Dame Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell //; née Bell; born 15 July 1943) is an astrophysicist from Northern Ireland who, as a postgraduate student, discovered the first radio pulsars in 1967. The discovery eventually earned the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1974; however, she was not one of the prize's recipients.(
Jocelyn Bell Burnell
Susan Jocelyn Bell
15 July 1943
|Known for||Co-discovering the first four pulsars|
(m. 1968; div. 1993)
|Thesis||The Measurement of radio source diameters using a diffraction method (1968)|
|Doctoral advisor||Antony Hewish|
The paper announcing the discovery of pulsars had five authors. Bell's thesis supervisor Antony Hewish was listed first, Bell second. Hewish was awarded the Nobel Prize, along with the astronomer Martin Ryle. At the time fellow astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle criticised Bell's omission. In 1977, Bell Burnell commented, "I believe it would demean Nobel Prizes if they were awarded to research students, except in very exceptional cases, and I do not believe this is one of them." She would later state that "the fact that I was a graduate student and a woman, together, demoted my standing in terms of receiving a Nobel prize." The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in its press release announcing the prize, cited Ryle and Hewish for their pioneering work in radio-astrophysics, with particular mention of Ryle's work on aperture-synthesis technique and Hewish's decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.
Bell Burnell was president of the Royal Astronomical Society from 2002 to 2004, president of the Institute of Physics from October 2008 until October 2010, and interim president of the Institute following the death of her successor, Marshall Stoneham, in early 2011.
In 2018, she was awarded the Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics. Following the announcement of the award, she decided to use the $3 million (£2.3 million) prize money to establish a fund to help female, minority and refugee students become physics researchers. The fund is administered by the Institute of Physics. In 2021, Bell Burnell became the second female recipient (after Dorothy Hodgkin in 1976) of the Copley Medal.
Early life and educationEdit
Bell Burnell was born in Lurgan, Northern Ireland to M. Allison and G. Philip Bell. Their country home was called "Solitude" and she grew up there with her younger brother and two younger sisters. Her father was an architect who helped design the Armagh Planetarium, and during her visits there, the staff encouraged her to pursue a career in astronomy. She also enjoyed her father's books on astronomy.
She grew up in Lurgan and attended the Preparatory Department[a] of Lurgan College from 1948 to 1956. At the time, boys could study technical subjects, but girls were expected to study subjects such as cooking and cross-stitching. Bell Burnell was able to study science only after her parents and others challenged the school's policies.
She failed the eleven-plus exam and her parents sent her to The Mount School, a Quaker girls' boarding school in York, England, where she graduated from in 1961. There she was favourably impressed by her physics teacher, Mr. Tillott, and stated:
You do not have to learn lots and lots ... of facts; you just learn a few key things, and ... then you can apply and build and develop from those ... He was a really good teacher and showed me, actually, how easy physics was.
Career and researchEdit
She graduated from the University of Glasgow with a Bachelor of Science degree in Natural Philosophy (physics), with honours, in 1965 and obtained a PhD degree from the University of Cambridge in 1969. At Cambridge, she attended New Hall, Cambridge, and worked with Hewish and others to construct[b] the Interplanetary Scintillation Array just outside Cambridge to study quasars, which had recently been discovered.[c]
On 28 November 1967, she detected a "bit of scruff" on her chart-recorder papers that tracked across the sky with the stars. The signal had been visible in data taken in August, but as the papers had to be checked by hand, it took her three months to find it. She established that the signal was pulsing with great regularity, at a rate of about one pulse every one and a third seconds. Temporarily dubbed "Little Green Man 1" (LGM-1) the source (now known as PSR B1919+21) was identified after several years as a rapidly rotating neutron star. This was later documented by the BBC Horizon series. In a 2020 lecture at Harvard, she related how the media was covering the discovery of pulsars, with interviews taking a standard "disgusting" format: Hewish would be asked on the astrophysics, and she would be the "human interest" part, asked about vital statistics, how many boyfriends she had, what colour is her hair, and asked to undo some buttons for the photographs. The Daily Telegraph science reporter shortened "pulsating radio source" to pulsar.
She worked at the University of Southampton between 1968 and 1973, University College London from 1974 to 82 and the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (1982–91). From 1973 to 1987 she was a tutor, consultant, examiner, and lecturer for the Open University. In 1986, she became the project manager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, a position she held until 1991. She was Professor of Physics at the Open University from 1991 to 2001. She was also a visiting professor at Princeton University in the United States and Dean of Science at the University of Bath (2001–04), and President of the Royal Astronomical Society between 2002 and 2004.
Bell Burnell is currently a visiting Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Mansfield College. She was President of the Institute of Physics between 2008 and 2010. In February 2018 she was appointed Chancellor of the University of Dundee. In 2018, Bell Burnell visited Parkes, NSW, to deliver the keynote John Bolton lecture at the Central West Astronomical Society (CWAS) AstroFest event.
In 2018, she was awarded the Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, worth three million dollars (£2.3 million), for her discovery of radio pulsars. The Special Prize, in contrast to the regular annual prize, is not restricted to recent discoveries. She donated all of the money "to fund women, under-represented ethnic minority and refugee students to become physics researchers", the funds to be administered by the Institute of Physics.
Issued in July 2022, Ulster Bank's new science-themed polymer £50 bank note prominently features Bell Burnell alongside other women, including those working in NI's life sciences industry. She said, "I'm passionate about encouraging more women to pursue scientific careers and I think it's something that is very important for Northern Ireland. There is a burgeoning scientific sector here. More women pursuing careers in science will support that ongoing growth."
Nobel Prize controversyEdit
Controversially, Bell did not receive recognition in the 1974 Nobel Prize in Physics. She helped build the Interplanetary Scintillation Array over two years and initially noticed the anomaly, sometimes reviewing as much as 96 feet (29 m) of paper data per night. Bell later said that she had to be persistent in reporting the anomaly in the face of scepticism from Hewish, who initially insisted it was due to interference and man-made. She spoke of meetings held by Hewish and Ryle to which she was not invited. In 1977, she remarked that graduate students should not be awarded Nobel Prizes, except in very exceptional cases, and doubted whether her discovery was exceptional enough to merit the award. Feryal Özel, an astrophysicist at the University of Arizona, characterized her contributions as follows:
She helped build the array she used to make the observation. She is the one who noticed it. She is the one who argued it's a real signal. When a graduate student takes that kind of lead in her project, it’s hard to play it down.
In later years, she opined that "the fact that I was a graduate student and a woman, together, demoted my standing in terms of receiving a Nobel prize." The decision continues to be debated to this day.
- The Albert A. Michelson Medal of the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia (1973, jointly with Dr. Hewish).
- J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize from the Center for Theoretical Studies, University of Miami (1978).
- Beatrice M. Tinsley Prize of the American Astronomical Society (1986).
- Herschel Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1989).
- Jansky Lectureship before the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (1995).
- Magellanic Premium of the American Philosophical Society (2000).
- Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) (March 2003).
- Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE) (2004).
- William E. Gordon and Elva Gordon distinguished lecture at the Arecibo Observatory on 27 June 2006.
- The Grote Reber Medal at the General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) in Istanbul (19 August 2011)
- Lise-Meitner-Lecture at the Technical University Vienna (2013)
- The Royal Medal of the Royal Society (2015).
- The Women of the Year Prudential Lifetime Achievement Award (2015)
- The Institute of Physics President's Medal (2017)
- Grande Médaille of the French Academy of Sciences (2018)
- Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics (2018)
- 23rd Annual Katzenstein Distinguished Lecture at the University of Connecticut (2019)
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (2021)
- The Royal Society's Copley Medal (2021)
- The Astronomische Gesellschaft's Karl Schwarzschild Medal (2021)
- In 1999, she was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for services to Astronomy and promoted to Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) in 2007.
- In February 2013, she was assessed as one of the 100 most powerful women in the United Kingdom by Woman's Hour on BBC Radio 4.
- In February 2014, she was elected President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the first woman to hold that office. She held the position from April 2014 to April 2018 when she was succeeded by Dame Anne Glover.
- In 2016, the Institute of Physics renamed their award for early-career female physicists the Jocelyn Bell Burnell Medal and Prize.
- In 2016, she was elected an International member of the American Philosophical Society.
- In 2020, she was elected a Legacy Fellow of the American Astronomical Society.
- A painting of her by Stephen Shankand, commissioned by the Royal Society, was added to the collection in the Society's Carlton House Terrace headquarters in November 2020.
- In 2020, she was included by the BBC in a list of seven important but little-known British female scientists.
- In 2020, she was made an Honorary Fellow of Trinity College Dublin.
Her publications[d] include:
Personal and non-academic lifeEdit
Bell Burnell is house patron of Burnell House at Cambridge House Grammar School in Ballymena. She has campaigned to improve the status and number of women in professional and academic posts in the fields of physics and astronomy.
Quaker activities and beliefsEdit
From her school days, she has been an active Quaker and served as Clerk to the sessions of Britain Yearly Meeting in 1995, 1996 and 1997. Bell Burnell also served as Clerk of the Central Executive Committee of Friends World Committee for Consultation from 2008 to 2012. She delivered a Swarthmore Lecture under the title Broken for Life, at Yearly Meeting in Aberdeen on 1 August 1989, and was the plenary speaker at the US Friends General Conference Gathering in 2000. She spoke of her personal religious history and beliefs in an interview with Joan Bakewell in 2006.
Bell Burnell served on the Quaker Peace and Social Witness Testimonies Committee, which produced Engaging with the Quaker Testimonies: a Toolkit in February 2007. In 2013 she gave a James Backhouse Lecture which was published in a book entitled A Quaker Astronomer Reflects: Can a Scientist Also Be Religious?, in which Burnell reflects about how cosmological knowledge can be related to what the Bible, Quakerism or Christian faith states.
In 1968, between the discovery of the second and third pulsar, Bell became engaged to Martin Burnell and they married soon after; the couple divorced in 1993 after separating in 1989. In a 2021 online lecture at the University of Bedfordshire, Bell Burnell reflected on her first experience returning to the observatory wearing an engagement ring. Though she was proud of her ring and wanted to share the good news with her colleagues, she instead received criticism as, at the time, it was shameful for women to work as it appeared that their partners were incapable of providing for the family. Her husband was a local government officer, and his career took them to various parts of Britain. She worked part-time for many years while raising their son, Gavin Burnell, who is a member of the condensed matter physics group at the University of Leeds.
- The Preparatory Department of Lurgan College closed in 2004, the college becoming a selective grammar school for ages 14–19.
- "... upon entering the faculty, each student was issued a set of tools: a pair of pliers, a pair of long-nose pliers, a wire cutter, and a screwdriver...", said during a public lecture in Montreal during the 40 Years of Pulsars conference, 14 August 2007
- Interplanetary scintillation allows compact sources to be distinguished from extended ones.
- Jocelyn Bell Burnell publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
- Who's Who 2017.
- Lurgan Mail 2007.
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- Bell Burnell 2007, pp. 579–581.
- Bell 1968.
- Hewish et al. 1968, p. 709.
- Pilkington et al. 1968, p. 126.
- AIP 2000.
- The Life Scientific 2011.
- Cosmic Search Vol. 1.
- Hargittai 2003, p. 240.
- Tesh & Wade 2017, pp. 31–33.
- Westly 2008.
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- NYAS 1977.
- Proudfoot 2021.
- Nobelprize.org 1974.
- Sample 2018.
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- IoP 2019.
- BBC: Copley 2021.
- McGrayne 1993, pp. 359–379.
- Johnston 2007, pp. 2–3.
- Bertsch McGrayne 1998.
- Lurgan College history.
- Kaufman 2016.
- Interview at NRAO 1995.
- BBC 2011b.
- Schilling 2017.
- BBC 2010.
- Bell Burnell 2020.
- Jocelyn Bell Burnell profile.
- Yount 2007, p. 25.
- Notable Women 1997.
- University of Bath 2004.
- UoO 2007.
- Institute of Physics: Council.
- Univ of Dundee 2018.
- Warren & Thackray 2018.
- CWAS 2018.
- Merali 2018.
- Breakthrough Prize 2018.
- Ghosh 2018.
- Friedberg 2022.
- BBC 2011a.
- Franklin Institute.
- Walter 1982, p. 438.
- AIoP 1978, p. 68.
- Aas.org 1986.
- Jansky Home Page.
- APS 2008.
- The Royal Society.
- Gold 2006.
- QVMAG 2016.
- Bell Burnell 2013a.
- TU Wien 2013.
- Royal Society.
- Institute of Physics 2017.
- Académie des sciences 2018.
- Ouellette 2018.
- Bell Burnell 2019.
- RAS Gold Medal 2021.
- The Irish News 2021.
- Astronomische Gesellschaft 2021.
- Addley 2007.
- BBC 1970.
- BBC Scotland 2014.
- IOP JBB Prize.
- APS member election.
- AAS 2020.
- Brown 2020.
- Shearing 2020.
- TCD 2020.
- Bell Burnell 2004, pp. 426–489.
- Allan 2015.
- Burnell 1989.
- Bakewell 2010.
- QPSW Testimonies Committee 2007, p. ?.
- Bell Burnell 2013b, p. 11.
- Condensed Matter Physics Group 2010.
- "AAS Fellows". AAS. 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- Addley, Esther (16 June 2007). "From Russia with gong". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
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- "APS Member History". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
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- "Beatrice M. Tinsley Prize". American Astronomical Society. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- "Beautiful Minds, Series 1". BBC Four. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- "Beautiful Minds, Series 1, Jocelyn Bell Burnell (Part 1 of 3)". BBC Four. 24 April 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- "Bell Burnell, Dame (Susan) Jocelyn, (born 15 July 1943), astronomer; Visiting Professor of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, since 2004; President, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2014–March 2018". Who's Who (UK). Oxford University Press. 1 December 2017. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.7157. ISBN 978-0-19-954088-4.
- Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (26 October 1995). "The woman who discovered pulsars: An Interview with Jocelyn Bell Burnell at NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory)" (Interview). Interviewed by Kate Marsh Weatherall & David G. Finley. Weatherall Technical Applications. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (21 May 2000). "Oral History Interviews: Jocelyn Bell Burnell" (Interview). Interviewed by David DeVorkin. College Park, MD: AIP.
- Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (2007). "Pulsars 40 Years on". Science. 318 (5850): 579–581. doi:10.1126/science.1150039. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17962545. S2CID 120774849.
- Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (2013b). A Quaker Astronomer Reflects: Can a Scientist Also Be Religious?. James Backhouse Lecture. Australia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). p. 11. ISBN 978-0-646-59239-8.
- Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (15 November 2013a). Pulsars and Extreme Physics. TU Wien. Retrieved 10 September 2019 – via YouTube.
- Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (8 November 2019). 23rd Annual Katzenstein Distinguished Lecture. University of Connecticut. Retrieved 10 November 2019 – via YouTube.
- Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (13 February 2020). "The Discovery Of Pulsars - A graduate student's tale" – via YouTube.
- Bell Burnell, S.J. (2004). "So Few Pulsars, So Few Females". Science. 304 (5670): 426–489. doi:10.1126/science.304.5670.489. PMID 15105461. S2CID 43369972.
- Bell Burnell, S. Jocelyn (1977). "Petit Four – After Dinner Speech published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Science Dec 1977". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 302: 685–689. Bibcode:1977NYASA.302..685B. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb37085.x. S2CID 222086632.
- Bell, Susan Jocelyn (1968). The Measurement of radio source diameters using a diffraction method. repository.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. doi:10.17863/CAM.4926. OCLC 500382385. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.449485.
- Bertsch McGrayne, Sharon (1998). Nobel Prize women in science: their lives, struggles, and momentous discoveries (Rev. ed.). Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8065-2025-4. OCLC 39633911 – via Internet Archive.
- Brown, Mark (28 November 2020). "'It'll upset a few fellows': Royal Society adds Jocelyn Bell Burnell portrait". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
- "Cosmic Search Vol. 1, No. 1 – Little Green Men, White Dwarfs or Pulsars?".
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- "Dame Jocelyn Bell-Burnell – 2018 AstroFest Keynote Speaker". Central West Astronomical Society. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
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- "Dr Gavin Burnell: Associate Professor in Condensed Matter Physics". Condensed Matter Physics Group, University of Leeds. 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Eisberg, Joann (1997). "Jocelyn Bell Burnell (1943–)". In Shearer, Benjamin F.; Shearer, Barbara (eds.). Notable Women in the Physical Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-0-313-29303-0 – via Internet Archive.
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With the highest award for astronomical research in Germany, the Astronomical Society honours Professor Bell Burnell as an eminent scientist whose work has not only created the field of pulsar astronomy - with diverse applications in a wide range of fundamental physics and astrophysics - but has had a great impact on the field of astrophysics as a whole.
- Ghosh, Pallab (6 September 2018). "Fund to counter physics 'white male bias'". BBC News. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
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- "Hawking receives Einstein Award". Physics Today. 31 (4): 68. April 1978. Bibcode:1978PhT....31d..68.. doi:10.1063/1.2995004.
Jocelyn Bell Burnell, researcher on the staff of the Mullard Space Science Laboratory of University College London, is the recipient of the 1978 J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize.
- "Herschel Medal Winners" (PDF). Royal Astronomical Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Hewish, A.; Bell, S. J.; Pilkington, J. D. H.; Scott, P. F.; Collins, R. A. (1968). "Observation of a Rapidly Pulsating Radio Source". Nature. 217 (5130): 709. Bibcode:1968Natur.217..709H. doi:10.1038/217709a0. S2CID 4277613. For the follow-up paper, see Pilkington et al. 1968.
- "IOP and Professor Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell launch new fund to encourage greater diversity in physics". Institute of Physics. 2019.
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- "Kleine grüne Männchen und pulsierende Sterne" [Pulsars and Little Green Men] (in German). Technical University Vienna. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
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- Ouellette, Jennifer (6 September 2018). "Jocelyn Bell Burnell wins $3 million prize for discovering pulsars". Ars Technica. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- Pilkington, J. D. H.; Hewish, A.; Bell, S. J.; Cole, T. W. (1968). "Observations of some further Pulsed Radio Sources". Nature. 218 (5137): 126. Bibcode:1968Natur.218..126P. doi:10.1038/218126a0. S2CID 4253103. For the first paper (announcing the discovery), see Hewish et al. 1968.
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- "Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics Awarded to Jocelyn Bell Burnell for Discovery of Pulsars" (Press release). Breakthrough Prize. 6 September 2018.
A Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics can be awarded by the Selection Committee at any time, and in addition to the regular Breakthrough Prize awarded through the ordinary annual nomination process. Unlike the annual Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, the Special Prize is not limited to recent discoveries.
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- Parachini, Jodie (2021). Listening to the Stars: Jocelyn Bell Burnell Discovers Pulsars. Illustrated by Alexandra Badiu. Chicago: Albert Whitman & Company. ISBN 978-080754563-8.
- Oral history interview transcript with Jocelyn Bell Burnell on 21 May 2000, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library & Archives
- Freeview video "Tick, Tick, Pulsating Star: How I Wonder What You Are?" A Royal Institution Discourse by the Vega Science Trust (accessed 24 December 2007).
- Counterbalance Library: Bell Burnell talk "Science and the Spiritual Quest" (24 Minutes) (Accessed 7 April 2010).
- University of Manchester – Jodcast Interview with Jocelyn Bell-Burnell
- Biographical article, indicating Bell Burnell's beliefs and personal life, from California State Polytechnic University NOVA project. (Accessed 24 December 2007).
- Irishwoman who discovered the "lighthouses of the universe" Irish Times profile.
- Barber (host), Regina G. (15 August 2022). "The Radio Wave Mystery That Changed Astronomy". Short Wave. National Public Radio. NPR.