Open main menu

Wikipedia β

The Copley Medal is a scientific award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences.[1] Given every year, the medal is the oldest Royal Society medal still awarded, and is the oldest surviving scientific award in the world,[2] having first been given in 1731 to Stephen Gray, for "his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge".[3]

Royal Society Copley Medal
Joseph Lister, Copley Medal (gold), 1902 Wellcome M0007837.jpg
The Copley Medal awarded to Joseph Lister in 1902.
Awarded for Outstanding research in any branch of science
Sponsored by Royal Society
Country United Kingdom
First awarded 1731; 287 years ago (1731)
Website Copley Medal

Contents

HistoryEdit

The medal was created following a donation of £100 to be used for carrying out experiments by Sir Godfrey Copley, for which the interest on the amount was used for several years.[4] The conditions for the medal have been changed several times; in 1736, it was suggested that "a medal or other honorary prize should be bestowed on the person whose experiment should be best approved", and this remained the rule until 1831, when the conditions were changed so that the medal would be awarded to the researcher that the Royal Society Council decided most deserved it.[4] A second donation of £1666 13s. 4d. was made by Sir Joseph William Copley in 1881, and the interest from that amount is used to pay for the medal.[4] The medal in its current format is made of silver-gilt and awarded with a £25000 prize.[1]

Since its inception, it has been awarded to many notable scientists, including 52 winners of the Nobel Prize: 17 in Physics, 21 in Physiology or Medicine, and 14 in Chemistry. John Theophilus Desaguliers has won the medal the most often, winning three times, in 1734, 1736 and 1741. In 1976, Dorothy Hodgkin became the first and, as of 2018, the only female recipient.

Medal recipientsEdit

Year Image Name Rationale Notes
1731   Stephen Gray "For his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge" [5]
1732   Stephen Gray "For the Experiments he made for the year 1732" [5]
1733   No Award
1734   John Theophilus Desaguliers "In consideration of his several Experiments performed before the Society" [6]
1735   No Award
1736   John Theophilus Desaguliers "For his experiments made during the year" [6]
1737   John Belchier "For his Experiment to show the property of a Diet of Madder Root in dyeing the Bones of living animals of a red colour" [7]
1738   James Valoue "For his invention of an Engine for driving the Piles to make a Foundation for the Bridge to be erected at Westminster, the Model whereof had been shown to the Society"
1739   Stephen Hales "For his Experiments towards the Discovery of Medicines for dissolving the Stone; and Preservatives for keeping Meat in long voyages at Sea" [8]
1740   Alexander Stuart "For his Lectures on Muscular Motion. As a further addition for his services to the Society in the care and pains he has taken therein" [9]
1741   John Theophilus Desaguliers "For his Experiments towards the discovery of the properties of Electricity. As an addition to his allowance (as Curator) for the present year." [6]
1742   Christopher Middleton "For the communication of his Observations in the attempt of discovering a North-West passage to the East Indies through Hudsons Bay" [10]
1743   Abraham Trembley "For his Experiments on the Polypus"
1744   Henry Baker "For his curious Experiments relating to the Crystallization or Configuration of the minute particles of Saline Bodies dissolved in a menstruum" [11]
1745   William Watson "On account of the surprising discoveries in the phenomena of Electricity, exhibited in his late Experiments" [12]
1746   Benjamin Robins "On account of his curious Experiments for showing the resistance of the Air, and his rules for establishing his doctrine thereon for the motion of Projectiles" [13]
1747   Gowin Knight "On account of several very curious Experiments exhibited by him, both with Natural and Artificial Magnets" [14]
1748   James Bradley "On account of his very curious and wonderful discoveries in the apparent motion of the Fixed Stars, and the causes of such apparent motion" [15]
1749   John Harrison "On account of those very curious Instruments, invented and made by him, for the exact mensuration of Time" [16]
1750   George Edwards "On account of a very curious Book lately published by him, and intiyled, A Natural History of Birds, &c. – containing the Figures elegantly drawn, and illuminated in their proper colours, of 209 different Birds, and about 20 very rare Quadrupeds, Serpents, Fishes, and Insects." [17]
1751   John Canton "On account of his communicating to the Society, and exhibiting before them, his curious method of making Artificial Magnets without the use of Natural ones" [18]
1752   John Pringle "On account of his very curious and useful Experiments and Observations on Septic and Anti-septic Substances, communicated to the Society" [19]
1753   Benjamin Franklin "On account of his curious Experiments and Observations on Electricity" [20]
1754   William Lewis "For the many Experiments made by him on Platina, which tend to the discovery of the sophistication of gold: – which he would have entirely completed, but was obliged to put a stop to his further enquiries for want of materials" [21]
1755   John Huxham "For his many useful Experiments on Antimony, of which an account had been read to the Society" [22]
1756   No Award
1757   Lord Charles Cavendish "On account of his very curious and useful invention of making Thermometers, showing respectively the greatest degrees of heat and cold which have happened at any time during the absence of the observer" [14]
1758   John Dollond "On account of his curious Experiments and Discoveries concerning the different refrangibility of the Rays of Light, communicated to the Society" [23]
1759   John Smeaton "On account of his curious Experiments concerning Water-wheels and Wind-mill Sails, communicated to the Society. For his experimental enquiry concerning the powers of water and wind in the moving of Mills" [24]
1760   Benjamin Wilson "For his many curious Experiments in Electricity, communicated to the Society within the year" [25]
1761   No Award
1762   No Award
1763   No Award
1764   John Canton "For his very ingenious and elegant Experiments in the Air Pump and Condensing Engine, to prove the Compressibility of Water, and some other Fluids" [18]
1765   No Award
1766   William Brownrigg,

Edward Delaval and

Henry Cavendish

"For an experimental enquiry into the Mineral Elastic Spirit, or Air, contained in Spa-Water; as well as into the Mephitic qualities of this Spirit. (Brownrigg)"

"For his Experiments and Observations on the agreement between the specific gravities of the several Metals, and their colours when united to glass, as well as those of their other preparations. (Delaval)"

"For his Paper communicated this present year, containing his Experiments relating to Fixed Air. (Cavendish)"

[26]
1767   John Ellis "For his Papers of the year 1767, On the animal nature of the Genus of Zoophytes called Corallina, and the Actinia Sociata, or Clustered Animal Flower, lately found on the sea coasts of the new-ceded Islands" [27]
1768   Peter Woulfe "For his Experiments on the Distillation of Acids, Volatile Alkalies, and other substances" [28]
1769   William Hewson "For his Two Papers, entitled, An Account of the Lymphatic System in Amphibious Animals, – and An Account of the Lymphatic System in Fish"
1770   William Hamilton "For his Paper, entitled, An Account of a Journey to Mount Etna" [29]
1771   Matthew Raper "For his paper entitled, An Enquiry into the value of ancient Greek and Roman Money"
1772   Joseph Priestley "On account of the many curious and useful Experiments contained in his observations"
1773   John Walsh "For his Paper on the Torpedo" [30]
1774   No Award
1775   Nevil Maskelyne "In consideration of his curious and laborious Observations on the Attraction of Mountains, made in Scotland, – on Schehallien" [31]
1776   James Cook "For his Paper, giving an account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of H.M. Ship the Resolution, during her late voyage round the world. Whose communication to the Society was of such importance to the public" [32]
1777   John Mudge "On account of his valuable Paper containing directions for making the best Composition for the metals of Reflecting Telescopes; together with a description of the process for grinding, polishing, and giving the best speculum the true parabolic form"
1778   Charles Hutton "For his paper, entitled, The force of Fired Gunpowder, and the initial velocity of Cannon Balls, determined by Experiments" [33]
1779   No Award
1780   Samuel Vince "For his paper, entitled, An investigation of the Principles of Progressive and Rotatory Motion, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [34]
1781   William Herschel "For the Communication of his Discovery of a new and singular Star; a discovery which does him particular honour, as, in all probability, this star has been for many years, perhaps ages, within the bounds of astronomic vision, and yet till now, eluded the most diligent researches of other observers" [35]
1782   Richard Kirwan "As a reward for the merit of his labours in the science of Chemistry. For his chemical analyses of Salts" [34]
1783   John Goodricke and Thomas Hutchins "For his discovery of the Period of the Variation of Light in the Star Algol. (Goodricke)"

"For his Experiments to ascertain the point of Mercurial Congelation. (Hutchins)"

[34]
1784   Edward Waring "For his Mathematical Communications to the Society. For his Paper On the Summation of Series, whose general term is a determinate function of z the distance from the first term of the series" [36]
1785   William Roy "For his Measurement of a Base on Hounslow Heath" [37]
1786   No Award
1787   John Hunter "For his three Papers, – On the Ovaria, On the identity of the dog, wolf, and jackall species, and On the anatomy of Whales, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1787" [38]
1788   Charles Blagden "For his two Papers on Congelation, printed in the last (78th) volume of the Philosophical transactions" [39]
1789   William Morgan "For his two Papers on the values of Reversions and Survivorships, printed in the two last volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [40]
1790   No Award
1791  
 
James Rennell and

Jean-André Deluc

"For his Paper on the Rate of Travelling as performed by Camels, printed in the last (81st) volume of the Philosophical Transactions. (Rennell)"

"For his Improvements in Hygrometry. (De Luc)"

[41]
1792   Benjamin Thompson "For his various Papers on the Properties and Communication of Heat" [42]
1793   No Award
1794   Alessandro Volta "For his several Communications explanatory of certain Experiments published by Professor Galvani" [41]
1795   Jesse Ramsden "For his various inventions and improvements in the construction of the Instruments for the Trigonometrical measurements carried on by the late Major General Roy, and by Lieut. Col. Williams and his associates" [43]
1796   George Atwood "For his Paper on the construction and analysis of geometrical propositions determining the positions assumed by homogeneal bodies which float freely, and at rest; and also determining the Stability of Ships and other floating bodies" [44]
1797   No Award
1798   George Shuckburgh-Evelyn and

Charles Hatchett

"For his various Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Evelyn)"

"For his Chemical Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Hatchett)"

[45]
1799   John Hellins "For his improved Solution of a problem in Physical Astronomy, &c. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1798; and his other Mathematical Papers" [46]
1800 Edward Charles Howard "For his Paper on a New Fulminating Mercury" [47]
1801   Astley Cooper "For his Papers – on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of Deafness" [48]
1802   William Hyde Wollaston "For his various Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [49]
1803   Richard Chenevix "For his various Chemical Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [50]
1804   Smithson Tennant "For his various Chemical Discoveries communicated to the Society, and printed in several volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [51]
1805   Humphry Davy "For his various Communications published in the Philosophical Transactions" [52]
1806   Thomas Andrew Knight "For his various Papers on Vegetation, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [53]
1807   Everard Home "For his various Papers on Anatomy and Physiology, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1808   William Henry "For his various papers communicated to the society, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1809   Edward Troughton "For the Account of his Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments, printed in the last volume of the Philosophical Transactions" [54]
1810   No Award
1811   Benjamin Collins Brodie "For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. On the influence of the Brain on the action of the Heart, and the generation of Animal Heat; and on the different modes in which death is brought on by certain Vegetable Poisons" [55]
1812   No Award
1813   William Thomas Brande "For his Communications concerning the Alcohol contained in Fermented Liquors and other Papers, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1814   James Ivory "For his various Mathematical Contributions printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [56]
1815   David Brewster "For his Paper on the Polarization of Light by Reflection from Transparent Bodies" [57]
1816   No Award
1817   Henry Kater "For his Experiments on the Pendulum" [58]
1818   Robert Seppings "For his Papers on the construction of Ships of War, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1819   No Award
1820   Hans Christian Ørsted "For his Electro-magnetic Discoveries" [59]
1821  
 
Edward Sabine and

John Herschel

"For his various Communications to the Royal Society relating to his researches made in the late Expedition to the Arctic Regions. (Sabine)"

"For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions. (Herschel)"

[60]
1822   William Buckland "For his Paper on the Fossil Teeth and Bones discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale" [61]
1823   John Pond "For his various Communications to the Royal Society"
1824   John Brinkley "For his various Communications to the Royal Society" [62]
1825  
 
François Arago and Peter Barlow "For the Discovery of the Magnetic Properties of substances not containing Iron. For the Discovery of the power of various bodies, principally metallic, to receive magnetic impressions, in the same, though in a more evanescent manner than malleable Iron, and in an infinitely less intense degree. (Arago)"

"For his various Communications on the subject of Magnetism. (Barlow)"

[63]
1826   James South "For his observations of Double Stars, and his Paper on the Discordances between the Suns observed and computed Right Ascensions, published in the Transactions of the Society. For his Paper of Observations of the Apparent Distances and Positions of Four Hundred and Fifty-eight Double and Triple Stars, published in the present volume (1826, Part 1.) of the Transactions" [64]
1827   William Prout and

Henry Foster

"For his Paper entitled, On the ultimate Composition of simple alimentary substances, with some preliminary remarks on the analysis of organized bodies in general. (Prout)"

"For his magnetic and other observations made during the Arctic expedition to Port Bowen. (Foster)"

[65]
1828   No Award
1829   No Award
1830   No Award
1831   George Biddell Airy "For his Papers, On the principle of the construction of the Achromatic Eye-pieces of Telescopes, – On the Spherical Aberration of the Eye-pieces of Telescopes, and for other Papers on Optical Subjects in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society" [66]
1832  
 
Michael Faraday and Siméon Denis Poisson "For his discovery of Magneto-Electricity as detailed in his Experimental Researches in Electricity, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year. (Faraday)"

"For his work entitled, Nouvelle Theorie de lAction Capillaire. (Poisson)"

[67]
1833   No Award
1834   Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana "For his work entitled, Theorie du Mouvement de la Lune" [68]
1835   William Snow Harris "For his experimental investigations of the force of electricity of high intensity contained in the Philosophical Transactions of 1834" [52]
1836   Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Francis Kiernan "For his systematic application of the doctrine of definite proportions to the analysis of mineral bodies, as contained in his Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, and in other of his works. (Berzelius)"

"For his discoveries relating to the structure of the liver, as detailed in his paper communicated to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833. (Kiernan)"

1837  
 
Antoine César Becquerel and

John Frederic Daniell

"For his various memoirs on the subject of electricity, published in the Memoires deacademie Royale des Sciences de lInstitut de France, and particularly for those on the production of crystals of metallic sulphurets and of sulphur, by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension, and published in the tenth volume of those Memoires. (Becquerel)"

"For his two papers on voltaic combinations published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836. (Daniell)"

[69]
1838  
 
Carl Friedrich Gauss

and Michael Faraday

"For his inventions and mathematical researches in magnetism. (Gauss)"

"For his researches in specific electrical induction. (Faraday)"

[70]
1839   Robert Brown "For his discoveries during a series of years, on the subject of vegetable impregnation" [71]
1840  
 
Justus von Liebig and

Jacques Charles François Sturm

"For his discoveries in organic chemistry, and particularly for his development of the composition and theory of organic radicals. (Liebig)"

"For his "Memoire sur la Resolution des Equations Numeriques," published in the Memoires des Savans Etrangers for 1835. (Sturm)"

[72][73]
1841   Georg Ohm "For his researches into the laws of electric currents contained in various memoirs published in Schweiggers Journal, Poggendorffs Annalen and in a separate work entitled Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet" [74]
1842   James MacCullagh "For his researches connected with the wave theory of light, contained in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy" [75]
1843   Jean-Baptiste Dumas "For his late valuable researches in organic chemistry, particularly those contained in a series of memoirs on chemical types and the doctrine of substitution, and also for his elaborate investigations of the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other elements"
1844   Carlo Matteucci "For his various researches in animal electricity" [76]
1845   Theodor Schwann "For his physiological researches on the development of animal & vegetable textures, published in his work entitled Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur u. dem Wachsthun der Thiese u. Bflanzen"
1846   Urbain Le Verrier "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus by which he proved the existence and predicted the place of the new Planet; the Council considering such prediction confirmed as it was by the immediate discovery of the Planet to be one of the proudest triumphs of modern analysis applied to the Newtonian Theory of Gravitation" [77]
1847   John Herschel "For his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825" [60]
1848   John Couch Adams "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus, and for his application of the inverse problem of perturbations thereto" [78]
1849   Roderick Murchison "For the eminent services he has rendered to geological science during many years of active observation in several parts of Europe; and especially for the establishment of that classification of the older Palaeozoic deposits designated the Silurian System, as set forth in the two works entitled The Silurian System founded on Geological Researches in England, and The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains"
1850   Peter Andreas Hansen "For his researches in physical astronomy" [52]
1851   Richard Owen "On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works" [79]
1852   Alexander von Humboldt "For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years" [80]
1853   Heinrich Wilhelm Dove "For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth"
1854   Johannes Peter Müller "For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin" [81]
1855   Léon Foucault "For his various researches in experimental physics" [52]
1856   Henri Milne-Edwards "For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology"
1857   Michel Eugène Chevreul "For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, and for his researches on the contrast of coulours" [52]
1858   Charles Lyell "For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology" [52]
1859   Wilhelm Eduard Weber "For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics" [82]
1860   Robert Bunsen "For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches" [52]
1861   Louis Agassiz "For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse" [52]
1862   Thomas Graham "For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861" [83]
1863   Adam Sedgwick "For his original observations and discoveries in the geology of the Palaeozoic Series of rocks, and more especially for his determination of the characters of the Devonian System, by observations of the order of superposition of the Killas rocks & their fossils in Devonshire" [84]
1864   Charles Darwin "For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology" [52]
1865   Michel Chasles "For his historical and original researches in pure geometry" [85]
1866   Julius Plücker "For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis" [86]
1867   Karl Ernst von Baer "For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology" [52]
1868   Charles Wheatstone "For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism" [52]
1869   Henri Victor Regnault "For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaires au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours" [52]
1870   James Prescott Joule "For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat" [52]
1871   Julius von Mayer "For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: – 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat" [52]
1872   Friedrich Wöhler "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones" [52]
1873   Hermann von Helmholtz "For his researches in physics and physiology" [87]
1874   Louis Pasteur "For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine" [52]
1875   August Wilhelm von Hofmann "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia" [88]
1876   Claude Bernard "For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology" [52]
1877   James Dwight Dana "For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published" [52]
1878   Jean-Baptiste Boussingault "For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry" [89]
1879   Rudolf Clausius "For his well-known researches upon heat" [90]
1880   James Joseph Sylvester "For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics" [91]
1881   Charles-Adolphe Wurtz "For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry"
1882   Arthur Cayley "For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics" [92]
1883   William Thomson "For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics" [93]
1884   Carl Ludwig "For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science"
1885   August Kekulé "For his researches in organic chemistry" [52]
1886   Franz Ernst Neumann "For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics" [94]
1887   Joseph Dalton Hooker "For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller" [52]
1888   Thomas Henry Huxley "For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years" [52]
1889   George Salmon "For his various papers on subjects of pure mathematics, and for the valuable mathematical treatises of which he is the author" [95]
1890   Simon Newcomb "For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy" [96]
1891   Stanislao Cannizzaro "For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory" [52]
1892   Rudolf Virchow "For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology" [52]
1893   George Stokes "For his researches and discoveries in physical science" [97]
1894   Edward Frankland "For his eminent services to theoretical & applied chemistry" [98]
1895   Karl Weierstrass "For his investigations in pure mathematics" [99]
1896   Karl Gegenbaur "For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc"
1897   Albert von Kölliker "In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist"
1898   William Huggins "For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies" [52]
1899   Lord Rayleigh "In recognition of his contributions to physical science" [100]
1900   Marcellin Berthelot "For his brilliant services to chemical science" [52]
1901   Josiah Willard Gibbs "For his contributions to mathematical physics" [101]
1902   Joseph Lister "In recognition of the value of his physiological and pathological researches in regard to their influence on the modern practice of surgery" [102]
1903   Eduard Suess "For his eminent geological services, & especially for the original researches & conclusions published in his great work 'Das Antlitz der Erde'" [102]
1904   William Crookes "For his long-continued researches in spectroscopic chemistry, on electrical & mechanical phenomena in highly-rarefied gases, on radio-active phenomena, and other subjects" [102]
1905   Dmitri Mendeleev "For his contributions to chemical and physical science" [102]
1906   Élie Metchnikoff "On the ground of the importance of his work in zoology and in pathology" [102]
1907   Albert Abraham Michelson "On the ground of his investigations in optics" [102]
1908   Alfred Russel Wallace "On the ground of the great value of his numerous contributions to natural history, and of the part he took in working out the theory of the origin of species by natural selection" [102]
1909   George William Hill "On the ground of his researches in mathematical astronomy" [102]
1910   Francis Galton "On the ground of his researches in heredity" [102]
1911   George Darwin "On the ground of his researches on tidal theory, the figures of the planets, and allied subjects" [102]
1912   Felix Klein "On the ground of his researches in mathematics" [103]
1913   Ray Lankester "On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him" [104]
1914   Joseph John Thomson "On the ground of his discoveries in physical science" [102]
1915   Ivan Pavlov "On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system" [102]
1916   James Dewar "For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases" [102]
1917   Pierre Paul Émile Roux "On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy" [105]
1918   Hendrik Lorentz "On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics" [102]
1919   William Bayliss "On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics" [102]
1920   Horace Tabberer Brown "On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c" [106]
1921   Joseph Larmor "For his researches in mathematical physics" [107]
1922   Ernest Rutherford "For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure" [102]
1923   Horace Lamb "For his researches in mathematical physics" [108]
1924   Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer "For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences"
1925   Albert Einstein "For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory" [102]
1926   Frederick Gowland Hopkins "For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry" [109]
1927   Charles Scott Sherrington "For his distinguished work on neurology" [110]
1928   Charles Algernon Parsons "For his contributions to engineering science"
1929   Max Planck "For his contributions to theoretical physics and especially as the originator of the quantum theory" [111]
1930   William Henry Bragg "For his distinguished contributions to crystallography and radioactivity" [112]
1931   Arthur Schuster "For his distinguished researches in optics and terrestrial magnetism" [113]
1932   George Ellery Hale "For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory" [114]
1933   Theobald Smith "For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man" [115]
1934   John Scott Haldane "In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering" [116]
1935   Charles Thomson Rees Wilson "For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties" [117]
1936   Arthur Evans "In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age" [118]
1937   Henry Dale "In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems" [119]
1938   Niels Bohr "In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure" [120]
1939   Thomas Hunt Morgan "For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution" [121]
1940   Paul Langevin "For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics" [122]
1941   Thomas Lewis "For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart" [123]
1942   Robert Robinson "For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry" [124]
1943   Joseph Barcroft "For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood" [125]
1944 G. I. Taylor "For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications" [126]
1945   Oswald Avery "For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases" [127]
1946   Edgar Adrian "For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions" [128]
1947   G. H. Hardy "For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years" [129]
1948   Archibald Hill "For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues" [130]
1949   George de Hevesy "For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes" [131]
1950   James Chadwick "For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron" [132]
1951   David Keilin "For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes" [133]
1952   Paul Dirac "In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics" [134]
1953   Albert Kluyver "For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology"
1954 E. T. Whittaker "For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics" [135]
1955   Ronald Fisher "In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology" [136]
1956   Patrick Blackett "In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism"
1957   Howard Florey "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine" [137]
1958   John Edensor Littlewood "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and non-linear differential equations" [138]
1959   Frank Macfarlane Burnet "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology" [139]
1960 Harold Jeffreys "In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy" [140]
1961   Hans Adolf Krebs "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles" [141]
1962   Cyril Norman Hinshelwood "In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy" [142]
1963   Paul Fildes "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology."
1964   Sydney Chapman "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis" [143]
1965   Alan Lloyd Hodgkin "In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology"
1966   William Lawrence Bragg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by X-ray diffraction" [102]
1967   Bernard Katz "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction"
1968   Tadeusz Reichstein "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the cortico-steroids"
1969   Peter Medawar "In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance" [102]
1970   Alexander R. Todd "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types" [102]
1971   Norman Pirie "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses"
1972 Nevill Francis Mott "In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics" [102]
1973   Andrew Huxley "In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction"
1974   W. V. D. Hodge "In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals" [144]
1975   Francis Crick "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of DNA and his continuing contribution to molecular biology" [102]
1976   Dorothy Hodgkin "In recognition of her outstanding work on the structures of complex molecules, particularly Penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin" [102]
1977   Frederick Sanger "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemical structure of proteins and his studies on the sequences of nucleic acids" [102]
1978   Robert Burns Woodward "In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry" [102]
1979   Max Perutz "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject" [102]
1980   Derek Barton "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and, in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry" [102]
1981 Peter D. Mitchell "In recognition of his distinguished contribution to biology in his formulation and development of the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction" [102]
1982 John Cornforth "In recognition of his distinguished research on the stereochemically-controlled synthesis and biosynthesis of biologically important molecules" [145]
1983   Rodney Robert Porter "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins"
1984 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar "In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity" [146]
1985   Aaron Klug "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to our understanding of complex biological structures and the methods used for determining them"
1986 Rudolf Peierls "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a very wide range of theoretical physics, and signal advances in proposing the probable existence of nuclear chain reactions in fissile materials"
1987 Robin Hill "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to the understanding of the nature and mechanism of the main pathway of electron transport in photosynthesis"
1988   Michael Atiyah "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a wide range of topics in geometry, topology, analysis and theoretical physics" [147]
1989   César Milstein "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response"
1990   Abdus Salam "In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces" [148]
1991   Sydney Brenner "In recognition of his many contributions to molecular genetics and developmental biology, and his recent role in the Human Genome mapping project"
1992   George Porter "In recognition of his contributions to fundamental understanding of fast photochemical and photophysical processes and their role in chemistry and biology" [149]
1993   James Watson "In recognition of his tireless pursuit of DNA, from the elucidation of its structure to the social and medical implications of the sequencing of the human genome" [150]
1994   Frederick Charles Frank "In recognition of his fundamental contribution to the theory of crystal morphology, in particular to the source of dislocations and their consequences in interfaces and crystal growth; to fundamental understanding of liquid crystals and the concept of disclination; and to the extension of crystallinity concepts to aperiodic crystals. He has also contributed through a variety of remarkable insights into a great number of physical problems"
1995 Frank Fenner "In recognition of his contribution to animal virology with special emphasis on the pox and myxomatosis viruses and their relationship with the host in causing disease"
1996   Alan Cottrell "In recognition of his contribution to the understanding of mechanical properties of materials and related topics through his pioneering studies on crystal plasticity, dislocation impurity interactions, fracture and irradiation effects" [151]
1997   Hugh Huxley "In recognition of his pioneering work on the structure of muscle and on the molecular mechanisms of muscle contraction, providing solutions to one of the great problems in physiology"
1998 James Lighthill "In recognition of his profound contributions to many fields within fluid mechanics including important aspects of the interaction of sound and fluid flow and numerous other contributions which have had practical applications in aircraft engine design. He is noted also for his ground-breaking work on both external bio-fluid-dynamics – analysis of mechanisms of swimming and flying – and internal bio-fluid-dynamics, including flow in the cardiovascular system and the airways, and cochlear mechanics and other aspects of hearing" [152]
1999   John Maynard Smith "In recognition of his seminal contributions to evolutionary biology, including his experimental work on sexual selection, his important contributions to our understanding of ageing, his introduction of game theoretical methods for the analysis of complex evolutionary scenarios and his research into molecular evolution, both through his classic work on genetic hitchhiking, and with his more recent, ongoing work on bacterial population growth" [153]
2000   Alan R. Battersby "In recognition of his pioneering work in elucidating the detailed biosynthetic pathways to all the major families of plant alkaloids. His approach, which stands as a paradigm for future biosynthetic studies on complex molecules, combines isolation work, structure determination, synthesis, isotopic labelling and spectroscopy, especially advanced NMR, as well as genetics and molecular biology. This spectacular research revealed the entire pathway to vitamin B12"
2001   Jacques Miller "For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells"
2002   John Pople "For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology" [154]
2003   John Gurdon "For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology"
2004   Harry Kroto "in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science" [155]
2005   Paul Nurse "for his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division."
2006   Stephen Hawking "For his outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and theoretical cosmology. " [32]
2007   Robert May "for his seminal studies of interactions within and among biological populations that have reshaped our understanding of how species, communities and entire ecosystems respond to natural or human created disturbance."
2008   Roger Penrose "for his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang."
2009   Martin Evans "for his seminal work on embryonic stem cells in mice, which revolutionised the field of genetics."
2010   David Cox "for his seminal contributions to the theory and applications of statistics." [156]
  Tomas Lindahl "for his seminal contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry of DNA repair." [156]
2011   Dan McKenzie "For his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena including tectonic plates."
2012   John Walker "For his ground-breaking work on bioenergetics, discovering the mechanism of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion." [157]
2013   Andre Geim "For his numerous scientific contributions and, in particular, for initiating research on two‐dimensional atomic crystals and their artificial heterostructures."
2014   Alec Jeffreys "For his pioneering work on variation and mutation in the human genome." [158]
2015   Peter Higgs "For his fundamental contribution to particle physics with his theory explaining the origin of mass in elementary particles, confirmed by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider." [159]
2016   Richard Henderson "In recognition of his fundamental and revolutionary contributions to the development of electron microscopy of biological materials, enabling their atomic structures to be deduced." [160]
2017   Andrew Wiles "For his beautiful and unexpected proof of Fermat's Last Theorem which is one of the most important mathematical achievements of the 20th century." [161]
2018   Jeffrey I. Gordon "For his contributions to understanding the role of gut microbial communities to human health and disease." [162]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "The Copley Medal (1731)". The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2005-12-15. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  2. ^ https://royalsociety.org/grants-schemes-awards/awards/copley-medal/
  3. ^ "Copley archive winners 1799–1731". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  4. ^ a b c "Copley Medal". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  5. ^ a b "Oxford DNB article:Gray, Stephen (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  6. ^ a b c "Oxford DNB article:Desaguliers, John Theophilus (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  7. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Belchier, John (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  8. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Hales, Stephen (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  9. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Stuart, Alexander (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  10. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Middleton, Christopher (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  11. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Baker, Henry (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  12. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Watson, Sir William (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  13. ^ "Robins biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  14. ^ a b Jungnickel, Christa (1996). Cavendish. DIANE publishing. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  15. ^ "Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You – Timeline – James Bradley". Florida State University. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  16. ^ Jungnickel, Christa (1996). Cavendish. DIANE publishing. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  17. ^ "RCP Heritage – George Edwards". Royal College of Physicians. Archived from the original on October 5, 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  18. ^ a b Jungnickel, Christa (1996). Cavendish. DIANE publishing. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  19. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Pringle, Sir John (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  20. ^ "Franklin_Benjamin biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  21. ^ Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. Manchester University Press. 1969. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  22. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Huxham, John (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  23. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Dollond family (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  24. ^ "Engineering Timelines – John Smeaton". Engineering Timelines. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  25. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Wilson, Benjamin (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  26. ^ "The British Society for the History of Mathematics". British Society for the History of Mathematics. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  27. ^ "AIM25 text-only browsing: Royal College of Surgeons of England Ellis, John (c 1710–1776)". Aim25. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  28. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Woulfe, Peter". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  29. ^ "Making and circulating knowledge through Sir William Hamilton's Campi Plhegraei" (PDF). The British Society for the History of Science. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  30. ^ "Berkshire History: Biographies: Lieut-Col. John Walsh (1726–1795)". Nash Ford Publishing. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  31. ^ "Maskelyne biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  32. ^ a b "Stephen Hawking wins Copley Medal". Trinity College, Cambridge. Archived from the original on 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  33. ^ "Hutton summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  34. ^ a b c "Digital Collections – Manuscripts – Item 15a – 15z, 15(1) – 15(20): Addresses to the Royal Society, London the first on being appointed to the Chair and later addresses on presentations of the Copley Medal, 1778–1796". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  35. ^ "Friedrich William Herschel". Florida State University. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  36. ^ "Waring summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  37. ^ "William Roy". Electric Scotland. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  38. ^ "John Hunter: 'Founder of Scientific Surgery' – HemOnc Today". HemOnc Today. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  39. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Blagden, Charles (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  40. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Morgan, William (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  41. ^ a b "Copley Medal | Royal Society". royalsociety.org. The Royal Society. Retrieved 18 February 2015. 
  42. ^ "Oxford DNB article: Thompson, Sir Benjamin (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  43. ^ "Ramsden summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  44. ^ "Attwood summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  45. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Hatchett, Charles (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  46. ^ "British Society for the History of Mathematics". University of Warwick. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  47. ^ Sears, Derek. "Edward Charles Howard" (PDF). University of Arkansas. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-20. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  48. ^ "Cooper, Sir Astley Paston (1768–1841)". Aim25. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  49. ^ "Wollaston". Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  50. ^ Griffith, WP. "PMR: Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals". Platinum Metals Review. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  51. ^ Griffith, WP. "PMR: Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals". Platinum Metals Review. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  53. ^ Darrow, GM. "Early Breeding in Europe". United States National Agricultural Library. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  54. ^ "Troughton Summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  55. ^ Buchanan, W.W. "Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie (1783–1862)". British Society for Rheumatology. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  56. ^ "Ivory summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  57. ^ "Sir David Brewster (1781–1868)". University of St Andrews. Archived from the original on 2008-11-04. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  58. ^ "Henry Kater (1777–1835), Scientist". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  59. ^ "SpringerLink – Book Chapter". Hans Christian Ørsted And The Romantic Legacy In Science. SpringerLink: 417–432. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-2987-5_19. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  60. ^ a b "Herschel summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  61. ^ "William Buckland & Reliquae Diluvianae". University of Minnesota. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  62. ^ "The British Society for the History of Mathematics". The British Society for the History of Mathematics. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  63. ^ "Arago summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  64. ^ "Lake County Astronomical Society". Lake County Astronomical Society. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  65. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine. The Gentleman's Magazine. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  66. ^ "Airy summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  67. ^ "Poisson summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  68. ^ "Plana biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  69. ^ "Chambers Search Chambers". Chambers Harrap. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  70. ^ "Gauss summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  71. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Brown, Robert (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  72. ^ Brock, William H. (2002). Justus Von Liebig: The Chemical Gatekeeper. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  73. ^ "Sturm summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  74. ^ "Ohm biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  75. ^ "MacCullagh summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  76. ^ Morselli, Mario (1984). Amedeo Avogadro, a Scientific Biography. Springer. ISBN 978-90-277-1624-8. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  77. ^ "Le Verrier biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  78. ^ "Adams summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  79. ^ "Own, Richard: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences". Wiley InterScience. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  80. ^ "Humboldt – Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander – von – 1769–1859 – Baron – German naturalist, geologist and explorer". University of Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 2008-02-23. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  81. ^ "BjS: Academic Lineage". Yale University. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  82. ^ "Weber summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  83. ^ "Darwin and the Copley Medal" (PDF). American Philosophical Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2005. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  84. ^ "Adam Sedgwick Collection". American Philosophical Society. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  85. ^ "Chasles summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  86. ^ "Plucker summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  87. ^ "Helmholtz summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  88. ^ Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science. Journal of Industrial Science. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  89. ^ "Jean Baptiste Boussingault" (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  90. ^ "Clausius summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  91. ^ "Sylvester summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  92. ^ "Cayley summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  93. ^ "Thompson summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  94. ^ "Neumann_Franz summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  95. ^ "Salmon summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  96. ^ "Newcomb summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  97. ^ "Stokes summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  98. ^ "Sir Edward Frankland, English chemist, c 1863–1883". Science and Society Picture Library. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  99. ^ "Weierstrass summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  100. ^ "Rayleigh summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  101. ^ "Gibbs summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  102. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  103. ^ "Klein summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  104. ^ "Obituary: Edwin Ray Lankester" (PDF). National Marine Biological Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  105. ^ "Notes and Records of the Royal Society". Royal Society Publishing. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  106. ^ "Obituary notice: Horace Tabberer Brown" (PDF). Biochemical Journal. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  107. ^ "Larmour summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  108. ^ "Lamb summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  109. ^ "Oxford DNB article: Hopkins, Sir Frederick (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  110. ^ "Sir Charles Sherrington – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  111. ^ "Planck summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  112. ^ "William Bragg – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  113. ^ "Sir Arthur Schuster". The Astrophysical Journal. 81: 97. Bibcode:1935ApJ....81...97H. doi:10.1086/143618. 
  114. ^ "George Ellery Hale: Acknowledgements". Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  115. ^ "Award of the Copley Medal of the Royal Society to Professor Theobald Smith". Science. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 78: 598. Bibcode:1933Sci....78R.598.. doi:10.1126/science.78.2035.598. 
  116. ^ "Oxford DNB article: Haldane, John Scott (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  117. ^ "C.T.R.Wilson – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  118. ^ "Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S: Abstract". Nature. 148: 46. Bibcode:1941Natur.148Q..46.. doi:10.1038/148046a0. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  119. ^ "Sir Henry Dale – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  120. ^ "Bohr_Niels summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  121. ^ "Thomas H. Morgan – Biography". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  122. ^ "Medal Awards of the Royal Society". Nature. Nature. 146: 750–752. Bibcode:1940Natur.146..750.. doi:10.1038/146750a0. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  123. ^ "Thomas Lewis". Cardiology Journal. Retrieved 2009-02-05. [dead link]
  124. ^ "Sir Robert Robinson – Biography". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  125. ^ "Sir Joseph Barcroft of Cambridge". Archives of Disease in Childhood. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  126. ^ "Taylor_Geoffrey summay". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  127. ^ "The Oswald T. Avery Collection: Biographical Information". United States National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  128. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Adrian, Edgar Douglas (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  129. ^ "Hardy summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  130. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Hill, Archibald Vivian (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  131. ^ "Royal Society: Anniversary Address By Sir Robert Robinson, O.M., F.R.S". Nature. 164: 1023–1030. doi:10.1038/1641023a0. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  132. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Chadwick, James (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  133. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Keilin, David (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  134. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Dirac, Paul(subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  135. ^ "Whittaker summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  136. ^ "Fisher summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  137. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Florey, Howard (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  138. ^ "Littlewood summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  139. ^ "Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet – Biography". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  140. ^ "Jeffreys summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  141. ^ "Sir Hans Adolf Krebs". nobel-winners.com. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  142. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  143. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Chapman, Sydney (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  144. ^ "Hodge summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  145. ^ "Emeritus Professor Sir John Cornforth – Alumni & Friends". University of Sydney. Archived from the original on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  146. ^ "Chandrasekhar biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  147. ^ "Atiyah biography". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  148. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Salam, Abdus (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  149. ^ "Oxford DNB article:Porter, George (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  150. ^ "Copley Medal". Royal Society website. The Royal Society. Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  151. ^ "MRS Website: Award Presentations". Materials Research Society. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  152. ^ "Lighthill summary". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  153. ^ "John Maynard Smith January 6, 1920 – April 19, 2004". Genetics. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  154. ^ "Obituary: John A. Pople". The Observer. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  155. ^ "FSU highlights". Florida State University. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 
  156. ^ a b Two medals were awarded to celebrate the Society's 350th anniversary: "Recent award winners 2010". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2010-10-06.  
  157. ^ "John Walker". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  158. ^ "Leicester University Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys wins science's oldest prize". Leicester Mercury. 5 August 2014. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  159. ^ Copley Medal 2015
  160. ^ Copley Medal 2016
  161. ^ "Andrew Wiles". The Royal Society. Retrieved 2018-04-20. 
  162. ^ Copley Medal 2018

External linksEdit