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William Holden (born William Franklin Beedle Jr.; April 17, 1918 – November 12, 1981) was an American actor who was one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s and 1960s. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for the film Stalag 17 (1953), and a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or Movie for the television film The Blue Knight (1973). Holden starred in some of Hollywood's most popular and critically acclaimed films, including Sunset Boulevard, Sabrina, The Bridge on the River Kwai, The Wild Bunch, Picnic and Network. He was named one of the " Top 10 Stars of the Year" six times (1954–1958, 1961), and appeared as 25th on the American Film Institute's list of 25 greatest male stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema.

William Holden
Holden-portrait.jpg
Holden in a publicity photo, 1954
Born
William Franklin Beedle Jr.

(1918-04-17)April 17, 1918
DiedNovember 12, 1981(1981-11-12) (aged 63)
Cause of deathExsanguination following a fall
Resting placeAshes scattered in the Pacific Ocean
EducationSouth Pasadena High School
Alma materPasadena City College
OccupationActor, wildlife conservationist
Years active1938–1981
Political partyRepublican[1]
Spouse(s)
Brenda Marshall
(m. 1941; div. 1971)
Children3
Awards Military career
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branchUS Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg United States Army Air Forces
Years of service1942–45
RankUS-O2 insignia.svg First lieutenant[2]
UnitFirst Motion Picture Unit (USAAF)
Battles/warsWorld War II

Contents

Early life and educationEdit

 
With Lee J. Cobb (right) in Holden's first starring role in a film, Golden Boy (1939)

Holden was born William Franklin Beedle Jr. on April 17, 1918, in O'Fallon, Illinois, son of William Franklin Beedle (1891–1967), an industrial chemist, and his wife Mary Blanche Ball (1898–1990), a schoolteacher.[3] He had two younger brothers, Robert Westfield Beedle (1921–January 5, 1944) and Richard P. Beedle (1924–1964). One of his father's grandmothers, Rebecca Westfield, was born in England in 1817, while some of his mother's ancestors settled in Virginia's Lancaster County after emigrating from England in the 17th century.[3] His younger brother, Robert W. "Bobbie" Beedle, became a U.S. Navy fighter pilot and was killed in action in World War II, over New Ireland, a Japanese-occupied island in the South Pacific, on January 5, 1944.

His family moved to South Pasadena when he was three. After graduating from South Pasadena High School, Holden attended Pasadena Junior College, where he became involved in local radio plays.

CareerEdit

ParamountEdit

Holden appeared uncredited in Prison Farm (1939) and Million Dollar Legs (1939) at Paramount.

A version of how he obtained his stage name "Holden" is based on a statement by George Ross of Billboard: "William Holden, the lad just signed for the coveted lead in Golden Boy, used to be Bill Beadle. And here is how he obtained his new movie tag. On the Columbia lot is an assistant director and scout named Harold Winston. Not long ago he was divorced from the actress, Gloria Holden, but carried the torch after the marital rift. Winston was one of those who discovered the Golden Boy newcomer and who renamed him—in honor of his former spouse!"[4]

Golden BoyEdit

Holden's first starring role was in Golden Boy (1939), costarring Barbara Stanwyck, in which he played a violinist-turned-boxer.[5] The film was made for Columbia who negotiated a sharing agreement with Paramount for Holden's services.

Holden was still an unknown actor when he made Golden Boy, while Stanwyck was already a film star. She liked Holden and went out of her way to help him succeed, devoting her personal time to coaching and encouraging him, which made them into lifelong friends. When she received her Honorary Oscar at the 1982 Academy Award ceremony, Holden had died in an accident just a few months prior. At the end of her acceptance speech, she paid him a personal tribute: "I loved him very much, and I miss him. He always wished that I would get an Oscar. And so tonight, my golden boy, you got your wish".[6][7]

Next he starred with George Raft and Humphrey Bogart in the Warner Bros. gangster epic Invisible Stripes (1939).[8]

Back at Paramount he starred with Bonita Granville in Those Were the Days! (1940) followed by the role of George Gibbs in the film adaptation of Our Town (1940), done for Sol Lesser at United Artists.[9]

Columbia put Holden in a Western with Jean Arthur, Arizona (1940), then at Paramount he was in a hugely popular war film, I Wanted Wings (1941) with Ray Milland and Veronica Lake.

He did another Western at Columbia, Texas (1941) with Glenn Ford, and a musical comedy at Paramount, The Fleet's In (1942) with Eddie Bracken, Dorothy Lamour and Betty Hutton.[10]

He stayed at Paramount for The Remarkable Andrew (1942) with Brian Donlevy then made Meet the Stewarts (1943) at Columbia. Paramount reunited him and Bracken in Young and Willing (1943).

World War TwoEdit

Holden served as a second and then a first lieutenant in the United States Army Air Force during World War II, where he acted in training films for the First Motion Picture Unit, including Reconnaissance Pilot (1943).

Post WarEdit

Holden's first film back from the services was Blaze of Noon (1947), an aviator picture at Paramount directed by John Farrow.

He followed it with a romantic comedy, Dear Ruth (1947) and he was one of many cameos in Variety Girl (1947).[11]

RKO borrowed him for Rachel and the Stranger (1948) with Robert Mitchum and Loretta Young, then he went over to 20th Century Fox for Apartment for Peggy (1948).

At Columbia he did a film noir, The Dark Past (1948) and a Western with Ford, The Man from Colorado (1949). At Paramount he did another Western, Streets of Laredo (1949).

Columbia teamed him with Lucille Ball for Miss Grant Takes Richmond (1949) then he did a sequel to Dear Ruth, Dear Wife (1949). He did a comedy at Columbia Father Is a Bachelor (1950).

Sunset BoulevardEdit

His career took off in 1950 when Billy Wilder tapped him to play a role in Sunset Boulevard, in which he played a down-at-heel screenwriter taken in by a faded silent-screen star, played by Gloria Swanson. Holden earned his first Best Actor Oscar nomination with the part.[12]

Getting the part was a lucky break for Holden, as the role was initially cast with Montgomery Clift, who backed out of his contract.[13] Swanson later said, "Bill Holden was a man I could have fallen in love with. He was perfection on- and off-screen."[14] And Wilder himself commented, "Bill was a complex guy, a totally honorable friend. He was a genuine star. Every woman was in love with him."[14]

Paramount reunited him with one of his Sunset Boulevard co stars, Nancy Olson, in Union Station (1950).

Holden had another good break when cast as Judy Holliday's love interest in the big screen adaptation of Born Yesterday (1950). He made two more films with Olson: Force of Arms (1951) at Warners and Submarine Command (1951) at Paramount.

Holden did a sports film at Paramount, Boots Malone (1952) then stayed at the same studio for The Turning Point (1952).

Stalag 17 and Peak Era of StardomEdit

Holden was reunited with Wilder in Stalag 17 (1953), for which Holden won the Academy Award for Best Actor. This ushered in the peak years of Holden's stardom.[5]

He made a sex comedy with David Niven for Otto Preminger, The Moon Is Blue (1953), which was a huge hit, in part due to controversy over its content. At Paramount he was in a comedy with Ginger Rogers that was not particularly popular, Forever Female (1953). A Western at MGM, Escape from Fort Bravo (1953) did much better, and the all star Executive Suite (1954) was a notable success.[15]

SabrinaEdit

 
With Audrey Hepburn in Sabrina (1954)

Holden made a third film with Wilder, Sabrina (1954), billed beneath Audrey Hepburn and Humphrey Bogart. [16] in which the title role was played by Audrey Hepburn. It was Holden's third film with director Billy Wilder. Holden and Hepburn became romantically involved during the filming, unbeknown to Wilder: "People on the set told me later that Bill and Audrey were having an affair, and everybody knew. Well, not everybody! I didn't know."[14]:174 The interactions between Bogart, Hepburn, and Holden made shooting less than pleasant, as Bogart had wanted his wife, Lauren Bacall, to play Sabrina. Bogart was not especially friendly toward Hepburn, who had little Hollywood experience, whilst Holden's reaction was the opposite, wrote biographer Michelangelo Capua.[17]

Holden recalls their romance:

Before I even met her, I had a crush on her, and after I met her, just a day later, I felt as if we were old friends, and I was rather fiercely protective of her, though not in a possessive way.[18]

Their relationship did not last much beyond the completion of the film. Holden, who was at this point dependent on alcohol, said, "I really was in love with Audrey, but she wouldn't marry me."[19] Rumors at the time had it that Hepburn wanted a family, but when Holden told her that he'd had a vasectomy and having children was impossible, she moved on. A few months later, Hepburn met Mel Ferrer, whom she would later marry.[20]

He took third billing for The Country Girl (1954) with Bing Crosby and Grace Kelly, directed by George Seaton from a play by Clifford Odets.

It was a big hit, as was The Bridges at Toko-Ri (1954), a Korean War drama with Kelly.[21][22]

In 1954, Holden was featured on the cover of Life. On February 7, 1955, Holden appeared as a guest star on I Love Lucy as himself.[23]

The golden run at the box office continued with Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing (1955), from a best selling novel, with Jennifer Jones, and Picnic (1955), as a drifter, in an adaptation of the William Inge play with Kim Novak. [24][25] Picnic was his last film under the contract with Columbia.

A second film with Seaton did not do as well, The Proud and Profane (1956).

Neither did Toward the Unknown (1957), the one film Holden produced himself.

The Bridge on the River KwaiEdit

Holden had his most widely recognized role as an ill-fated prisoner in David Lean's The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) with Alec Guinness,[26] a huge commercial success.

He made another war film for a British director, The Key (1958) with Trevor Howard and Sophia Loren for director Carol Reed.[27] He played an American Civil War military surgeon in John Ford's The Horse Soldiers (1959) opposite John Wayne, which was a box office disappointment.[28]

Holden had another big hit with The World of Suzie Wong (1960) with Nancy Kwan.

Less popular was Satan Never Sleeps (1961), the last film of Clifton Webb; The Counterfeit Traitor (1962), this third film with Seaton; or The Lion (1962), with Trevor Howard and Capucine. The latter was shot in Africa and sparked a fascination with the continent that was to last until the end of Holden's life.

Holden's films continued to struggle at the box office however: Paris When It Sizzles (1964) with Hepburn; The 7th Dawn (1964) with Capucine and Susannah York, a romantic adventure set during the Malayan Emergency; Alvarez Kelly (1966), a Western; and The Devil's Brigade (1968). He was also one of many names in Casino Royale (1967).

The Wild BunchEdit

 
Holden in The Revengers (1972)

In 1969, Holden made a comeback when he starred in director Sam Peckinpah's graphically violent Western The Wild Bunch,[5] winning much acclaim.

Also in 1969, Holden starred in director Terence Young's family film L'Arbre de Noël, co-starring Italian actress Virna Lisi and French actor Bourvil, based on the novel of the same name by Michel Bataille. This film was originally released in the United States as The Christmas Tree and on home video as When Wolves Cry.[29]

Holden made a Western with Ryan O'Neal and Blake Edwards, Wild Rovers (1971). It was not particularly successful. Neither was The Revengers (1972), another Western.

For television roles in 1974, Holden won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for his portrayal of a cynical, tough veteran LAPD street cop in the television film The Blue Knight, based upon the best-selling Joseph Wambaugh novel of the same name.[30][5]

In 1973, Holden starred with Kay Lenz in a movie directed by Clint Eastwood called Breezy, which was considered a box-office flop.[31]

Also in 1974, Holden starred with Paul Newman and Steve McQueen in the critically acclaimed disaster film The Towering Inferno,[32] which became a box-office smash and one of the highest-grossing films of Holden's career.

Two years later, he was praised for his Oscar-nominated leading performance in Sidney Lumet's classic Network (1976),[33] an examination of the media written by Paddy Chayefsky, playing an older version of the character type for which he had become iconic in the 1950s, only now more jaded and aware of his own mortality.

Aronud this time he also appeared in 21 Hours at Munich (1976).

Final FilmsEdit

Holden made a fourth and final film for Wilder with Fedora (1978). He followed it with Damien: Omen II (1978) and had a cameo in Escape to Athena (1978)

Holden had a support role in Ashanti (1979) and was third billed in another disaster movie with Paul Newman for Irwin Allen, When Time Ran Out... (1980), which was a flop.[34]

In 1980, Holden appeared in The Earthling with popular child actor Ricky Schroder,[35] playing a loner dying of cancer who goes to the Australian outback to end his days, meets a young boy whose parents have been killed in an accident, and teaches him how to survive.

After making S.O.B. (1981) for Blake Edwards, Holden refused to star in Jason Miller's film That Championship Season.[36]

Personal lifeEdit

 
Matron of honor Brenda Marshall (left) and best man William Holden, sole guests at Ronald Reagan and Nancy Reagan's wedding in 1952

Holden was best man at the wedding of his friend Ronald Reagan to Nancy Davis in 1952; however, he never involved himself in politics.

While in Italy in 1966, Holden killed another driver in a drunk-driving incident. He received an eight-month suspended sentence for vehicular manslaughter.[37]

Holden maintained a home in Switzerland and also spent much of his time working for wildlife conservation as a managing partner in an animal preserve in Africa. His Mount Kenya Safari Club in Nanyuki (founded 1959) became a mecca for the international jet set.[38] On a trip to Africa, he fell in love with the wildlife and became increasingly concerned with the animal species that were beginning to decrease in population. With the help of his partners, he created the Mount Kenya Game Ranch and inspired the creation of the William Holden Wildlife Foundation.[39] The Mount Kenya Game Ranch works to assist in Kenya with the wildlife education of its youth.[40] Within the Mount Kenya Game Ranch is the Mount Kenya Conservancy, which runs an animal orphanage as well as the Bongo Rehabilitation Program in collaboration with the Kenya Wildlife Service. The orphanage provides shelter and care for orphans, injured and neglected animals found in the wild, with the aim of releasing these animals back into the wild whenever possible. The conservancy is home to the critically endangered East African mountain bongo, and aims to prevent its extinction by breeding.[41][42]

Marriage and relationshipsEdit

Holden was married to actress Ardis Ankerson (stage name Brenda Marshall) from 1941 until their divorce 30 years later, in 1971.[5] They had two sons, Peter Westfield "West" Holden (1943–2014)[43] and Scott Porter Holden (1946–2005).[44] He adopted his wife's daughter, Virginia, from her first marriage with actor Richard Gaines. During the filming of the film Sabrina (1954), costar Audrey Hepburn and he had a brief but passionate affair. Holden met French actress Capucine in the early 1960s. The two starred in the films The Lion (1962) and The 7th Dawn (1964). They reportedly began a two-year affair, which is alleged to have ended due to Holden's alcoholism.[45] Capucine and Holden remained friends until his death in 1981.

In 1972, Holden began a nine-year relationship with actress Stefanie Powers, and sparked her interest in animal welfare.[46] After his death, Powers set up the William Holden Wildlife Foundation at Holden's Mount Kenya Game Ranch.[47]

Illness and deathEdit

According to the Los Angeles County Coroner's autopsy report, Holden was alone and intoxicated in his apartment in Santa Monica, California, on November 12, 1981, when he slipped on a rug, severely lacerating his forehead on a teak bedside table, and bled to death. Evidence suggests he was conscious for at least half an hour after the fall. He likely may not have realized the severity of the injury and did not summon aid, or was unable to call for help. His body was found four days later. The causes of death were given as "exsanguination" and "blunt laceration of scalp."[48] Rumors existed that he was suffering from lung cancer, which Holden himself had denied at a 1980 press conference. His death certificate made no mention of any cancer.[38][48] He had dictated in his will that the Neptune Society cremate him and scatter his ashes in the Pacific Ocean. In accordance with his wishes, no funeral or memorial service was held.[49]

Ronald Reagan released a statement, saying, "I have a great feeling of grief. We were close friends for many years. What do you say about a longtime friend - a sense of personal loss, a fine man. Our friendship never waned." [5] For his contribution to the film industry, Holden has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 1651 Vine Street.[50] He also has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.[51] His death was noted by singer-songwriter Suzanne Vega, whose 1987 song "Tom's Diner" (about a sequence of events one morning in 1981) included a mention of reading a newspaper article about "an actor who had died while he was drinking". Vega subsequently confirmed that this was a reference to Holden.[52]

FilmographyEdit

FilmEdit

Year Title Role Notes
1938 Prison Farm Prisoner Film debut
Uncredited
1939 Million Dollar Legs Graduate Who Says 'Thank You' Uncredited
1939 Golden Boy Joe Bonaparte
1939 Invisible Stripes Tim Taylor
1940 Those Were the Days! P.J. "Petey" Simmons
1940 Our Town George Gibbs
1940 Arizona Peter Muncie
1941 I Wanted Wings Al Ludlow
1941 Texas Dan Thomas
1942 The Fleet's In Casey Kirby
1942 The Remarkable Andrew Andrew Long
1942 Meet the Stewarts Michael Stewart
1943 Young and Willing Norman Reese
1947 Blaze of Noon Colin McDonald
1947 Dear Ruth Lt. William Seacroft
1947 Variety Girl Himself
1948 The Man from Colorado Capt. Del Stewart
1948 Rachel and the Stranger Big Davey
1948 Apartment for Peggy Jason Taylor
1948 The Dark Past Al Walker
1949 Streets of Laredo Jim Dawkins
1949 Miss Grant Takes Richmond Dick Richmond
1949 Dear Wife Bill Seacroft
1950 Father Is a Bachelor Johnny Rutledge
1950 Sunset Boulevard Joe Gillis Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor
1950 Union Station Lt. William Calhoun
1950 Born Yesterday Paul Verrall
1951 Force of Arms Sgt. Joe "Pete" Peterson
1951 Submarine Command LCDR Ken White
1952 Boots Malone Boots Malone
1952 The Turning Point Jerry McKibbon
1953 Stalag 17 Sgt. J.J. Sefton Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated – New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
1953 The Moon Is Blue Donald Gresham
1953 Die Jungfrau auf dem Dach Tourist Uncredited
1953 Forever Female Stanley Krown
1953 Escape from Fort Bravo Capt. Roper
1954 Executive Suite McDonald Walling Venice Film Festival Special Award for Ensemble Acting
1954 Sabrina David Larrabee
1954 The Bridges at Toko-Ri LT Harry Brubaker, USNR
1954 The Country Girl Bernie Dodd
1955 Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing Mark Elliott
1955 Picnic Hal Carter Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor
1956 The Proud and Profane Lt. Col. Colin Black
1956 Toward the Unknown Maj. Lincoln Bond
1957 The Bridge on the River Kwai Cmdr. Shears
1958 The Key Capt. David Ross
1959 The Horse Soldiers Major Henry Kendall
1960 The World of Suzie Wong Robert Lomax Nominated – Laurel Award for Top Male Dramatic Performance
1962 Satan Never Sleeps Father O'Banion
1962 The Counterfeit Traitor Eric Erickson
1962 The Lion Robert Hayward
1964 Paris When It Sizzles Richard Benson / Rick
1964 The 7th Dawn Major Ferris
1966 Alvarez Kelly Alvarez Kelly
1967 Casino Royale Ransome
1968 The Devil's Brigade Lt. Col. Robert T. Frederick
1969 The Wild Bunch Pike Bishop
1969 The Christmas Tree Laurent Ségur
1971 Wild Rovers Ross Bodine
1972 The Revengers John Benedict
1973 Breezy Frank Harmon
1974 Open Season Hal Wolkowski
1974 The Towering Inferno Jim Duncan
1976 Network Max Schumacher Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor
Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
Nominated – National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor
1978 Fedora Barry "Dutch" Detweiler
1978 Damien: Omen II Richard Thorn
1979 Escape to Athena Prisoner smoking a cigar in prison camp Uncredited
1979 Ashanti Jim Sandell
1980 When Time Ran Out Shelby Gilmore
1980 The Earthling Patrick Foley
1981 S.O.B. Tim Culley Final film role

TelevisionEdit

Year Title Role Notes
1955 Lux Video Theatre Intermission Guest Episode: "Love Letters"
1955 I Love Lucy Himself Episode: "Hollywood at Last"
1956 The Jack Benny Program Himself Episode: "William Holden/Frances Bergen Show"
1973 The Blue Knight Bumper Morgan Television film
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or Movie
1976 21 Hours at Munich Chief of Police Manfred Schreiber Television film

RadioEdit

Year Program Episode/source
1940 Lux Radio Theatre Our Town
1946 Lux Radio Theatre Miss Susie Slagle's[53]
1952 Lux Radio Theatre Submarine Command[54]
1952 Hollywood Star Playhouse The Joyful Beggar[54]
1953 Lux Radio Theatre Appointment with Danger[55]
1953 Lux Summer Theatre High Tor[56]

Box office rankingEdit

For a number of years exhibitors voted Holden among the most popular stars in the country:

  • 1954 – 7th (US)
  • 1955 – 4th (US)
  • 1956 – 1st (US)
  • 1957 – 7th (US)
  • 1958 – 6th (US), 6th (UK)
  • 1959 – 12th (US)
  • 1960 – 14th (US)
  • 1961 – 8th (US)
  • 1962 – 15th (US)

ReferencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ Heymann 2009, p. 25.
  2. ^ "Holden, William, 1st Lt". www.airforce.togetherweserved.com. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Ancestry of William Holden" Archived 2008-02-22 at the Wayback Machine., Genealogy.com; retrieved November 13, 2011.
  4. ^ Ross, George. "Broadway: Golden Boy", The Pittsburgh Press, April 12, 1939, p. 23.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Charlton, Linda (17 November 1981). "William Holden Dead at 63; Won Oscar for 'Stalag 17'". The New York Times. (Subscription required (help)).
  6. ^ video: "Barbara Stanwyck's Honorary Award: 1982 Oscars", Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences via Youtube.com; accessed November 12, 2016.
  7. ^ Robert Osborne, "TCM - Golden Boy" via Youtube.com; accessed November 12, 2016.
  8. ^ Nigent, Frank S. (January 13, 1940). "THE SCREEN; David Niven Plays an Unruffled 'Raffles' at the Roxy --Strand Shows 'Invisible Stripes'". The New York Times. p. 16. Retrieved 9 April 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  9. ^ Capua 2010, pp. 16–17.
  10. ^ "101 Pix Gross in Millions" Variety 6 Jan 1943 p 58
  11. ^ Richard B. Jewell, Slow Fade to Black: The Decline of RKO Radio Pictures, Uni of California, 2016
  12. ^ Capua 2010, pp. 54–55.
  13. ^ Monush, Barry. The Encyclopedia of Hollywood Film Actors, Applause (2003) pp. 335-336
  14. ^ a b c Chandler, Charlotte. Nobody's Perfect: Billy Wilder: a Personal Biography, Simon & Schuster (2002) p. 147
  15. ^ "Forever Female (1954) - Overview". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  16. ^ "30 Days, 30 Classics – Day 17: Sabrina (1954) starring Audrey Hepburn, William Holden and Humphrey Bogart". Writer Loves Movies. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  17. ^ Capua 2010, p. 78
  18. ^ Capua 2010 p. 79
  19. ^ Capua 2010 p. 77
  20. ^ Capua 2010 p. 82
  21. ^ Crowther, Bosley (December 16, 1954). "Screen: Crosby Acts in 'Country Girl'; Film Based on Odets Drama Makes Bow". The New York Times. p. 51. Retrieved 9 April 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  22. ^ Crowther, Bosley (January 21, 1955). "The Screen in Review; 'Bridges at Toko-ri' Is Fine Film of War". The New York Times. p. 20. Retrieved 9 April 2018. (Subscription required (help)).
  23. ^ Hernandez, Greg (May 4, 2012). ""I Love Lucy" Friday: When Lucy comes face-to-face with William Holden at the Brown Derby". Greg In Hollywood.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  24. ^ Shaffer, Bill (Spring 2005). "The Summer of Picninc" (PDF). Kansas Heritage: 6–12. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  25. ^ Woo, Elaine (11 November 2012). "Han Suyin dies at 95; wrote 'Many-Splendored Thing'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  26. ^ "13 Fascinating Facts About 'The Bridge on the River Kwai'". Mental Floss. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  27. ^ "Detail view of Movies Page". www.afi.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  28. ^ Longley York, Neil (May 29, 2001). Fiction as Fact: "The Horse Soldiers" and Popular Memory. The Kent State University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0873386883. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  29. ^ Capua 2010, pp. 135–36, 141.
  30. ^ "Nominations Search". Television Academy. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  31. ^ "'Breezy' (1973): Clint Eastwood's little-known romance". The Same Cinema Every Night. 24 May 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  32. ^ Ebert, Roger. "The Towering Inferno Movie Review (1974)". www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  33. ^ Ebert, Roger. "Network Movie Review & Film Summary (1976)". www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  34. ^ "William Holden Gave His All Even "When Time Ran Out..."". hillplace.blogspot.ca. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  35. ^ Canby, Vincent (February 8, 1981). "Screen: A Final Journey In 'Earthling'". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  36. ^ Capua 2010, pp. 162–63.
  37. ^ Brown, Andrew M. "When Alcoholics drink themselves to death", The Daily Telegraph, London, April 7, 2011.
  38. ^ a b Bennett, Bruce. "William Holden's Unscripted Fall From Grace", The New York Sun, July 2, 2008.
  39. ^ The William Holden Wildlife Education Center, Mount Kenya Wilderness Conservancy, 2015; retrieved January 24, 2015.
  40. ^ "WHWF History." Archived 2014-12-01 at the Wayback Machine. William Holden Wildlife Foundation, 2010; retrieved January 24, 2015.
  41. ^ Mulli, Thorn (May 2, 2016). "Date with the mountain bongo". The Standard. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  42. ^ "Game Ranch Lifestyles". Mount Kenya Wildlife Conservancy.
  43. ^ Fessier, Bruce (September 29, 2014). "West Holden: More than just the son of William Holden". The Desert Sun. Palm Springs, California.
  44. ^ "Scott Holden". IMDb.
  45. ^ Osborne, Robert (host). "The Lion", Turner Classic Movies, November 4, 2012.
  46. ^ Capua 2010, p. 165.
  47. ^ Bacon, Doris Klein. "For Love of Bill", People, Vol. 17, No. 21, May 31, 1982.
  48. ^ a b Death Certificate of William Holden, autopsyfiles.org; accessed September 28, 2016.
  49. ^ Capua 2010, p. 164
  50. ^ "Hollywood Star Walk: William Holden", Los Angeles Times, March 26, 2013.
  51. ^ "St. Louis Walk of Fame Inductees", St. Louis Walk of Fame; retrieved January 24, 2015.
  52. ^ Suzanne Vega, Tom's Essay, The New York Times, September 23, 2008; retrieved September 27, 2016.
  53. ^ "Lux Star". Harrisburg Telegraph. October 19, 1946. p. 17. Retrieved September 29, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
  54. ^ a b Kirby, Walter (November 23, 1952). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 48. Retrieved June 16, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
  55. ^ Kirby, Walter (January 18, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 40. Retrieved June 20, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
  56. ^ Kirby, Walter (May 31, 1953). "Better Radio Programs for the Week". The Decatur Daily Review. p. 40. Retrieved June 30, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.

Bibliography

External linksEdit