William Holden (born William Franklin Beedle Jr.; April 17, 1918 – November 12, 1981) was an American actor who was one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s and 1960s. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for the film Stalag 17 (1953), and a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or Movie for the television film The Blue Knight (1973). Holden starred in some of Hollywood's most popular and critically acclaimed films, including Sunset Boulevard, Sabrina, The Bridge on the River Kwai, The Wild Bunch, Picnic and Network. He was named one of the " Top 10 Stars of the Year" six times (1954–1958, 1961), and appeared as 25th on the American Film Institute's list of 25 greatest male stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema.
Holden in a publicity photo, 1954
William Franklin Beedle Jr.
April 17, 1918
O'Fallon, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||November 12, 1981 (aged 63)|
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Exsanguination following a fall|
|Resting place||Ashes scattered in the Pacific Ocean|
|Education||South Pasadena High School|
|Alma mater||Pasadena City College|
|Occupation||Actor, wildlife conservationist|
(m. 1941; div. 1971)
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/||United States Army Air Forces|
|Years of service||1942–45|
|Unit||First Motion Picture Unit (USAAF)|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Early life and educationEdit
Holden was born William Franklin Beedle Jr. on April 17, 1918, in O'Fallon, Illinois, son of William Franklin Beedle (1891–1967), an industrial chemist, and his wife Mary Blanche Ball (1898–1990), a schoolteacher. He had two younger brothers, Robert Westfield Beedle (1921–January 5, 1944) and Richard P. Beedle (1924–1964). One of his father's grandmothers, Rebecca Westfield, was born in England in 1817, while some of his mother's ancestors settled in Virginia's Lancaster County after emigrating from England in the 17th century. His younger brother, Robert W. "Bobbie" Beedle, became a U.S. Navy fighter pilot and was killed in action in World War II, over New Ireland, a Japanese-occupied island in the South Pacific, on January 5, 1944.
A version of how he obtained his stage name "Holden" is based on a statement by George Ross of Billboard: "William Holden, the lad just signed for the coveted lead in Golden Boy, used to be Bill Beadle. And here is how he obtained his new movie tag. On the Columbia lot is an assistant director and scout named Harold Winston. Not long ago he was divorced from the actress, Gloria Holden, but carried the torch after the marital rift. Winston was one of those who discovered the Golden Boy newcomer and who renamed him—in honor of his former spouse!"
Holden's first starring role was in Golden Boy (1939), costarring Barbara Stanwyck, in which he played a violinist-turned-boxer. The film was made for Columbia who negotiated a sharing agreement with Paramount for Holden's services.
Holden was still an unknown actor when he made Golden Boy, while Stanwyck was already a film star. She liked Holden and went out of her way to help him succeed, devoting her personal time to coaching and encouraging him, which made them into lifelong friends. When she received her Honorary Oscar at the 1982 Academy Award ceremony, Holden had died in an accident just a few months prior. At the end of her acceptance speech, she paid him a personal tribute: "I loved him very much, and I miss him. He always wished that I would get an Oscar. And so tonight, my golden boy, you got your wish".
Back at Paramount he starred with Bonita Granville in Those Were the Days! (1940) followed by the role of George Gibbs in the film adaptation of Our Town (1940), done for Sol Lesser at United Artists.
World War TwoEdit
Holden served as a second and then a first lieutenant in the United States Army Air Force during World War II, where he acted in training films for the First Motion Picture Unit, including Reconnaissance Pilot (1943).
His career took off in 1950 when Billy Wilder tapped him to play a role in Sunset Boulevard, in which he played a down-at-heel screenwriter taken in by a faded silent-screen star, played by Gloria Swanson. Holden earned his first Best Actor Oscar nomination with the part.
Getting the part was a lucky break for Holden, as the role was initially cast with Montgomery Clift, who backed out of his contract. Swanson later said, "Bill Holden was a man I could have fallen in love with. He was perfection on- and off-screen." And Wilder himself commented, "Bill was a complex guy, a totally honorable friend. He was a genuine star. Every woman was in love with him."
Holden had another good break when cast as Judy Holliday's love interest in the big screen adaptation of Born Yesterday (1950). He made two more films with Olson: Force of Arms (1951) at Warners and Submarine Command (1951) at Paramount.
Stalag 17 and Peak Era of StardomEdit
He made a sex comedy with David Niven for Otto Preminger, The Moon Is Blue (1953), which was a huge hit, in part due to controversy over its content. At Paramount he was in a comedy with Ginger Rogers that was not particularly popular, Forever Female (1953). A Western at MGM, Escape from Fort Bravo (1953) did much better, and the all star Executive Suite (1954) was a notable success.
Holden made a third film with Wilder, Sabrina (1954), billed beneath Audrey Hepburn and Humphrey Bogart.  in which the title role was played by Audrey Hepburn. It was Holden's third film with director Billy Wilder. Holden and Hepburn became romantically involved during the filming, unbeknown to Wilder: "People on the set told me later that Bill and Audrey were having an affair, and everybody knew. Well, not everybody! I didn't know.":174 The interactions between Bogart, Hepburn, and Holden made shooting less than pleasant, as Bogart had wanted his wife, Lauren Bacall, to play Sabrina. Bogart was not especially friendly toward Hepburn, who had little Hollywood experience, whilst Holden's reaction was the opposite, wrote biographer Michelangelo Capua.
Holden recalls their romance:
Before I even met her, I had a crush on her, and after I met her, just a day later, I felt as if we were old friends, and I was rather fiercely protective of her, though not in a possessive way.
Their relationship did not last much beyond the completion of the film. Holden, who was at this point dependent on alcohol, said, "I really was in love with Audrey, but she wouldn't marry me." Rumors at the time had it that Hepburn wanted a family, but when Holden told her that he'd had a vasectomy and having children was impossible, she moved on. A few months later, Hepburn met Mel Ferrer, whom she would later marry.
The golden run at the box office continued with Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing (1955), from a best selling novel, with Jennifer Jones, and Picnic (1955), as a drifter, in an adaptation of the William Inge play with Kim Novak.  Picnic was his last film under the contract with Columbia.
A second film with Seaton did not do as well, The Proud and Profane (1956).
Neither did Toward the Unknown (1957), the one film Holden produced himself.
The Bridge on the River KwaiEdit
He made another war film for a British director, The Key (1958) with Trevor Howard and Sophia Loren for director Carol Reed. He played an American Civil War military surgeon in John Ford's The Horse Soldiers (1959) opposite John Wayne, which was a box office disappointment.
Less popular was Satan Never Sleeps (1961), the last film of Clifton Webb; The Counterfeit Traitor (1962), this third film with Seaton; or The Lion (1962), with Trevor Howard and Capucine. The latter was shot in Africa and sparked a fascination with the continent that was to last until the end of Holden's life.
Holden's films continued to struggle at the box office however: Paris When It Sizzles (1964) with Hepburn; The 7th Dawn (1964) with Capucine and Susannah York, a romantic adventure set during the Malayan Emergency; Alvarez Kelly (1966), a Western; and The Devil's Brigade (1968). He was also one of many names in Casino Royale (1967).
The Wild BunchEdit
Also in 1969, Holden starred in director Terence Young's family film L'Arbre de Noël, co-starring Italian actress Virna Lisi and French actor Bourvil, based on the novel of the same name by Michel Bataille. This film was originally released in the United States as The Christmas Tree and on home video as When Wolves Cry.
For television roles in 1974, Holden won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for his portrayal of a cynical, tough veteran LAPD street cop in the television film The Blue Knight, based upon the best-selling Joseph Wambaugh novel of the same name.
Also in 1974, Holden starred with Paul Newman and Steve McQueen in the critically acclaimed disaster film The Towering Inferno, which became a box-office smash and one of the highest-grossing films of Holden's career.
Two years later, he was praised for his Oscar-nominated leading performance in Sidney Lumet's classic Network (1976), an examination of the media written by Paddy Chayefsky, playing an older version of the character type for which he had become iconic in the 1950s, only now more jaded and aware of his own mortality.
Aronud this time he also appeared in 21 Hours at Munich (1976).
In 1980, Holden appeared in The Earthling with popular child actor Ricky Schroder, playing a loner dying of cancer who goes to the Australian outback to end his days, meets a young boy whose parents have been killed in an accident, and teaches him how to survive.
While in Italy in 1966, Holden killed another driver in a drunk-driving incident. He received an eight-month suspended sentence for vehicular manslaughter.
Holden maintained a home in Switzerland and also spent much of his time working for wildlife conservation as a managing partner in an animal preserve in Africa. His Mount Kenya Safari Club in Nanyuki (founded 1959) became a mecca for the international jet set. On a trip to Africa, he fell in love with the wildlife and became increasingly concerned with the animal species that were beginning to decrease in population. With the help of his partners, he created the Mount Kenya Game Ranch and inspired the creation of the William Holden Wildlife Foundation. The Mount Kenya Game Ranch works to assist in Kenya with the wildlife education of its youth. Within the Mount Kenya Game Ranch is the Mount Kenya Conservancy, which runs an animal orphanage as well as the Bongo Rehabilitation Program in collaboration with the Kenya Wildlife Service. The orphanage provides shelter and care for orphans, injured and neglected animals found in the wild, with the aim of releasing these animals back into the wild whenever possible. The conservancy is home to the critically endangered East African mountain bongo, and aims to prevent its extinction by breeding.
Marriage and relationshipsEdit
Holden was married to actress Ardis Ankerson (stage name Brenda Marshall) from 1941 until their divorce 30 years later, in 1971. They had two sons, Peter Westfield "West" Holden (1943–2014) and Scott Porter Holden (1946–2005). He adopted his wife's daughter, Virginia, from her first marriage with actor Richard Gaines. During the filming of the film Sabrina (1954), costar Audrey Hepburn and he had a brief but passionate affair. Holden met French actress Capucine in the early 1960s. The two starred in the films The Lion (1962) and The 7th Dawn (1964). They reportedly began a two-year affair, which is alleged to have ended due to Holden's alcoholism. Capucine and Holden remained friends until his death in 1981.
In 1972, Holden began a nine-year relationship with actress Stefanie Powers, and sparked her interest in animal welfare. After his death, Powers set up the William Holden Wildlife Foundation at Holden's Mount Kenya Game Ranch.
Illness and deathEdit
According to the Los Angeles County Coroner's autopsy report, Holden was alone and intoxicated in his apartment in Santa Monica, California, on November 12, 1981, when he slipped on a rug, severely lacerating his forehead on a teak bedside table, and bled to death. Evidence suggests he was conscious for at least half an hour after the fall. He likely may not have realized the severity of the injury and did not summon aid, or was unable to call for help. His body was found four days later. The causes of death were given as "exsanguination" and "blunt laceration of scalp." Rumors existed that he was suffering from lung cancer, which Holden himself had denied at a 1980 press conference. His death certificate made no mention of any cancer. He had dictated in his will that the Neptune Society cremate him and scatter his ashes in the Pacific Ocean. In accordance with his wishes, no funeral or memorial service was held.
Ronald Reagan released a statement, saying, "I have a great feeling of grief. We were close friends for many years. What do you say about a longtime friend - a sense of personal loss, a fine man. Our friendship never waned."  For his contribution to the film industry, Holden has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 1651 Vine Street. He also has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. His death was noted by singer-songwriter Suzanne Vega, whose 1987 song "Tom's Diner" (about a sequence of events one morning in 1981) included a mention of reading a newspaper article about "an actor who had died while he was drinking". Vega subsequently confirmed that this was a reference to Holden.
|1938||Prison Farm||Prisoner||Film debut|
|1939||Million Dollar Legs||Graduate Who Says 'Thank You'||Uncredited|
|1939||Golden Boy||Joe Bonaparte|
|1939||Invisible Stripes||Tim Taylor|
|1940||Those Were the Days!||P.J. "Petey" Simmons|
|1940||Our Town||George Gibbs|
|1941||I Wanted Wings||Al Ludlow|
|1942||The Fleet's In||Casey Kirby|
|1942||The Remarkable Andrew||Andrew Long|
|1942||Meet the Stewarts||Michael Stewart|
|1943||Young and Willing||Norman Reese|
|1947||Blaze of Noon||Colin McDonald|
|1947||Dear Ruth||Lt. William Seacroft|
|1948||The Man from Colorado||Capt. Del Stewart|
|1948||Rachel and the Stranger||Big Davey|
|1948||Apartment for Peggy||Jason Taylor|
|1948||The Dark Past||Al Walker|
|1949||Streets of Laredo||Jim Dawkins|
|1949||Miss Grant Takes Richmond||Dick Richmond|
|1949||Dear Wife||Bill Seacroft|
|1950||Father Is a Bachelor||Johnny Rutledge|
|1950||Sunset Boulevard||Joe Gillis||Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor|
|1950||Union Station||Lt. William Calhoun|
|1950||Born Yesterday||Paul Verrall|
|1951||Force of Arms||Sgt. Joe "Pete" Peterson|
|1951||Submarine Command||LCDR Ken White|
|1952||Boots Malone||Boots Malone|
|1952||The Turning Point||Jerry McKibbon|
|1953||Stalag 17||Sgt. J.J. Sefton||Academy Award for Best Actor|
Nominated – New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
|1953||The Moon Is Blue||Donald Gresham|
|1953||Die Jungfrau auf dem Dach||Tourist||Uncredited|
|1953||Forever Female||Stanley Krown|
|1953||Escape from Fort Bravo||Capt. Roper|
|1954||Executive Suite||McDonald Walling||Venice Film Festival Special Award for Ensemble Acting|
|1954||The Bridges at Toko-Ri||LT Harry Brubaker, USNR|
|1954||The Country Girl||Bernie Dodd|
|1955||Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing||Mark Elliott|
|1955||Picnic||Hal Carter||Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor|
|1956||The Proud and Profane||Lt. Col. Colin Black|
|1956||Toward the Unknown||Maj. Lincoln Bond|
|1957||The Bridge on the River Kwai||Cmdr. Shears|
|1958||The Key||Capt. David Ross|
|1959||The Horse Soldiers||Major Henry Kendall|
|1960||The World of Suzie Wong||Robert Lomax||Nominated – Laurel Award for Top Male Dramatic Performance|
|1962||Satan Never Sleeps||Father O'Banion|
|1962||The Counterfeit Traitor||Eric Erickson|
|1962||The Lion||Robert Hayward|
|1964||Paris When It Sizzles||Richard Benson / Rick|
|1964||The 7th Dawn||Major Ferris|
|1966||Alvarez Kelly||Alvarez Kelly|
|1968||The Devil's Brigade||Lt. Col. Robert T. Frederick|
|1969||The Wild Bunch||Pike Bishop|
|1969||The Christmas Tree||Laurent Ségur|
|1971||Wild Rovers||Ross Bodine|
|1972||The Revengers||John Benedict|
|1974||Open Season||Hal Wolkowski|
|1974||The Towering Inferno||Jim Duncan|
|1976||Network||Max Schumacher||Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor|
Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
Nominated – National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor
|1978||Fedora||Barry "Dutch" Detweiler|
|1978||Damien: Omen II||Richard Thorn|
|1979||Escape to Athena||Prisoner smoking a cigar in prison camp||Uncredited|
|1980||When Time Ran Out||Shelby Gilmore|
|1980||The Earthling||Patrick Foley|
|1981||S.O.B.||Tim Culley||Final film role|
|1955||Lux Video Theatre||Intermission Guest||Episode: "Love Letters"|
|1955||I Love Lucy||Himself||Episode: "Hollywood at Last"|
|1956||The Jack Benny Program||Himself||Episode: "William Holden/Frances Bergen Show"|
|1973||The Blue Knight||Bumper Morgan||Television film|
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or Movie
|1976||21 Hours at Munich||Chief of Police Manfred Schreiber||Television film|
|1940||Lux Radio Theatre||Our Town|
|1946||Lux Radio Theatre||Miss Susie Slagle's|
|1952||Lux Radio Theatre||Submarine Command|
|1952||Hollywood Star Playhouse||The Joyful Beggar|
|1953||Lux Radio Theatre||Appointment with Danger|
|1953||Lux Summer Theatre||High Tor|
Box office rankingEdit
For a number of years exhibitors voted Holden among the most popular stars in the country:
- 1954 – 7th (US)
- 1955 – 4th (US)
- 1956 – 1st (US)
- 1957 – 7th (US)
- 1958 – 6th (US), 6th (UK)
- 1959 – 12th (US)
- 1960 – 14th (US)
- 1961 – 8th (US)
- 1962 – 15th (US)
- Heymann 2009, p. 25.
- "Holden, William, 1st Lt". www.airforce.togetherweserved.com. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
- "Ancestry of William Holden" Archived 2008-02-22 at the Wayback Machine., Genealogy.com; retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Ross, George. "Broadway: Golden Boy", The Pittsburgh Press, April 12, 1939, p. 23.
- Charlton, Linda (17 November 1981). "William Holden Dead at 63; Won Oscar for 'Stalag 17'". The New York Times. (Subscription required (help)).
- video: "Barbara Stanwyck's Honorary Award: 1982 Oscars", Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences via Youtube.com; accessed November 12, 2016.
- Robert Osborne, "TCM - Golden Boy" via Youtube.com; accessed November 12, 2016.
- Nigent, Frank S. (January 13, 1940). "THE SCREEN; David Niven Plays an Unruffled 'Raffles' at the Roxy --Strand Shows 'Invisible Stripes'". The New York Times. p. 16. Retrieved 9 April 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
- Capua 2010, pp. 16–17.
- "101 Pix Gross in Millions" Variety 6 Jan 1943 p 58
- Richard B. Jewell, Slow Fade to Black: The Decline of RKO Radio Pictures, Uni of California, 2016
- Capua 2010, pp. 54–55.
- Monush, Barry. The Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors, Applause (2003) pp. 335-336
- Chandler, Charlotte. Nobody's Perfect: Billy Wilder: a Personal Biography, Simon & Schuster (2002) p. 147
- "Forever Female (1954) - Overview". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "30 Days, 30 Classics – Day 17: Sabrina (1954) starring Audrey Hepburn, William Holden and Humphrey Bogart". Writer Loves Movies. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Capua 2010, p. 78
- Capua 2010 p. 79
- Capua 2010 p. 77
- Capua 2010 p. 82
- Crowther, Bosley (December 16, 1954). "Screen: Crosby Acts in 'Country Girl'; Film Based on Odets Drama Makes Bow". The New York Times. p. 51. Retrieved 9 April 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
- Crowther, Bosley (January 21, 1955). "The Screen in Review; 'Bridges at Toko-ri' Is Fine Film of War". The New York Times. p. 20. Retrieved 9 April 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
- Hernandez, Greg (May 4, 2012). ""I Love Lucy" Friday: When Lucy comes face-to-face with William Holden at the Brown Derby". Greg In Hollywood.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Shaffer, Bill (Spring 2005). "The Summer of Picninc" (PDF). Kansas Heritage: 6–12. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- Woo, Elaine (11 November 2012). "Han Suyin dies at 95; wrote 'Many-Splendored Thing'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "13 Fascinating Facts About 'The Bridge on the River Kwai'". Mental Floss. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "Detail view of Movies Page". www.afi.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Longley York, Neil (May 29, 2001). Fiction as Fact: "The Horse Soldiers" and Popular Memory. The Kent State University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0873386883. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Capua 2010, pp. 135–36, 141.
- "Nominations Search". Television Academy. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "'Breezy' (1973): Clint Eastwood's little-known romance". The Same Cinema Every Night. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Ebert, Roger. "The Towering Inferno Movie Review (1974)". www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Ebert, Roger. "Network Movie Review & Film Summary (1976)". www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- "William Holden Gave His All Even "When Time Ran Out..."". hillplace.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Canby, Vincent (February 8, 1981). "Screen: A Final Journey In 'Earthling'". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
- Capua 2010, pp. 162–63.
- Brown, Andrew M. "When Alcoholics drink themselves to death", The Daily Telegraph, London, April 7, 2011.
- Bennett, Bruce. "William Holden's Unscripted Fall From Grace", The New York Sun, July 2, 2008.
- The William Holden Wildlife Education Center, Mount Kenya Wilderness Conservancy, 2015; retrieved January 24, 2015.
- "WHWF History." Archived 2014-12-01 at the Wayback Machine. William Holden Wildlife Foundation, 2010; retrieved January 24, 2015.
- Mulli, Thorn (May 2, 2016). "Date with the mountain bongo". The Standard. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "Game Ranch Lifestyles". Mount Kenya Wildlife Conservancy.
- Fessier, Bruce (September 29, 2014). "West Holden: More than just the son of William Holden". The Desert Sun. Palm Springs, California.
- "Scott Holden". IMDb.
- Osborne, Robert (host). "The Lion", Turner Classic Movies, November 4, 2012.
- Capua 2010, p. 165.
- Bacon, Doris Klein. "For Love of Bill", People, Vol. 17, No. 21, May 31, 1982.
- Death Certificate of William Holden, autopsyfiles.org; accessed September 28, 2016.
- Capua 2010, p. 164
- "Hollywood Star Walk: William Holden", Los Angeles Times, March 26, 2013.
- "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees", St. Louis Walk of Fame; retrieved January 24, 2015.
- Suzanne Vega, Tom's Essay, The New York Times, September 23, 2008; retrieved September 27, 2016.
- "Lux Star". Harrisburg Telegraph. October 19, 1946. p. 17. Retrieved September 29, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Kirby, Walter (November 23, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 48. Retrieved June 16, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Kirby, Walter (January 18, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 40. Retrieved June 20, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Kirby, Walter (May 31, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 40. Retrieved June 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Capua, Michelangelo (2010) William Holden: A Biography. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-4440-3.
- Gaines, Virginia Holden; Prcic, Mike (January 1, 2007). Growing Up with William Holden: A Memoir. Mehmed Prcic. ISBN 978-0-9741304-5-3..
- Heymann, C. David (July 14, 2009). Bobby and Jackie: A Love Story. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4001-6422-6..
- Phillips, Gene D. (February 5, 2010). Some Like It Wilder: The Life and Controversial Films of Billy Wilder. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2570-1..
- Quirk, Lawrence J. (1986). The Complete Films of William Holden. Sacramento, California: Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0-8065-0998-3. (Subscription required (help))..
- Quirk, Lawrence J. (1973). The Films of William Holden. Sacramento, California: Citadel Press. ISBN 978-0-8065-0375-2..
- Strodder, Chris (2000). Swingin' Chicks Of the Sixties. San Rafael, California: Cedco Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7683-2232-3..
- Thomas, Bob (1983). Golden Boy: The Untold Story of William Holden. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-33697-4..