University of Iowa
The University of Iowa (also known as the UI, U of I, UIowa, or simply Iowa) is a flagship public research university in Iowa City, Iowa. Founded in 1847, it is the oldest and the second largest university in the state. The University of Iowa is organized into eleven colleges offering more than 200 areas of study and seven professional degrees.
|Endowment||$1.387 billion (2017)|
|President||Bruce Harreld |
|Provost||Susan Curry |
|Students||33,334 (Fall 2016)|
Iowa City, Iowa, U.S.|
Black and Gold|
|Athletics||NCAA Division I – Big Ten|
|Mascot||Herky the Hawk|
Located on an urban 1,880 acre campus on the banks of the Iowa River, the University of Iowa is classified as a Doctoral University with Highest Research Activity by the Carnegie Classifications. The university is best known for its programs in health care, law, and the fine arts, with programs ranking among the top 25 nationally in those areas. The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and the Stead Family Children's Hospital are ranked nationally by U.S. News and World Report in eleven specialties. The university was the original developer of the Master of Fine Arts degree and it operates the Iowa Writer's Workshop, which has produced 17 of the university's 46 Pulitzer Prize winners. Iowa is a member of the Association of American Universities, the Universities Research Association, and the Big Ten Academic Alliance.
Among American universities, the University of Iowa was the first public university to open as coeducational, opened the first coeducational medical school, opened the first Department of Religious Studies at a public university, and was the first university to officially recognize an LGBT student organization. The University of Iowa's 33,000 students take part in nearly 500 student organizations. Iowa's 22 varsity athletic teams, the Iowa Hawkeyes, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are members of the Big Ten Conference. The University of Iowa alumni network exceeds 250,000 graduates located around the globe.
The University of Iowa was founded on February 25, 1847, just 59 days after Iowa was admitted to the Union. The Constitution of the State of Iowa refers to a State University to be established in Iowa City "without branches at any other place." The legal name of the university is the State University of Iowa, but the Board of Regents approved using the "University of Iowa" for everyday usage in October 1964.
The first faculty offered instruction at the university beginning in March 1855 to students in the Old Mechanics Building, located where Seashore Hall is now. In September 1855, there were 124 students, of whom forty-one were women. The 1856–57 catalogue listed nine departments offering ancient languages, modern languages, intellectual philosophy, moral philosophy, history, natural history, mathematics, natural philosophy, and chemistry. The first president of the university was Amos Dean.
The original campus consisted of the Iowa Old Capitol Building and the 10 acres (40,000 m2) (4.05 hectares) of land on which it stood. Following the placing of the cornerstone July 4, 1840, the building housed the Fifth Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Iowa (December 5, 1842) and then became the first capitol building of the State of Iowa on December 28, 1846. Until that date, it had been the third capitol of the Territory of Iowa. When the capitol of Iowa was moved to Des Moines in 1857, the Old Capitol became the first permanent "home" of the University.
In 1855, Iowa became the first public university in the United States to admit men and women on an equal basis. In addition, Iowa was the world's first university to accept creative work in theater, writing, music, and art on an equal basis with academic research.
The university was one of the first institutions in America to grant a law degree to a woman (Mary B. Hickey Wilkinson, 1873), to grant a law degree to an African American (Alexander G. Clark, Jr. in 1879), and to put an African American on a varsity athletic squad (Frank Holbrook in 1895). The university offered its first doctorate in 1898.
The university was the first state university to recognize the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Allied Union (in 1970).
The University of Iowa established the first law school west of the Mississippi River. It was the first university to use television in education, in 1932, and it pioneered in the field of standardized testing. Also, the University of Iowa was the first Big Ten institution to promote an African American to the position of administrative vice president. (Phillip Hubbard, promoted in 1966)
A shooting took place on campus on November 1, 1991. Six people died in the shooting, including the perpetrator, and one other person was wounded. This was the fifth-deadliest university shooting in United States history, tied with a shooting at Northern Illinois University.
In the summer of 2008, flood waters breached the Coralville Reservoir spillway, damaging more than 20 major campus buildings. Several weeks after the flood waters receded university officials placed a preliminary estimate on flood damage at $231.75 million. Later, the university estimated that repairs would cost about $743 million.
In 2014, the Iowa Board of Regents proposed tying state funding largely to undergraduate resident enrollment, which would have shifted millions of dollars away from the UI to Iowa State University and the University of Northern Iowa. Iowa legislators ultimately did not support the plan.
In 2015, the Iowa Board of Regents selected Bruce Harreld, a business consultant with limited experience in academic administration, to succeed Sally Mason as president. The regents' choice of Harreld provoked criticism and controversy on the UI campus due to his corporate background, lack of history in leading an institution of higher education, and the circumstances related to the search process. The regents said they had based their decision on the belief that Harreld could limit costs and find new sources of revenue beyond tuition in an age of declining state support for universities.
In July 2016, the university took over the former AIB College of Business in Des Moines, where it operates the Iowa Center for Higher Education. Four bachelors' programs are offered in Des Moines; an additional four masters'-level programs are offered in Des Moines at the university's site in the city's Western Gateway Park.
The University of Iowa's main campus, located in Iowa City, was originally designed by architect D. Elwood Cook. The campus is roughly bordered by Park Road and U.S. Highway 6 to the north and Dubuque and Gilbert Streets to the east. The Iowa River flows through the campus, dividing it into west and east sides.
Of architectural note is the Pentacrest which reflects the Beaux-Arts in addition to Greek Revival architectural styles and the Collegiate Gothic architecture which is dominant in sections of the campus west of the Iowa River. The Pentacrest is at the center of the University of Iowa Campus and comprises five major campus buildings: Old Capitol, Schaeffer Hall, MacLean Hall, Macbride Hall, and Jessup Hall. The Old Capitol was once the home of the state legislature and the primary government building for the State of Iowa, but is now the symbolic heart of the university with a restored ceremonial legislative chamber and a museum of Iowa history.
Also on the eastern side of campus are six residence halls (Burge, Daum, Stanley, Currier, Mayflower, and Catlett), the Iowa Memorial Union, the Women's Resource & Action Center, the Pappajohn Business Building, Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, the Lindquist Center (home of the College of Education), Phillips Hall (the foreign language building), Van Allen Hall (home to physics and astronomy), Trowbridge Hall (home to Earth & Environmental Sciences, as well as the Iowa Geological Survey), the English-Philosophy Building, the Becker Communication Building, the Adler Journalism Building, Voxman Music Building, and the buildings for biology, chemistry, and psychology. The Main Library can also be found on the east side.
The Colleges of Law, Medicine, Nursing, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Public Health are on the western side of the Iowa River, along with the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and the Theatre Building. Additionally, five residence halls (Hillcrest, Slater, Rienow, Parklawn, and Petersen), Kinnick Stadium, and Carver-Hawkeye Arena are located on the west campus.
The campus is home to several museums, including the University of Iowa Museum of Art, the Museum of Natural History, the Old Capitol Museum, the Medical Museum, the Athletic Hall of Fame and Museum, and Project Art at the University Hospitals and Clinics.
The flood of 2008 had a major impact on a number of campus buildings, forcing many buildings to temporarily close. The Iowa Memorial Union was closed for a period of time, and the ground floor of this building underwent a major renovation to repair the damage. The arts campus, which included Hancher Auditorium, Voxman, Clapp Recital Hall, and the Theatre Building, was hit especially hard.
The Theatre Building has since reopened, but the music facilities have not. Music classes were for a short time held in temporary trailers, and now music classrooms are spread throughout campus. A University task force suggested to state regents that Hancher be rebuilt near its current site on the West bank of the Iowa River and Voxman and Clapp be built nearer to the main campus on South Clinton Street. The new Hancher Auditorium officially opened its doors to the public on September 9, 2016, while the new Voxman Music Building opened its doors for classes and public visitors on August 22, 2016.
The University of Iowa is one of the EPA's Green Power Partners, burning oat hulls instead of coal and reducing coal consumption by 20%. In May 2004 the university joined the Chicago Climate Exchange and in April 2009 a student garden was opened.
The University also offers a Certificate in Sustainability through the Office of Sustainability (OS). The OS recently coordinated the University's first sustainability plan: "2020 Vision UIowa Sustainability Targets" proposed by UI President Sally Mason on October 29, 2010.
Organization and administrationEdit
|Carver College of Medicine|
|College of Dentistry|
|College of Education|
|College of Engineering|
|College of Law|
|College of Liberal Arts and Sciences|
|College of Nursing|
|College of Pharmacy|
|College of Public Health|
|Tippie College of Business|
The Iowa Board of Regents, a statewide body, governs the University of Iowa, as well as the state's two public universities (Iowa State University and the University of Northern Iowa) and certain other institutions. Created by the Iowa General Assembly in 1909, the Board of Regents is composed of nine volunteer members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Iowa Senate to serve staggered six-year terms. The Iowa Boards of Regents hires the president of the University of Iowa, and the university president reports to the Board. The 21st and current president of the University of Iowa is Bruce Harreld, who has served since November 2, 2015.
The University of Iowa is regularly recognized as one of the top institutions of higher learning in the country, and over 5,000 courses are offered at the university each year. Iowa is one of 61 elected members to the Association of American Universities. The university is home to ISCABBS, a public bulletin board system that was the world's largest Internet community prior to the commercialization of the world wide web.
The Iowa Writers' Workshop was founded in 1936. Since 1947 it has produced thirteen Pulitzer Prize winners. Twenty-five people affiliated with the Writers' Workshop have won a Pulitzer Prize. The Hanson Center for Technical Communication was founded at The University of Iowa and is named after a 1960 graduate, Thomas R. Hanson who has funded the institution with $800,000.
The university has educated many of the state's professionals including 79% of Iowa's dentists, 50% of Iowa's physicians, 48% of Iowa's pharmacists, as well as teachers and administrators in each of the state's K–12 school districts.
The University of Iowa library system is the state's largest library and comprises the Main Library, the Hardin Library for the Health Sciences, five branch libraries, and the Law Library. The university library holdings include more than five million bound volumes, more than 200,000 rare books and 1000 historical manuscript collections. Significant holdings include the John Martin Medical Rare Book Library, the Iowa Women's Archives, the Louis Szathmary culinary arts collections, science fiction collections, and works of Walt Whitman. The comic books collection in the Special Collections contains original art for 6,000 cartoons, film and television scripts, zines and other underground or amateur publications, as well as mainstream books, from throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
|U.S. News & World Report||82|
|U.S. News & World Report||130|
For 2017, University of Iowa was ranked tied for 82nd among national universities, tied for 33rd among public universities, and tied for 130th among global universities by U.S. News & World Report.
For 2017, U.S. News & World Report ranked 16 University of Iowa graduate programs among the top 25 in the nation. In graduate school rankings for 2017, U.S. News & World Report ranked Iowa's Carver College of Medicine tied for 25th in the country for primary care and tied for 33rd in the country for research, its College of Public Health tied for 17th, its College of Pharmacy tied for 17th, its College of Law tied for 20th, and its Nursing School tied for 23rd.
- Institute of Agricultural Medicine. The Institute of Agricultural Medicine was established in 1955 with a grant from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation as an institute to study rural public health issues. It was later renamed to the Institute of Agricultural Medicine and Occupational Health.
- IIHR – Hydroscience & Engineering (Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research). IHR—Hydroscience & Engineering is a world-renowned center for education, research, and public service focusing on hydraulic engineering and fluid mechanics. Based in the C. Maxwell Stanley Hydraulics Laboratory, a five-story red brick building on the banks of the Iowa River, IIHR is a unit of the University of Iowa’s College of Engineering. Because of its contributions to water’s study and use, the American Society of Civil Engineers recognized the Stanley Hydraulics Lab as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The ASCE distinguishes the lab as the "oldest university-based hydraulics laboratory in the nation continuously focusing on research and education in hydraulic engineering".
- Public Policy Center. The Public Policy Center (PPC) is an interdisciplinary academic research center investigating six policy areas: Environmental, Health, Housing & Land Use, Human Factors & Vehicle Safety, Social Science, and Transportation. The University of Iowa Public Policy Center (PPC) was founded in 1987 by David Forkenbrock, Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, as a freestanding unit in the Office of the Vice President for Research. The PPC's original focus was Transportation Policy research, followed by Health Policy research (1990), and Human Factors and Vehicle Safety research (1996).
There are also over 500 student organizations, including groups focused on politics, sports, games, lifestyles, dance, song, and theater, and a variety of other activities. The University also tries to sponsor events that give students an alternative to the typical drinking scene. In 2004 the University established an annual $25,000 contract with the newly reopened Iowa City Englert Theatre to host concerts and performances for as many as 40 nights a year. Students participate in a variety of student media organizations. For example, students edit and manage The Daily Iowan newspaper (often called the DI), which is printed every Monday through Friday while classes are in session. An early editor of the DI was noted pollster George Gallup. Daily Iowan TV, KRUI Radio, Student Video Productions, Off Deadline magazine and Earthwords magazine are other examples of student-run media.
The University of Iowa has 22 varsity athletic teams, known as the Hawkeyes. All teams are members of the Big Ten Conference in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I. There are 10 men's teams and 12 women's teams.
The most successful team at Iowa is the men's wrestling team, who have won 23 of the school's 25 NCAA championships. 15 of those championships occurred during Dan Gable's 21-year tenure as head coach (1977-1997). They have 35 Big Ten titles, 81 individual NCAA Titles, and have graduated 17 Olympians. The team is currently coached by alumnus Tom Brands.
Iowa's football team is one of the most financially valuable college football teams in the country. They have won 11 Big Ten championships and claim a share of the 1958 national championship. The program has produced 10 members of the College Football Hall of Fame, 24 consensus first-team All-Americans, and 245 NFL Draft Picks. The team is currently coached by Kirk Ferentz, who has completed his 19th year following coach Hayden Fry, who coached the previous 20 seasons.
The Iowa Hawkeyes field hockey team is the most successful women's team at the university, winning the 1986 national championship. They have won 13 conference titles and have made 11 Final Four appearances in the 33-year history of the NCAA tournament, despite field hockey not being a high school sport in Iowa. The program has produced 85 All-Americans and 13 Olympians. The program is currently coached by Lisa Celluci.
Other sports at the university include basketball, soccer, baseball, softball, gymnastics, golf, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, volleyball, cross country, and rowing. Most of the school's athletic facilities are located on the west end of campus. The largest venue is the 70,585-seat Kinnick Stadium, home to the football program. Opening in 1929 as Iowa Stadium, it was renamed in 1977 after Nile Kinnick, winner of the 1939 Heisman Trophy. The basketball, wrestling, gymnastics, and volleyball teams play at Carver-Hawkeye Arena, which seats 15,400. Other venues include the Beckwith Boathouse, Duane Banks Field, and the old Iowa Fieldhouse.
Notable alumni and facultyEdit
Among the thousands of graduates from the University of Iowa, especially notable alumni include George Gallup, founder of the Gallup Poll, BA, 1923; Tennessee Williams, author of "A Streetcar Named Desire" and "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" BA, 1938; Gene Wilder, Comedic film and television actor whose credits include "Silver Streak," "Young Frankenstein," and "Stir Crazy" BA, 1955, Communication and Theatre Arts; Andre Tippett, NFL Hall of Fame linemacker; James Van Allen, world-famous physicist and discoverer of two radiation belts (the Van Allen Belts) that surround the earth, Emeritus Carver Professor of Physics at the University of Iowa. MS, 1936; PhD, 1939, Physics; (Mary) Flannery O'Connor, novelist and author of numerous short stories, MFA, 1947, English; Sarai Sherman, a twentieth century modernist painter whose work is in major national and international collections including MoMA, the Whitney Museum of American Art; and the Hirshhorn Museum; and John Irving, novelist who wrote The World According to Garp, A Prayer for Owen Meany, and several others, MFA, 1967, English. Jewel Prestage, the first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in political science graduated with a master's and doctorate in 1954. Tom Brokaw, Mark Mattson and Ashton Kutcher also attended the University of Iowa.
- As of June 30, 2017. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY2016 to FY2017". National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2017.
- "Bruce Harreld named 21st president". Iowa Now.
- "P. Barry Butler Executive Vice President and Provost". The University of Iowa. Archived from the original on June 27, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "ISU sets enrollment record UI see largest ever freshman class". press-citizen.com. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- "University of Iowa, Iowa State look to dial down enrollment growth - The Gazette".
- "Color Palette". University of Iowa Brand Manual. University of Iowa. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- "University of Iowa". Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- "University of Iowa". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
- "Carnegie classification". Carnegie Classifications of Institutions of Higher Education. Indiana University. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "2017 Best Medical Schools (Primary Care)". US News & World Report. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "2018 Best Law Schools". US News & World Report Best Grad Schools. US News & World Report. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics". US News & World Report Best Hospitals. US News & World Report. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- "UI Pulitzer Prize Winners". University of Iowa Center for Advancement. University of Iowa. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- "Resource Guide to University Firsts". University of Iowa Libraries Special Collections. University of Iowa. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- "About OrgSynce". OrgSync. University of Iowa. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- McCartney, David. "University Archivist". The University of Iowa Spectator. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Board of Regents minutes, October 21–24, 1964, pages 170-171
- "University of Iowa Firsts". Archived from the original on 2006-05-15.
- "About Iowa – The University of Iowa". Archived from the original on 2005-04-07.
- "Flood Mitigation Task Force forum to offer updates, seek input". University of Iowa. 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Still coming back from the flood". The Daily Iowan. 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Iowa City and Shenzhen, designated as UNESCO Creative Cities". UNESCO. 2008. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "Iowa City Designated as UNESCO City of Literature". University of Iowa. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-12-25. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Kelderman, Eric; Mcintire, Mary Ellen (2015-09-04). "A Controversial Search Ends With a Controversial Chief for the U. of Iowa". The Chronicle of Higher Education. ISSN 0009-5982. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- "University of Iowa Liberal arts college faculty rebukes new president | The Gazette". The Gazette. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- Vara, Vauhini (2015-09-10). "Do Businesspeople Make Good University Presidents?". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- "Regents acted 'in bad faith' in University of Iowa president search, AAUP concludes | The Gazette". The Gazette. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- "AIB to be a regent center, not UI branch campus". Des Moines Register. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- "Regents sign off on AIB gifting campus to UI". Iowa City Press-Citizen. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- "Regents seek review of AIB campus, consider other DM sites for center - Business Record". Business Record. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- "Consultant: AIB campus not the 'most positive' location for new Regents Resource Center | The Gazette". The Gazette. Retrieved 2016-06-04.
- "Green Power Partners". US Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on May 8, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
- "UI President Mason announces strengthened sustainability focus for university". UI News. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
- "Examples of Sustainability Practices and Initiatives". University of Iowa. Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
- "New Student Garden opens on UI west campus". University of Iowa. Retrieved June 8, 2009.
- "Certificate in Sustainability".
- "University of Iowa Office of Sustainability". Uiowa. Archived from the original on 2010-11-07. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- "University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine". Healthcare.uiowa.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 26, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- "administration-historical-chronology - College of Dentistry and Dental Clinics". www.dentistry.uiowa.edu.
- "Law School History and Milestones - College of Law". law.uiowa.edu.
- "Home - School of Art and Art History- The University of Iowa". Clas.uiowa.edu. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "About the College". April 15, 2011.
- "Special Collections & University Archives - The University of Iowa Libraries222". www.lib.uiowa.edu.
- "Our History - The University of Iowa College of Pharmacy". pharmacy.uiowa.edu.
- "FAQ - Board of Regents State of Iowa". www.regents.iowa.gov.
- "Handbook - president.uiowa.edu". president.uiowa.edu.
- "Bruce Harreld named 21st president". September 3, 2015.
- "UIF News: UI engineering graduate endows Center for Technical Communication". May 5, 2004. Archived from the original on May 5, 2004.
- "Special Collections & University Archives - The University of Iowa Libraries222". www.lib.uiowa.edu. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "Comics Research Libraries". comics.lib.msu.edu. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017: USA". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. July 5, 2016.
- "Best Colleges 2017: National Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. September 12, 2016.
- "2016 Rankings - National Universities". Washington Monthly. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
- "QS World University Rankings® 2018". Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "World University Rankings 2016-17". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2017". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- "U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
- "National Science Foundation Rankings". Retrieved 17 January 2015.
- Tjalma, RA (1958). "1958 report on the Institute of Agricultural Medicine" (PDF). Public Health Rep. 73: 615–8. doi:10.2307/4590204. PMC . PMID 13568013.
- "IIHR History". Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- "About University of Iowa". Public Policy Center History. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- "Top Party Schools: Princeton Review Releases 2013-14 Rankings". The Huffington Post. August 6, 2013.
- "Late Night At Iowa". Iowa City Owl. January 5, 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-02-11. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "University Of Iowa And Englert Civic Theatre Reach Use Agreement". University News Service – The University of Iowa. July 22, 2004. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- "2014-15 Iowa Wrestling Media Guide". Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Gaines, Cork. "The 25 schools that make the most money in college football 2013". Business Insider. Business Insider. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Winsipedia - Iowa Hawkeyes football all-time record, wins, and statistics". Winsipedia.
- "Big Ten Field Hockey Record Book" (PDF). bigten.org. Big Ten Conference. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 24, 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Eleven Big Ten Players Earn NFHCA All-America Honors". BTN.com. Big Ten Network. December 1, 2014. Archived from the original on December 5, 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- "Campus Zone Map". The University of Iowa. Archived from the original on August 14, 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Kinnick Stadium". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "Carver-Hawkeye Arena". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "Notable University of Iowa Alums". Archived from the original on January 7, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Lena M. Hill and Michael D. Hill, Invisible Hawkeyes: African Americans at the University of Iowa during the Long Civil Rights Era. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press, 2016.