Barbara Charline Jordan (February 21, 1936 – January 17, 1996) was an American lawyer, educator and politician who was a leader of the Civil Rights Movement. A Democrat, she was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction, the first Southern African-American woman elected to the United States House of Representatives. She was best known for her eloquent opening statement at the House Judiciary Committee hearings during the impeachment process against Richard Nixon, and as the first African-American woman to deliver a keynote address at a Democratic National Convention. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, among numerous other honors. She was a member of the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors from 1978 to 1980. She was the first African-American woman to be buried in the Texas State Cemetery.
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 18th district
January 3, 1973 – January 3, 1979
|Preceded by||Bob Price|
|Succeeded by||Mickey Leland|
|Member of the Texas Senate
from the 11th district
January 10, 1967 – January 3, 1973
|Preceded by||Bill Moore|
|Succeeded by||Chet Brooks|
|Born||Barbara Charline Jordan
February 21, 1936
Houston, Texas, U.S.
|Died||January 17, 1996 (aged 59)
Austin, Texas, U.S.
|Domestic partner||Nancy Earl (late 1960s–1996)|
|Education||Texas Southern University (BA)
Boston University (LLB)
Barbara Charline Jordan was born in Houston, Texas's Fourth Ward. Jordan's childhood centered on church life. Her mother was Arlyne Patten Jordan, a teacher in the church, and her father was Benjamin Jordan, a Baptist preacher. Barbara Jordan was the youngest of 3 children, with siblings Rosemary Jordan McGowan and Bennie Jordan Creswell (d. 2000). Jordan attended Roberson Elementary School. She graduated from Phillis Wheatley High School in 1952 with honors.
Jordan credited a speech she heard in her high school years by Edith S. Sampson with inspiring her to become a lawyer. Because of segregation, she could not attend The University of Texas at Austin and instead chose Texas Southern University, an historically-black institution, majoring in political science and history. At Texas Southern University, Jordan was a national champion debater, defeating opponents from Yale and Brown and tying Harvard University. She graduated magna cum laude in 1956. At Texas Southern University, she pledged Delta Sigma Theta sorority. She attended Boston University School of Law, graduating in 1959.
Jordan campaigned unsuccessfully in 1962 and 1964 for the Texas House of Representatives. She won a seat in the Texas Senate in 1966, becoming the first African-American state senator since 1883 and the first black woman to serve in that body. Re-elected to a full term in the Texas Senate in 1968, she served until 1972. She was the first African-American female to serve as president pro tem of the state senate and served one day, June 10, 1972, as acting governor of Texas. To date Jordan is the only African-American woman to serve as governor of a state (excluding lieutenant governors). During her time in the Texas Legislature, Jordan sponsored or cosponsored some 70 bills.
In 1972, she was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, the first woman in her own right to represent Texas in the House. She received extensive support from former President Lyndon B. Johnson, who helped her secure a position on the House Judiciary Committee. In 1974, she made an influential televised speech before the House Judiciary Committee supporting the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, Johnson's successor as President. In 1975, she was appointed by Carl Albert, then Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, to the Democratic Steering and Policy Committee.
In 1976, Jordan, mentioned as a possible running mate to Jimmy Carter of Georgia, became instead the first African-American woman to deliver a keynote address at the Democratic National Convention. Despite not being a candidate, Jordan received one delegate vote (0.03%) for President at the Convention.
Jordan retired from politics in 1979 and became an adjunct professor teaching ethics at the University of Texas at Austin Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs. She was again a keynote speaker at the Democratic National Convention in 1992.
In 1994 and until her death in 1996, Jordan chaired the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, which advocated increased restriction of immigration, increased penalties on employers that violated U.S. immigration regulations. While she was Chair of the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform she argued that "it is both a right and a responsibility of a democratic society to manage immigration so that it serves the national interest." Opponents of modern U.S. immigration policy have cited her willingness to penalize employers who violate U.S. immigration regulations, tighten border security, oppose amnesty for illegal immigrants, harm to US citizens in jobs and employment from cheaper illegal alien workers,, and clear process for the deportation of legal immigrants. In 1994, Clinton awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom and The NAACP presented her with the Spingarn Medal. She was honored many times and was given over 20 honorary degrees from institutions across the country, including Harvard and Princeton, and was elected to the Texas and National Women's Halls of Fame.
Statement on the Articles of ImpeachmentEdit
On July 25, 1974, Texas Representative Barbara Jordan delivered a 15-minute televised speech in front of the members of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee. She presented an opening speech during the hearings that were part of the impeachment process against Richard Nixon. This speech is thought to be one of the best speeches of the 20th century. Throughout her speech, Jordan strongly stood by the Constitution of the United States of America. She defended the checks and balances system, which was set in place to inhibit any politician from abusing their power. Jordan never flat out said that she wanted Nixon impeached, but rather subtly and cleverly implied her thoughts. She simply stated facts that proved Nixon to be untrustworthy and heavily involved in illegal situations., and quoted statements from by the drafters of the Constitution in order to argue that that actions like Nixon's during the scandal corresponded with their understanding of impeachable offenses"Statement on the Articles of Imepeachment". She protested that the Watergate scandal will forever ruin the trust American citizens have for their government. One of the reasons Nixon resigned over the Watergate scandal was because of this speech.[dubious ] This powerful and influential statement earned Jordan national praise for her rhetoric, morals, and wisdom.
Jordan supported the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, legislation that required banks to lend and make services available to underserved poor and minority communities. She supported the renewal of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and expansion of that act to cover language minorities; this extended protection to Hispanics in Texas and was opposed by Texas Governor Dolph Briscoe and Secretary of State Mark White. She also authored an act that ended federal authorization of price fixing by manufacturers. During Jordan's tenure as a Congresswoman she sponsored or cosponsored over 300 bills or resolutions, several of which are still in effect today as law.
Jordan's companion of approximately twenty years was Nancy Earl, an educational psychologist, whom she met on a camping trip in the late 1960s. Jordan's sexual orientation has never been determined, but some sources list her as a lesbian. She would have been the first lesbian known to have been elected to the United States Congress. Earl was an occasional speech writer for Jordan, and later was a caregiver when Jordan began to suffer from multiple sclerosis in 1973. In the KUT radio documentary Rediscovering Barbara Jordan, President Bill Clinton said that he wanted to nominate Jordan for the United States Supreme Court, but by the time he could do so, Jordan's health problems prevented him from nominating her. Jordan later also suffered from leukemia.
In 1988, Jordan nearly drowned in her backyard swimming pool while doing physical therapy, but she was saved by Earl who found her floating in the pool and revived her.
Jordan died at the age of 59 due to complications from pneumonia on January 17, 1996, in Austin, Texas.
Recognition and legacyEdit
- 1984: Inducted into the Texas Women's Hall of Fame.
- 1990: Inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame
- 1992: The Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.
- 1993: The Elizabeth Blackwell Award from Hobart and William Smith Colleges.
- 1994: The Presidential Medal of Freedom.
- 1995: The second ever female awardee of the United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award.
Her 1976 DNC keynote address was listed as #5 in American Rhetoric's Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century (listed by rank).
Namesakes in TexasEdit
The main terminal at Austin-Bergstrom International Airport is named after Jordan, as well as a boulevard in central Austin. Several schools bear Jordan's name, including an elementary school in Odessa, Texas, and Austin, Texas, Barbara Jordan Early College Prep School, an elementary school in Richmond, Texas, Barbara Jordan Elementary School, a middle school in Cibolo, Texas, and Barbara Jordan High School in Houston. The Kaiser Family Foundation currently operates the Barbara Jordan Health Policy Scholars, a fellowship designed for people of color who are college juniors, seniors, and recent graduates as a summer experience working in a congressional office.
In 2000, the Jordan/Rustin Coalition (JRC) was created in Jordan's honor. The organization mobilized gay and lesbian African Americans to aid in the passage of marriage equality in the state of California. Along with Bayard Rustin, a civil rights leader and close confidante of Martin Luther King, Jr., Barbara Jordan is remembered for her advocacy of progressive politics. According to its website, "the mission [of the JRC] is to empower Black same-gender loving, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals and families in Greater Los Angeles, to promote equal marriage rights and to advocate for fair treatment of everyone without regard to race, sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression."
On March 27, 2000, a play based on Jordan's life premiered at the Victory Garden Theater in Chicago, Illinois. Titled, "Voice of Good Hope", Kristine Thatcher's biographical evocation of Jordan's life played in theaters from San Francisco to New York.
On April 24, 2009, a Barbara Jordan statue was unveiled at the University of Texas at Austin, where Jordan taught at the time of her death. The Barbara Jordan statue campaign was paid for by a student fee increase approved by the University of Texas Board of Regents. The effort was originally spearheaded by the 2002–2003 Tappee class of the Texas Orange Jackets, the "oldest women's organization at the University" (of Texas at Austin).
In 2011, actor/playwright Jade Esteban Estrada portrayed Jordan in the solo musical comedy ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World, Vol. 5 which includes the song "Nancy's Eyes" sung by the character of Jordan with music and lyrics by Estrada.
The Barbara Jordan Media Awards are given annually to media professionals and students who "have produced material for the public which accurately and positively reports on individuals with disabilities, using People First language and respectful depictions."
There is also the Barbara Jordan Public-Private Leadership Award.
- Finkelman, Paul (2009). Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-First Century. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–61. ISBN 978-0-19-516779-5.
- Clines, Francis X. "Barbara Jordan Dies at 59; Her Voice Stirred the Nation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
- "JORDAN, Barbara Charline | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
- The Peabody Awards - George Foster Peabody Awards Board Members
- "Barbara Jordan". Humanities Texas. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
[...] When she died, in 1996, her burial in the Texas State Cemetery marked yet another first: she was the first black woman interred there. [...]
- Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 24267). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition
- "Barbara Jordan". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 2009-05-23. at Beejae.com
- "Profile: Barbara Jordan (1936–1996)". Archived from the original on November 14, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-23. at Human Rights Campaign
- Ross, Irwin (February 1977). "Barbara Jordan-New Voice in Washington". The Reader's Digest: 148–152.
- "Stateswoman Barbara Jordan – A Closeted Lesbian". Planet Out. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
- Barbara Jordan Papers, Special Collections, Texas Southern University, October 15, 2015.
- "Barbara C. Jordan". History.com. 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- "Our Campaigns - US President - D Convention Race - Jul 12, 1976". Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "The U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform". Utexas.edu. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Cassidy, Peter. "We have your number: the push for a national ID card." The Progressive, December 1, 1994. However that is at odds to what the Jordan Commission says its report recommended, "Unfortunately, they have also been misrepresented as a national ID card. What the Commission has recommended is a measured approach to the development of a new system for verifying that individuals are authorized to work in the United States-that is all" (Jordan testimony before Congress on Sept 29, 1994). "The U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, headed by widely respected former Texas Congresswoman Barbara Jordan, turned in its long-awaited recommendations in September, and among them was one that could severely curb traditional American freedoms," according to open border supporters. Clinton endorsed the Jordan Commission's proposals. President Clinton said the proposals “reflect a balanced immigration policy that makes the most of our diversity while protecting the American work force so that we can better compete in the emerging global economy.”
- Pear, Robert. "Clinton Embraces a Proposal to Cut Immigration by a Third." The New York Times. Accessed May 13, 2008.
- "Testimony of Barbara Jordan, February 24, 1995". Utexas.edu. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Barbara C. Jordan Profile", The History Channel, A&E Television Networks, LLC. 1996-2013. Accessed October 5, 2013.
- "American Rhetoric: Top 100 Speeches", American Rhetoric Website, 2001-2013. Accessed 5 October 2013.
- "Mr. Newman's Digital Rhetorical Symposium: Barbara Jordan: Statement on the Articles of Impeachment, Newman Rhetoric Blogging Website, 2010. Accessed 5 October 2013.
- Cite error: The named reference
historywas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Books: Two Biographies on Barbara Jordan". www.austinchronicle.com. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
- "In a life of firsts, Barbara Jordan won a lasting legacy". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
- "Barbara Jordan". About.com Dating & Relationships. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
- "Barbara Jordan - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Questioning, and Allied Resource Office - UIS". www.uis.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
- Transcript of Rediscovering Barbara Jordan Archived July 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., KUT.org, February 8, 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- "Barbara Jordan is hospitalized". nytimes.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "Barbara Jordan dies at 59". nytimes.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "NAACP Spingarn Medal". Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
- "Barbara Jordan Sylvanus Thayer Award". Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- Michael E. Eidenmuller (2009-02-13). "Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century by Rank". American Rhetoric. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- Michael E. Eidenmuller (1974-07-25). "Barbara Jordan - Statement on House Judiciary Proceedings to Impeach President Richard Nixon". American Rhetoric. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
- Thatcher, Kristine (2004). Voice of Good Hope. Dramatists Play Service, Inc. ISBN 0-8222-1960-3.
- Siegel, Naomi. "THEATER REVIEW; She Had a Voice That Resonates Still", The New York Times, November 24, 2002. Retrieved November 20, 2008.
- Sanders, Joshunda (April 20, 2009). "Jordan's statue to grace UT campus: Dedication of Barbara Jordan statue on Friday will include a weeklong celebration". Statesman.com. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "Stamp honors political trailblazer Barbara Jordan". ABC13 Houston. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
- Victor Salvo // The Legacy Project. "2012 INDUCTEES". Retrieved November 29, 2014.
- Office of the Governor - Greg Abbott: Committee on People with Disabilities - Barbara Jordan Media Awards
- The Honorable Hillary Rodham Clinton Receives Barbara Jordan Public Private Leadership Award
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Barbara Jordan|
- United States Congress. "Barbara Jordan (id: J000266)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Jordan's Statement on the Articles of Impeachment During the Nixon Impeachment Hearings in Text and Audio from AmericanRhetoric.com
- Jordan's 1976 Democratic National Convention Keynote Address in Text and Audio from AmericanRhetoric.com
- Jordan's 1992 Democratic National Convention Address in Text and Audio from AmericanRhetoric.com
- Barbara Jordan, Governor of Texas for a day, program of ceremonies, June 10, 1972, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
- Interview with Max Sherman, editor of Barbara Jordan – Speaking the Truth with Eloquent Thunder on kaisernetwork.org
- Oral History Interviews with Barbara Jordan, from the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library
- The Texas Experience - Barbara Jordan Presents Lyndon Baines Johnson , from the Texas Archive of the Moving Image
- Special Collections, Texas Southern University
|Member of the Texas Senate
from the 11th district
|U.S. House of Representatives|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 18th congressional district
|Party political offices|
|Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
Served alongside: John Glenn
|Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
Served alongside: Bill Bradley, Zell Miller