Glenn disputed the focus of illegal Chinese donations to the Democrats, and asserted that Republicans also had egregious fundraising issues. The committee chair, Fred Thompson of Tennessee, disagreed and continued the investigation.[147][148]

Glenn was the vice chairman of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, a subcommittee of the Committee on Governmental Affairs.[149] When the Republican Party regained control of the Senate in 1996, Glenn became the ranking minority member on the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (chaired by Maine Senator Susan Collins).[150]

Other committees and activitiesEdit

 
Glenn at the Senate

Glenn was on several committees during his first term as Senator, including the Government Operations Committee, and Interior and Insular Affairs Committee, and Energy Research and Water Resources Subcommittee. He also sat on the Special Committee on Aging.[151]

Glenn was considered an expert in matters of science and technology due to his background. He was a supporter of continuing the B-1 bomber program, which he considered successful. This conflicted with President Carter's desire to fund the B-2 bomber program. Glenn did not fully support development of the B-2 because he had doubts about the feasibility of the stealth technology. He drafted a proposal to slow down the development of the B-2, which could have potentially saved money, but the measure was rejected.[152]

Glenn joined the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1978. He became the chairman of the East Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee, for which he traveled to Japan, Korea, the Republic of China, and the People's Republic of China. Glenn helped to pass the Taiwan Enabling Act of 1979. The same year, Glenn's stance on the SALT II treaty caused another dispute with President Carter. He did not believe that the U.S. had the capability to monitor the Soviet Union accurately enough to verify compliance with the treaty. During the launching ceremony for the USS Ohio, he spoke about his doubts about verifying treaty compliance. First Lady Rosalynn Carter also spoke at the event, during which she criticized Glenn for speaking publicly about the issue. The Senate never ratified the treaty, in part because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.[112]

 
Glenn delivers remarks during a Congressional Gold Medal ceremony honoring the Apollo 11 astronauts in the Rotunda at the U.S. Capitol in 2011

Glenn became chairman of the Manpower Subcommittee of the Armed Services Committee in 1987.[153] He introduced legislation such as increasing pay and benefits for American troops in the Persian Gulf during the Gulf War.[154] He served as chairman until 1993, becoming chairman of the Armed Services Subcommittee on Military Readiness and Defense Infrastructure.[155]

Keating FiveEdit

Glenn was one of the Keating Five—the U.S. Senators involved with the savings and loan crisis—after Glenn accepted a $200,000 campaign contribution from Lincoln Savings and Loan Association head Charles Keating. During the crisis, the Senators were accused of delaying the seizure of Keating's S&L, which cost taxpayers an additional $2 billion. The combination of perceived political pressure and Keating's monetary contributions to the senators led to an investigation.[156]

Glenn and Republican Senator John McCain were reprimanded the least of the five, as the Senate commission found that they had exercised "poor judgment".[157] The GOP focused on Glenn's "poor judgement" rather than what Glenn saw as complete exoneration. GOP chairman Robert Bennett said, "John Glenn misjudged Charles Keating. He also misjudged the tolerance of Ohio's taxpayers, who are left to foot the bill of nearly $2 billion."[158] After the Senate's report, Glenn said, "They so firmly put this thing to bed...there isn't much there to fuss with. I didn't do anything wrong."[159] The association of his name with the scandal made Republicans hopeful that he could be defeated in the 1992 campaign, but Glenn defeated Lieutenant Governor Mike DeWine to retain his seat.[160]

RetirementEdit

On February 20, 1997, which was the 35th anniversary of his Friendship 7 flight, Glenn announced that his retirement from the Senate would occur at the end of his term in December 1998.[161] Glenn retired due to his age, saying "...there is still no cure for the common birthday". Glenn was the only senator from Ohio to serve four Senate terms.[162]

Return to spaceEdit

 
Senator-astronaut John Glenn on the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1998

On January 16, 1998, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin announced that Glenn would be part of the STS-95 crew;[68] this made him, at age 77, the oldest person to fly in space. NASA and the National Institute of Aging (NIA) planned to use Glenn as a test subject for research, with biometrics taken before, during and after his flight. Some experiments (in circadian rhythms, for example) compared him with the younger crew members. In addition to these tests, he was in charge of the flight's photography and videography. Glenn returned to space on the Space Shuttle on October 29, 1998, as a Payload Specialist on Space Shuttle Discovery.[68] According to The New York Times, Glenn "won his seat on the Shuttle flight by lobbying NASA for two years to fly as a human guinea pig for geriatric studies"; this was cited as the main reason for his participation in the mission.[163] Shortly before the flight, researchers disqualified Glenn from one of the flight's two major human experiments (on the effect of melatonin) due to undisclosed medical reasons; he participated in experiments on sleep monitoring and protein use.[163][164]

On November 6, 1998, President Bill Clinton sent a congralatory email to Glenn aboard the Discovery. This is often cited as the first email sent by a sitting US President. However, records exist of emails being sent by President Clinton several years earlier.[165]

 
STS-95 official crew photo

Glenn wrote in his memoir that he had no idea that NASA was willing to send him back into space when the agency made its announcement.[166] His participation in the nine-day mission was criticized by some members of the space community as a favor granted by Clinton; John Pike, director of the Federation of American Scientists' space-policy project, said: "If he was a normal person, he would acknowledge he's a great American hero and that he should get to fly on the shuttle for free ... He's too modest for that, and so he's got to have this medical research reason. It's got nothing to do with medicine".[89][167]

In a 2012 interview, Glenn said that the purpose of his flight was "to make measurements and do research on me at the age of 77 ... comparing the results on me in space with the younger [astronauts] and maybe get [insights] on the immune system or protein turnover or vestibular functions and other things—heart changes". Glenn also said that after reading a study on aerospace medicine, he was intrigued at how the physiological changes experienced by the human body in space (such as loss of bone and muscle mass and blood plasma) were similar to those of the human body as it ages.[164] He regretted that NASA did not continue its research on aging by sending additional elderly people into space.[164] After STS-95 returned safely, its crew received a ticker-tape parade. On October 15, 1998, NASA Road 1 (the main route to the Johnson Space Center) was temporarily renamed John Glenn Parkway for several months.[168] In 2001, Glenn strenuously opposed sending Dennis Tito, the world's first space tourist, to the International Space Station because Tito's trip had no scientific purpose.[169]

Personal lifeEdit

 
Annie and John Glenn in 1965

He was only a toddler when he met Anna Margaret (Annie) Castor, who would later become his wife. The two would not be able to recall a time when they did not know each other.[8] Glenn married Annie in a Presbyterian ceremony at College Drive Church in Columbus, Ohio, on April 6, 1943.[170] They had two children—John David and Carolyn Ann—and two grandchildren,[171] and remained married for 73 years until his death.[172]

A Freemason, Glenn was a member of Concord Lodge #688 in New Concord, Ohio. He received all of his degrees in full in a Mason at Sight ceremony from the Grand Master of Ohio in 1978, 14 years after petitioning his lodge. In 1998, Glenn became a 32nd-degree Scottish Rite Mason in the Valley of Cincinnati (NMJ); the following year, he received the 33rd degree of the Scottish rite. As an adult, he was honored as part of the DeMolay Legion of Honor by DeMolay International, a Masonic youth organization for boys.[173][174]

Glenn was an ordained elder of the Presbyterian Church.[175] His religious faith began before he became an astronaut, and was reinforced after he traveled in space. "To look out at this kind of creation and not believe in God is to me impossible," said Glenn after his second (and final) space voyage.[176] He saw no contradiction between belief in God and the knowledge that evolution is "a fact" and believed evolution should be taught in schools:[177] "I don't see that I'm any less religious that I can appreciate the fact that science just records that we change with evolution and time, and that's a fact. It doesn't mean it's less wondrous and it doesn't mean that there can't be some power greater than any of us that has been behind and is behind whatever is going on."[178]

He was an original owner of a Holiday Inn franchise near Orlando, Florida, which is today the Seralago Hotel & Suites Main Gate East.[179] Glenn's business partner was Henri Landwirth, a Holocaust survivor who became his best friend.[180] He remembered learning about Landwirth's background: "Henri doesn't talk about it much. It was years before he spoke about it with me and then only because of an accident. We were down in Florida during the space program. Everyone was wearing short-sleeved Ban-Lon shirts—everyone but Henri. Then one day I saw Henri at the pool and noticed the number on his arm. I told Henri that if it were me I'd wear that number like a medal with a spotlight on it."[180]

Public appearancesEdit

 
Glenn at the ceremony transferring the space shuttle Discovery to the Smithsonian Institution

Glenn was an honorary member of the International Academy of Astronautics and a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, Marine Corps Aviation Association, Order of Daedalians, National Space Club Board of Trustees, National Space Society Board of Governors, International Association of Holiday Inns, Ohio Democratic Party, State Democratic Executive Committee, Franklin County (Ohio) Democratic Party and the 10th District (Ohio) Democratic Action Club.[16] In 2001 he guest-starred as himself on the American television sitcom Frasier.[181]

On September 5, 2009, John and Annie Glenn dotted the "i" in Ohio State University's Script Ohio marching band performance during the Ohio StateNavy football-game halftime show, which is normally reserved for veteran band members.[182][183] To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Friendship 7 flight on February 20, 2012, he had an unexpected opportunity to speak with the orbiting crew of the International Space Station when he was onstage with NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden at Ohio State University.[184] On April 19, 2012, Glenn participated in the ceremonial transfer of the retired Space Shuttle Discovery from NASA to the Smithsonian Institution for permanent display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center. He used the occasion to criticize the "unfortunate" decision to end the Space Shuttle program, saying that grounding the shuttles delayed research.[185]

Illness and deathEdit

Glenn was in good health for most of his life. He retained a private pilot's license well into his 80s, eventually quitting flying when he and his wife found it too difficult to get into the cockpit due to knee problems. In June 2014, Glenn underwent successful heart valve replacement surgery at the Cleveland Clinic.[186] In early December 2016, he was hospitalized at the James Cancer Hospital of Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus.[187][188][189] According to a family source, Glenn had been in declining health, and his condition was grave; his wife and their children and grandchildren were at the hospital.[190]

 
Glenn's casket carried by Marine Corps pallbearers

Glenn died on December 8, 2016, at the OSU Wexner Medical Center; he was 95 years old.[172][191] No cause of death was disclosed. After his death, his body lay in state at the Ohio Statehouse. There was a memorial service at Mershon Auditorium at Ohio State University.[172] His body was interred at Arlington National Cemetery on April 6, 2017.[192][193] At the time of his death, John Glenn was the last surviving member of the Mercury Seven.[194]

The Military Times reported that William Zwicharowski, a senior mortuary official at Dover Air Force Base, had offered to let visiting inspectors view Glenn's remains, sparking an official investigation.[195][196] Zwicharowski has denied the remains were disrespected.[197]

President Barack Obama said that John Glenn, "the first American to orbit the Earth, reminded us that with courage and a spirit of discovery there's no limit to the heights we can reach together".[198] Tributes were also paid by President-elect Donald Trump,[199] and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.[200]

The phrase "Godspeed, John Glenn", which fellow Mercury astronaut Scott Carpenter used to hail Glenn's launch into space, became his social-media hashtag: #GodspeedJohnGlenn. Former and current astronauts added tributes; so did NASA Administrator and former shuttle astronaut Charles Bolden, who wrote: "John Glenn's legacy is one of risk and accomplishment, of history created and duty to country carried out under great pressure with the whole world watching."[201] President Obama ordered flags to be flown at half-mast until Glenn's burial.[202] On April 5, 2017, President Donald Trump issued presidential proclamation 9588, titled "Honoring the Memory of John Glenn".[203][204]

LegacyEdit

 
     
          
     
   
   
 
     
Naval Aviator Astronaut Insignia[45]
Distinguished Flying Cross
with three gold stars and one bronze cluster[45]
Air Medal
with one silver and 2 gold stars and two silver clusters[45]
Navy Presidential Unit Citation[205] Navy Unit Commendation[45]
Presidential Medal of Freedom[206] Congressional Space Medal of Honor[45] NASA Distinguished Service Medal[45]
NASA Space Flight Medal
with one oak leaf cluster[45]
Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal[205] China Service Medal[45]
American Campaign Medal[45] Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
with one star[205]
World War II Victory Medal[45]
Navy Occupation Service Medal[205]
with "ASIA" clasp
National Defense Service Medal
with one star[45]
Korean Service Medal
with two campaign stars[205]
Presidential Unit Citation (Korea)[45] United Nations Korea Medal[45] Korean War Service Medal[45]

Glenn was awarded the John J. Montgomery Award in 1963.[207] Glenn received National Geographic Society's Hubbard Medal in 1962.[208] Glenn, along with 37 other space race astronauts, received the Ambassador of Space Exploration Award in 2006.[88] Glenn was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 2011.[209][210] He was also awarded the General Thomas D. White National Defense Award[211] and the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation.[212]

In 1961, Glenn received an honorary LL.D from Muskingum University, the college he attended before joining the military in World War II.[20] The Society of Experimental Test Pilots awarded Glenn the Iven C. Kincheloe award in 1963.[213] He received honorary doctorates from Nihon University in Tokyo; Wagner College in Staten Island, New York; and New Hampshire College (now Southern New Hampshire University) in Manchester, New Hampshire.[214][215] He was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1976,[216] the International Space Hall of Fame in 1977,[92] the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1990.[217] In 2000, he received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for public service by an elected or appointed official, one of the annual Jefferson Awards.[218] Four years later, he received the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars of the Smithsonian Institution.[219][220] Glenn was awarded the NCAA's Theodore Roosevelt Award for 2008.[221] In 2009, he was awarded an honorary LL.D from Williams College,[222] and the following year, he received an honorary doctorate of public service degree from Ohio Northern University.[223] In 2013, Flying magazine ranked Glenn 26th on its "51 Heroes of Aviation" list.[224]

 
Receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama in 2012

The Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland is named after him, and the Senator John Glenn Highway runs along a stretch of I-480 in Ohio across from the Glenn Research Center.[225][226] Colonel Glenn Highway (which passes Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and Wright State University near Dayton, Ohio), John Glenn High School in his hometown of New Concord, and the former Col. John Glenn Elementary in Seven Hills, Ohio, were also named for him.[227][228] Colonel Glenn Road in Little Rock, Arkansas was named for him in 1962.[229] High schools in Westland[230] and Bay City, Michigan; Walkerton, Indiana;[231] San Angelo, Texas, and Norwalk, California bear Glenn's name.[232][233][234] The fireboat John H. Glenn Jr., operated by the District of Columbia Fire and Emergency Medical Services Department and protecting sections of the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers which run through Washington, D.C., was named for him, as was USNS John Glenn (T-MLP-2), a mobile landing platform delivered to the U.S. Navy on March 12, 2014.[235] In June 2016, the Port Columbus, Ohio, airport was renamed John Glenn Columbus International Airport. Glenn and his family attended the ceremony, during which he spoke about how visiting the airport as a child had kindled his interest in flying.[236] On September 12, 2016, Blue Origin announced the New Glenn, a rocket.[237] Orbital ATK named the Cygnus space capsule used in the NASA CRS OA-7 mission to the international space station "S.S. John Glenn" in his honor. The mission successfully lifted off on April 16, 2017.[238]

In 1998 Glenn helped found the John Glenn Institute for Public Service and Public Policy at Ohio State University to encourage public service. On July 22, 2006, the institute merged with OSU's School of Public Policy and Management to become the John Glenn School of Public Affairs; Glenn held an adjunct professorship at the school.[239] In February 2015, it was announced that the school would become the John Glenn College of Public Affairs in April.[240]

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The spacecraft landed 41 miles (66 km) west and 19 miles (31 km) north of the target landing site. Friendship 7 was recovered by the USS Noa, which had the spacecraft on the deck 21 minutes after landing; Glenn was in the capsule during the recovery operation.[68]
  2. ^ Perth, Western Australia, became known worldwide as the "City of Light"[93] when residents turned on their house, car and streetlights as Glenn passed overhead.[94][95] The city repeated the act when Glenn rode the Space Shuttle in 1998.[96][97]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g McDiarmid, Hugh (January 17, 1998). "Rocket man fizzled early as politician". Detroit Free Press. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com. 
  2. ^ "Voinovich backs lengthier trial for Clinton". The Akron Beacon Journal. January 6, 1999. p. 10 – via Newspapers.com. 
  3. ^ Gorenstein, Nathan (November 5, 1986). "Biden would rather see Kennedy in Judiciary chair". The News Journal. Wilmington, Delaware. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com. 
  4. ^ Barton, Paul (March 26, 1995). "Senator Glenn Rails at New Ways". The Cincinnati Enquirer. p. 21 – via Newspapers.com. 
  5. ^ "John Glenn's parents". John F Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2017. 
  6. ^ "John Glenn Archives, Audiovisuals Subgroup, Series 3: Certificates". Ohio State University: University Libraries. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Ancestry of John Glenn". Genealogy Magazine. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c Burgess 2015, pp. 43–46.
  9. ^ Kupperberg 2003, pp. 15, 35.
  10. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 13–16.
  11. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 25.
  12. ^ Burgess 2015, pp. 46–47.
  13. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 24–29.
  14. ^ "The John & Annie Glenn — Historic Site". Johnglennhome.org. Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  15. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 47.
  16. ^ a b c "40th Anniversary of Mercury 7: John Herschel Glenn Jr". NASA History Program Office. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  17. ^ a b Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 58–59.
  18. ^ Muskingum College (October 16, 1998). "Muskingum Grad to Conduct Solar Experiments Aboard Oct. 29 Shuttle Flight with Muskie John Glenn on Board". PR Newswire. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved September 24, 2015. 
  19. ^ a b Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 60.
  20. ^ a b "College says Glenn degree was deserved". The Day. October 4, 1983. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  21. ^ John Glenn Dead at 95 | Remembering the First American To Orbit Earth on YouTube
  22. ^ "John Glenn: Biographical Sketch". Ohio Statue University. 2009. Archived from the original on October 17, 2009. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Burgess 2015, pp. 51–55.
  24. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 93-96.
  25. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 103–107.
  26. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 111–117.
  27. ^ Carpenter et al. 2010, p. 31.
  28. ^ "The Man". Ohio State University. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  29. ^ "Valor awards for John Herschel Glenn". Military Times. Retrieved February 28, 2018. 
  30. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 135–141.
  31. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 147.
  32. ^ "#VeteranOfTheDay Marine Corps Veteran John Glenn". U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  33. ^ Tilton 2000, p. 34.
  34. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 166.
  35. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 167–169.
  36. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 186–187.
  37. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 171.
  38. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 175.
  39. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 186.
  40. ^ a b Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 180.
  41. ^ Mersky 1983, p. 183.
  42. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 180–184.
  43. ^ "Ralph H. Spanjer, 78". Chicago Tribune. February 12, 1999. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  44. ^ "John Glenn standing beside his F-86 Sabre". Ohio State University. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Profile of John Glenn". NASA. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  46. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 187.
  47. ^ Wolfe 1979, pp. 41–42.
  48. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 185.
  49. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 189.
  50. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 192–196.
  51. ^ "John Glenn, astronaut and Senator, dead at age 95". USA Today. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  52. ^ Burgess 2015, pp. 55–56.
  53. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 204–206.
  54. ^ Vogel, Steve (June 7, 1998). "Pax River Yields a Constellation of Astronaut Candidates". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  55. ^ "The History of Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland". United States Navy. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016. 
  56. ^ "Jim Stockdale, Glenn's tutor at Pax River". The National Aviation Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2017. 
  57. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 208–210.
  58. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 212–220.
  59. ^ a b c "Astronaut Bio: John Glenn Jr. 1/99". Johnson Space Center. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  60. ^ "Silent Seven: John Glenn, last Mercury astronaut, dies at 95". SpaceFlight Insider. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  61. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 220–221.
  62. ^ a b Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 222–227.
  63. ^ "'Project Bullet' sets transcontinental speed record, July 16, 1957". EDN. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016. 
  64. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 228.
  65. ^ Burgess 2015, p. 68.
  66. ^ Burgess 2011, pp. 25–29.
  67. ^ Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, p. 134.
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gray, Tara. "John H. Glenn Jr". NASA History Program Office. Archived from the original on January 28, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016. 
  69. ^ Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, pp. 36–39.
  70. ^ Burgess 2011, p. 35.
  71. ^ a b c d e "Biographical Data". Johnson Space Center. January 1999. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2016. 
  72. ^ Burgess 2011, p. 38.
  73. ^ Burgess 2011, pp. 46–51.
  74. ^ Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, pp. 40–42.
  75. ^ Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, p. 42.
  76. ^ Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, pp. 43–47.
  77. ^ a b Burgess 2011, pp. 234–237.
  78. ^ Burgess 2011, pp. 274–275.
  79. ^ Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, pp. 42–47.
  80. ^ Wolfe 1979, p. 121.
  81. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 274–275.
  82. ^ Tilton 2000, p. 43.
  83. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, pp. 292–295.
  84. ^ Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, p. 407.
  85. ^ Burgess 2015, pp. 76–79.
  86. ^ Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, p. 418.
  87. ^ Burgess 2015, pp. 80–86.
  88. ^ a b "NASA Honors a Legendary Astronaut". NASA. February 21, 2006. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016. 
  89. ^ a b c d e Staff (October 8, 1998). "John Glenn Stirs Controversy". CBS. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2016. There are people at NASA who have said this is a multi-million dollar joy ride for someone who supports President Clinton, and he's getting a payback. 
  90. ^ a b c "John H. Glenn Sr". New Mexico Museum of Space History. Archived from the original on December 11, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016. 
  91. ^ "Glenn Orbits the Earth". NASA. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008. 
  92. ^ a b "International Space Hall of Fame :: Inductee Profile". New Mexico Museum of Space History. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  93. ^ "City of light – 50 years in Space". Western Australian Museum. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. 
  94. ^ Perth – a city of light (Video recording). Perth, W.A.: Brian Williams Productions for the Government of WA. 1970.  The social and recreational life of Perth. Begins with a 'mock-up' of the lights of Perth as seen by astronaut John Glenn in February 1962.
  95. ^ Gregory, Jenny (2005). "Sir Henry Rudolph (Harry) Howard". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  96. ^ "Moment in Time – Episode 1". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. February 15, 2008. Archived from the original on August 21, 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  97. ^ King, Rhianna (February 12, 2012). "The moment Perth became the 'City of Lights'". WA Today. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2017. 
  98. ^ John Glenn Celebrates Orbiting the Earth on YouTube
  99. ^ Koren, Marina (December 8, 2016). "Remembering John Glenn". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  100. ^ NASA Remembers American Legend John Glenn on YouTube
  101. ^ Nolan, Stephanie (October 12, 2002). "One giant leap – backward: Part 2". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on September 13, 2004. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  102. ^ Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, p. 96.
  103. ^ Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, pp. 77–81.
  104. ^ Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, pp. 133–134.
  105. ^ "Pilot-cosmonaut of the USSR, Svetlana Savitskaya, turns 65". Russian Aviation. 9 August 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2017. 
  106. ^ Kevles 2003, p. 98.
  107. ^ Catchpole 2001, p. 96.
  108. ^ "Who Was John Glenn?". NASA. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2017. 
  109. ^ a b Raines, Howell (November 13, 1983). "John Glenn: The Hero as Candidate". New York Times. p. 40. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  110. ^ Mattson, Dr. Richard H (March 31, 1964). "Doctors Urge He Quit Race". New York Times. p. 19. 
  111. ^ "John Glenn's plans all derailed today". Kentucky New Era. February 29, 1964. p. 2. 
  112. ^ a b c d "Political Career". Ohio State University. May 10, 2016. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2017. 
  113. ^ Kennedy, Eugene (October 11, 1981). "John Glenn's Presidential Countdown". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  114. ^ a b Knight 2003, p. 114.
  115. ^ Battelle, Phyllis (June 25, 1968). "John Glenn, Kennedy Family Recalled as Close Friends". Panama City News-Herald. p. 4 – via Newspapers.com. 
  116. ^ "John Glenn Backs Kennedy at Ohio State Appearance". Palladium-Item. April 25, 1968. p. 16 – via Newspapers.com. 
  117. ^ "John Glenn Backs Kennedy on Visit to Sioux Falls". Argus-Leader. June 4, 1968. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com. 
  118. ^ Kupperberg 2003, p. 80.
  119. ^ "Is John Glenn ready for vice presidency?". The Akron Beacon Journal. July 4, 1976. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com. 
  120. ^ "Is John Glenn ready for vice presidency?". The Akron Beacon Journal. July 4, 1976. p. 7 – via Newspapers.com. 
  121. ^ "Ohio delegates cite Glenn's inexperience as critical factor". The News-Messenger. p. 5 – via Newspapers.com. 
  122. ^ Kennedy, Eugene (October 11, 1981). "John Glenn's Presidential Countdown". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  123. ^ Nemeth, Neil (April 1, 1980). "Betts assails Glenn". News-Journal. Mansfield, Ohio. p. 10 – via Newspapers.com. 
  124. ^ "Foe claims senator vulnerable". News-Journal. Mansfield, Ohio. Associated Press. September 15, 1980. p. 27 – via Newspapers.com. 
  125. ^ Wheat, Warren (October 10, 1980). "Glenn Takes His Campaign on the Road". The Cincinnati Enquirer. p. 15 – via Newspapers.com. 
  126. ^ Wheat, Warren (November 11, 1980). "Sen. Metzenbaum may be a 'marked man'". News Herald. p. 4. Retrieved February 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. 
  127. ^ a b Raines, Howell (November 13, 1983). "John Glenn: The Hero as Candidate". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  128. ^ "John Glenn announces candidacy for president". The Montgomery Advertiser. April 22, 1983. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com. 
  129. ^ a b Raftery, Brian (December 8, 2016). "How John Glenn Became a Big-screen Hero in The Right Stuff". Wired. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2017. 
  130. ^ Greenfield, Jeff (December 8, 2016). "John Glenn, Hero and Political Cautionary Tale". Politico. Retrieved March 12, 2018. 
  131. ^ Luce, Edward (May 9, 2008). "Well of donors dries up for Clinton". Financial Times. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2013. (Subscription required (help)). 
  132. ^ "For Clinton, Millions in Debt and Few Options". The New York Times. June 10, 2008. Archived from the original on February 25, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  133. ^ "John Glenn, First American To Orbit The Earth, Dies At 95". NPR. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on December 8, 2016. 
  134. ^ White, Keith; Jadrnak, Jackie (September 1, 1986). "Here's a rundown on state races in Ohio". The Cincinnati Enquirer. p. 26 – via Newspapers.com. 
  135. ^ "Glenn Wins in Landslide". Lancaster Eagle-Gazette. Lancaster, Ohio. Associated Press. November 5, 1986. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com. 
  136. ^ a b "Voters Say Glenn Has Right Stuff". Lancaster-Eagle Gazette. Associated Press. November 4, 1992. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com. 
  137. ^ "DeWine gets easy win to face Glenn". The Tribune. Coshocton, Ohio. Associated Press. June 3, 1992. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com. 
  138. ^ "DeWine won't get chance to make Washington change". Marysville Journal-Tribune. Marysville, Ohio. Associated Press. November 4, 1992. p. 7. 
  139. ^ "Mike DeWine reacts to the passing of John Glenn". NBC4 WCMH-TV Columbus. December 8, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2018. 
  140. ^ Thomas, Richard (June 25, 1978). "Glenn in Postal Dilemma". News-Journal. Mansfield, Ohio. p. 46 – via Newspapers.com. 
  141. ^ "Glenn eyes sound energy policies". The Tampa Tribune. Tampa, Florida. January 13, 1975. p. 6. 
  142. ^ Nayan 2013, p. 80.
  143. ^ Moore, Robert (December 8, 1982). "Glenn launches trial balloons from Texarkana". The Times. Shreveport, Louisiana. p. 22 – via Newspapers.com. 
  144. ^ Barton, Paul (March 26, 1995). "Senator Glenn rails at new ways". The Cincinnati Enquirer. p. 21 – via Newspapers.com. 
  145. ^ "Lab face costly, complex problems in cleanup of hazardous waste sites". The Santa Fe New Mexican. August 15, 1988. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com. 
  146. ^ Hershey, William (January 10, 1989). "Glenn irate over N-plant cleanup". The Akron Beacon Journal. Akron, Ohio. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com. 
  147. ^ "Fred Thompson's Big Flop". Portfolio.com. October 15, 2007. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  148. ^ Rosenbaum, David E. (1997). "Campaign Finance: The Hearings; Anger Flares as Focus Shifts to Campaign Remedies," The New York Times (online, September 24), accessed 6 November 2015.
  149. ^ Jackson, Patrick (October 24, 1992). "Glenn's for free trade, not NAFTA". The Times Recorder. Zanesville, Ohio. p. 19. 
  150. ^ "Majority Media". Homeland Security & Governmental Affairs Committee. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  151. ^ "Former Senator and Astronaut John Glenn Dies at 95". Roll Call. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on December 9, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  152. ^ "Senate panel votes against slowing Stealth". The Indianapolis News. Indianapolis, Indiana. July 14, 1989. p. 29 – via Newspapers.com. 
  153. ^ "John Glenn Through the Years". Dayton Daily News. Dayton, Ohio. February 15, 1987. p. 16 – via Newspapers.com. 
  154. ^ Hershey, William (January 16, 1991). "Glenn seeks to ease burden". The Akron Beacon Journal. Akron, Ohio. p. 29 – via Newspapers.com. 
  155. ^ "Glenn heads key military panel". The Tribune. Coshocton, Ohio. Associated Press. March 20, 1993. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com. 
  156. ^ "Crackdown's delay laid to five". St. Louis Post Dispatch. December 6, 1990. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com. 
  157. ^ "Cranston only Keating Five member in trouble". The Newark Advocate. February 28, 1991. p. 5 – via Newspapers.com. 
  158. ^ Wynn, Randy (February 28, 1991). "Cranston only Keating Five member in trouble". The Newark Advocate. p. 5 – via Newspapers.com. 
  159. ^ "Glenn looks ahead to bid, back to debt". The Marion Star. March 1, 1991. p. 13 – via Newspapers.com. 
  160. ^ Clifford Krauss Krauss, Clifford (October 15, 1992). "In Big Re-election Fight, Glenn Tests Hero Image". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2008. 
  161. ^ "John Glenn". Muskingum University. Archived from the original on July 15, 2003. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  162. ^ "'No Cure for Common Birthday'". Marysville Journal-Tribune. February 21, 1997. p. 14. 
  163. ^ a b Altman, Lawrence K. (October 21, 1998). "Glenn Unable to Perform Experiment Planned for Space Flight". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  164. ^ a b c Riley, Brian (2012). "Interview with John Glenn". Brian Riley. Archived from the original on June 28, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2016. 
  165. ^ Lawrence, Adrienne. "The Truth About Bill Clinton's Emails". The Atlantic. The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 June 2018. 
  166. ^ Glenn & Taylor 1999, p. 231.
  167. ^ McCutcheon, Chuck (April 25, 1998). "Critics: Glenn Flight A Boost For NASA, Not Science". CNN. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2016. 
  168. ^ Weinberg, Eliot (October 30, 1998). "Pilgrims come from near, far for Discovery's launch". The Palm Beach Post. p. 10. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016 – via Newspapers.com. 
  169. ^ "John Glenn: Space tourist cheapening Alpha". CNN. May 3, 2001. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 
  170. ^ Burgess 2015, p. 50.
  171. ^ Kupperberg 2003, p. 31.
  172. ^ a b c "John Glenn, American hero, aviation icon and former U.S. Senator, dies at 95". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on December 8, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  173. ^ Christopher Hodapp. "Illus. Brother John H. Glenn Jr". FreemasonsForDummies.com. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  174. ^ "On This Day In History : Astronaut John Glenn Rockets Into History". The Midnight Freemasons. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. 
  175. ^ Kupperberg 2003, p. 96.
  176. ^ "In space, John Glenn saw the face of God: "It just strengthens my faith"". Washington Post. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  177. ^ "John Glenn Says Evolution Should Be Taught In Schools". The Huffington Post. May 20, 2015. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2015. 
  178. ^ "Astronaut, Senator and Presbyterian John Glenn saw no conflict between beliefs in God and science". Religion News Service. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  179. ^ "The History of our Kissimmee Family Hotel". Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  180. ^ a b Kramer, Michael (January 31, 1983). "John Glenn: The Right Stuff". New York Magazine. p. 24. 
  181. ^ "John Glenn appears on Emmy-award winning 'Frasier'". Ohio State University. March 5, 2001. Archived from the original on May 14, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  182. ^ "Traditions". The Ohio State University Marching and Athletic Bands. Retrieved September 10, 2017. 
  183. ^ "Traditions". Ohio State University. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  184. ^ Franko, Kantele (February 20, 2012). "Armstrong honors Glenn 50 years after his orbit – NASA also surprised Glenn with space station chat". MSNBC. Archived from the original on February 21, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2012. 
  185. ^ Zongker, Brett (April 20, 2012). "Shuttle Discovery lands at Smithsonian". Philadelphia Daily News. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012. 
  186. ^ Berlinger, John Newsome; Berlinger, Joshua. "John Glenn—astronaut, ex-senator—gets successful heart surgery". CNN. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  187. ^ Strickland, Ashley (December 7, 2016). "Former Senator, astronaut John Glenn hospitalized". CNN. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  188. ^ "John Glenn, in declining health, is hospitalized". Cleveland Plain Dealer. December 7, 2016. Archived from the original on December 7, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  189. ^ "Former Senator, astronaut John Glenn in OSU hospital". Cincinnati Inquirer. December 7, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  190. ^ "Former astronaut John Glenn hospitalized in Columbus". Columbus Dispatch. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  191. ^ "John Glenn, First American to Orbit the Earth, Dies". ABC News. United States: ABC. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on December 8, 2016. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  192. ^ Dresbach, Jim (December 22, 2016). "John Glenn to be buried at ANC in April". The Pentagram. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  193. ^ Astronaut, Senator, Marine: John Glenn is buried in Arlington Cemetery Archived April 7, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
  194. ^ "Who were the Mercury 7?". Florida Today. December 8, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2018. 
  195. ^ Jowers, Karen (May 25, 2017). "John Glenn's remains were disrespected at the military's mortuary, Pentagon documents allege". Military Times. Archived from the original on May 27, 2017. 
  196. ^ Stevens, Matt (May 26, 2017). "Air Force Investigating Possible Mishandling of John Glenn's Remains". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2017. Mr. Zwicharowski said the mortuary had been holding Mr. Glenn’s body for several months ahead of a planned burial on April 6, Mr. Glenn’s wedding anniversary. So Mr. Zwicharowski said he merely offered to show subject-matter experts the techniques that had been used in the embalming process to preserve Mr. Glenn’s remains. 
  197. ^ Whitlock, Craig (May 26, 2017). "John Glenn's body rekindles military mortuary scandal". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 27, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2017. Zwicharowski said he did nothing improper by offering to let the inspectors view Glenn’s remains. He said his staff had further embalmed the body because Glenn’s funeral was still weeks away and wanted to show the inspectors their techniques. 
  198. ^ "Statement by the President on the Passing of John Glenn". The White House. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  199. ^ "President-elect Donald Trump honors the late John Glenn". Fox25. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016. 
  200. ^ "Hillary Clinton Marks Passing of John Glenn". The Salamanca Press. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2017. 
  201. ^ "John Glenn Memorialized with 'Godspeed' Radio Hail Turned Hashtag". Space.com. December 9, 2016. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  202. ^ Boyle, Alan (December 9, 2016). "Obama orders U.S. flags to fly at half staff to mark space hero John Glenn's passing". Geekwire.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  203. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (April 5, 2017). "A Proclamation by President Donald J. Trump Honoring the Memory of John Glenn". whitehouse.gov. Washington, D.C.: White House. Archived from the original on April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017. 
  204. ^ "Honoring the Memory of John Glenn". Federal Register. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. April 8, 2017. Archived from the original on April 9, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017. 
  205. ^ a b c d e "Death of John H. Glenn Jr., Retired Marine and U.S. Senator". Marine Corps. December 9, 2016. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2017. 
  206. ^ Pearlman, Robert (May 29, 2012). "President Obama Awards John Glenn with Medal of Freedom". space.com. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 10, 2017. 
  207. ^ "Astronautics and Aeronautics 1963" (PDF). NASA. p. 465. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  208. ^ "Hubbard Medal for John Glenn". Standard-Speaker. Hazleton, Pennsylvania. Associated Press. April 10, 1962. p. 16 – via Newspapers.com. 
  209. ^ Congressional Gold Medal to Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. 2000 Congressional Record, Vol. 146, Page H4714 (June 20, 2000). Accessed April 16, 2015.
  210. ^ "NASA Legends Awarded Congressional Gold Medal". NASA. November 16, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2018. 
  211. ^ "The Thomas D. White National Defense Award". Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. 
  212. ^ "John Glenn, Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation, has died". December 9, 2016. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. 
  213. ^ "Iven C Kincheloe Recipients". Society of Experimental Test Pilots. Retrieved February 6, 2018. 
  214. ^ "John Glenn receives an honorary doctorate in engineering from Nihon University". Ohio State University. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  215. ^ "John Glenn". Archived from the original on May 14, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  216. ^ "National Aviation Hall of fame: Our Enshrinees". National Aviation Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on March 12, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2011. 
  217. ^ "John Glenn". Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  218. ^ "National Winners | public service awards". Jefferson Awards.org. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2013. 
  219. ^ "Recipients of the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service". Wilson Center. Retrieved November 18, 2011. 
  220. ^ "John Glenn, First US Astronaut to Orbit the Earth, Dies at 95". Voice of America. December 8, 2016. Archived from the original on May 1, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  221. ^ "John H. Glenn Jr. Receives 2008 Theodore Roosevelt Award, the NCAA's Highest Honor". fs.ncaa.org. National Collegiate Athletic Association. December 3, 2007. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2017. 
  222. ^ "Honorary Degrees | Office of the President". Williams Office of the President. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  223. ^ Linkhorn, Tyrel (May 24, 2010). "Honorary doctorate degree for John Glenn". The Lima News. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2016. 
  224. ^ "51 Heroes of Aviation". Flying Magazine. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 
  225. ^ "Glenn Research Center". NASA. Archived from the original on January 21, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  226. ^ "Ohio airport renamed for original Mercury astronaut John Glenn". Collect Space. Archived from the original on February 5, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  227. ^ "John Glenn Tribute". East Muskingum Local Schools. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  228. ^ Zurick, Maura. "John Glenn elementary School demolished, making way for 22 houses (vintage photos)". Cleveland Plain Dealer. Archived from the original on October 29, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  229. ^ "Colonel Glenn Road honors astronaut John Glenn". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Retrieved May 19, 2018. 
  230. ^ "John Glenn High School". Wayne Westland Community Schools. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  231. ^ "John Glenn High School". John Glenn High School. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  232. ^ "John Glenn High School". Bangor Township Schools. June 2, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  233. ^ "John Glenn High School". John Glenn High School. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  234. ^ "John Glenn Middle School". Glenn Middle School. Archived from the original on February 13, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017. 
  235. ^ "John Glenn (T-ESD-2)". Naval Vessel Register. Retrieved 29 January 2017. 
  236. ^ "John Glenn honored as Columbus airport is renamed for him". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017. 
  237. ^ Victor, Daniel (September 12, 2016). "Meet New Glenn, the Blue Origin Rocket That May Someday Take You to Space". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2016. 
  238. ^ Dean, James (18 April 2017). "Atlas V launches SS John Glenn; en route to ISS". Florida Today. WTSP. 
  239. ^ "John H. Glenn Jr". Ohio State University. December 7, 2014. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2016. 
  240. ^ "Welcome to John Glenn College of Public Affairs". The Columbus Dispatch. February 4, 2015. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2015. 

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Fenno, Richard F, Jr (1990). The Presidential Odyssey of John Glenn. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. ISBN 978-0-87187-567-9. 
  • Shettle Jr., M. L. (2001). United States Marine Corps Air Stations of World War II. Bowersville, Georgia: Schaertel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9643388-2-1. 

External linksEdit

Party political offices
Preceded by
John J. Gilligan
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Ohio
(Class 3)

1974, 1980, 1986, 1992
Succeeded by
Mary O. Boyle
Preceded by
Reubin Askew
Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
1976
Served alongside: Barbara Jordan
Succeeded by
Mo Udall
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Howard Metzenbaum
United States Senator (Class 3) from Ohio
1974–1999
Served alongside: Robert Taft, Howard Metzenbaum, Mike DeWine
Succeeded by
George Voinovich
Preceded by
William Roth
Chair of Senate Governmental Affairs Committee
1987–1995
Succeeded by
William Roth
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Edward Brooke
Oldest living United States Senator
(sitting or former)

2015–2016
Succeeded by
Ernest Hollings