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George Raft (born George Ranft; September 26, 1901 – November 24, 1980) was an American film actor and dancer identified with portrayals of gangsters in crime melodramas of the 1930s and 1940s. A stylish leading man in dozens of movies, Raft is remembered for his gangster roles in Scarface (1932), Each Dawn I Die (1939), and Billy Wilder's comedy Some Like It Hot (1959), as a dancer in Bolero (1934), and a truck driver in They Drive by Night (1940).
|Died||November 24, 1980 (aged 79)|
|Occupation||Actor, dancer, producer|
(m. 1923; died 1970)
Raft said he never regarded himself as an actor. "I wanted to be me", he said.
George Raft was born in Hell's Kitchen, New York City, to a Jewish family of German descent, the son of Eva (née Glockner), a German immigrant, and Conrad Ranft, who was born in Massachusetts to German immigrant parents. His parents were married on November 17, 1895, in Manhattan. George's elder sister, Eva, known as "Katie", was born on April 18, 1896. Raft's grandfather had emigrated from Germany, and worked on merry-go-rounds and prospected for gold; his father worked in carnivals before settling in New York.
Most obituaries cited Raft's year of birth as 1895, which the actor had stated was correct when he appeared on The Mike Douglas Show, 7 months prior to his death. However, Raft is recorded in the New York City Birth Index as having been born on September 26, 1901, in Manhattan as "George Rauft" (although "Rauft" is likely a mistranscription of "Ranft"); the 1900 census for New York City lists his elder sister, Katie, as his parents' only child, with two children born and only one living. On the 1910 census, he is listed as being eight years old.[non-primary source needed] A boyhood friend of gangster Bugsy Siegel, and later a "wheel man" for the mob, Raft acknowledged having narrowly avoided a life of crime.
Raft grew up on 41st Street and worked as an errand boy and a fishwrapper after school. His parents sent him to live at his grandparents' house on 164th Street. He left school at the age of 12, and left home aged 13. He worked as an apprentice electrician for a year, then boxed professionally for two years from aged fifteen onwards. As "Dutch Rauft", he had 14 bouts: nine victories, three defeats and two draws. (Another account says he had 25 bouts and was knocked out seven times.)
"I was just trying to find something that I liked that would make me a living", said Raft later. "I saw guys fighting, so I fought. I saw guys playing ball, so I played ball. Then I saw guys dancing... and getting paid for it!"
Career as a dancerEdit
Raft had been taught how to dance by his mother and had danced at outdoor amusement parks and carnivals with his parents. Following his baseball career, he began working as a taxi dancer in the poorer sections of New York. At first he struggled financially, but then he won a Charleston competition and was launched professionally.
He started doing exhibition dances in the afternoon at Healy's, Murray's, Rectors and Churchills in New York. He then started working in New York City nightclubs, often in the same venues as Rudolph Valentino before Valentino became a movie actor. He had a notable collaboration with Elsie Pilcer. A May 1924 review in Variety called him "gifted".
"I could have been the first X-rated dancer," he said later. "I was very erotic. I used to caress myself as I danced. I never felt I was a great dancer. I was more of a stylist, unique. I was never a Fred Astaire or a Gene Kelly, but I was sensuous."
Raft toured with his dancing and helped popularise the tango in Paris, Vienna, Rome, London and New York. He had a great success as a dancer in London in 1926, and the Duke of Windsor was "an ardent fan and supporter." Fred Astaire, in his autobiography Steps in Time (1959), says Raft was a lightning-fast dancer and did "the fastest Charleston I ever saw." A September 1926 edition of Variety spoke of Raft's reputation as "the best Charleston dancer in New York."
His success led him to Broadway, where he again worked as a dancer. His stage performances included The City Chap (October 1925) (with music by Jerome Kern), Gay Paree, Madhattan, Palm Beach Nights (also known as No Foolin') and Padlocks of 1927 (1927). He was called "the fastest Charleston dancer."
He later made a semi-autobiographical film called Broadway (1942) about this period, in which he plays himself.
He also worked on the Paramount Publix circuit, performing in stage shows that were presented before movies.
Los Angeles and early filmsEdit
Owney Madden told him he ought to be in movies, and Raft decided to try it after being threatened by the husband of a woman he had been seeing. In 1927, Raft relocated to Hollywood. It took him a while to establish himself, and he danced in clubs to pay the bills.
In October 1928, he appeared in a stage show presented by Texas Guinan called Night Club. The Los Angeles Times said Raft "scores a tremendous individual hit." Variety said Raft appeared at the climax when he "came to the front and did his eccentric dance routine, which he climaxed with the hottest black bottom ever. He goaled the audience, being the big punch of the show."
His screen debut was in Queen of the Night Clubs (1929), starring Guinan, who insisted Raft have a small role. The film is lost now. It has been reported that Raft's scenes were cut. but Variety did a review which said "nite club scene introduces George Raft, the hot' stepper, as the m. c.and band leader, being brought down for one of his rip-snorting hoofing specialties."
Raft also appeared in stage shows supporting the film. One reviewer called him "a clever dancer".
Raft followed this with small roles in Gold Diggers of Broadway (1929) and Side Street (1929), dancing with some chorus girls. He was spotted by director Rowland Brown, who used him to good effect, including a solo dance sequence in a substantial supporting gangster role as Spencer Tracy's character's sidekick in Quick Millions (1931).
In Taxi! (1932), starring James Cagney and Loretta Young, Raft has a colorful unbilled dancing role as Cagney's competitor in a dance contest, who wins only to be knocked down by Cagney. He was third-billed as a gangster in Dancers in the Dark (1932), below Miriam Hopkins as a dancer and Jack Oakie as a bandleader.
Raft's big break came when cast as the second lead, alongside Paul Muni as Tony Camonte, in Scarface (1932), directed by Howard Hawks. He plays second-in-command Guino Rinaldo, who falls in love with Camonte's sister and is murdered by him. Raft's performance was notable for his character's frequently flipping a coin (a nickel) during scenes, which became an iconic trope in gangster films. (Many people later claimed credit for this idea, including Raft and Hawks. Writer W.R. Burnett said it was Raft. "He realized he wasn't a good actor, which he wasn't. But he knew if he reacted to what other people said, he was effective.")
The film was shot in September 1931, but not released by United Artists until the following year. It was a landmark hit, and was a star-making role for Raft.
"That was the big one", he said. "People remembered me. I was getting real fan mail – by the bushel basket – and even a dumb kid from 10th Avenue could figure out how to translate that into money."
After filming Scarface, he made Night World (1932), at Universal, supporting Lew Ayres, playing a gambler; and Love Is a Racket (1932), directed by William Wellman (though all Raft's scenes were cut).
Raft signed a contract with Paramount in March 1932. The following month he was cast in a supporting role for Madame Racketeer (1932) - contemporary reports referred to his "menacing suavity". He was announced for Ladies of the Big House with Sylvia Sidney and Gene Raymond.
Night After Night (1932)Edit
When Scarface was released, public response was so strong that Raft was given the lead in a film based on a story by Louis Bromfeld, originally called Number 55 then changed to Night After Night (1932). When the studio adamantly refused to hire Texas Guinan—upon whom one of the movie's characters was based—because of her age, Raft advocated for another friend, Mae West, to be cast in a supporting role in his first film as leading man. Almost half a century later, Raft and West would die within two days of each other and their corpses would be momentarily placed together on stretchers in a hallway of the same morgue.
He was one of several Paramount stars who appeared in the episodic comedy/drama If I Had a Million (1932), playing a forger hiding from police, suddenly given a million dollars with no place to cash the check. Actors who also played the lead in other sections of the picture included Gary Cooper, W. C. Fields and Charles Laughton, so Raft was in extremely prestigious company. He starred in Under-Cover Man (1932) and was announced for Bodyguard, which was never made. He did make Pick Up (1933). Raft told Variety at the time that:
I don't know what I do but it's not acting. It's me. Supposing I'm supposed to hate a guy. Then I think of somebody I hate and visualize him instead of the actor. Same way when I'm supposed to be in love with the heroine. I think of a girl I could be crazy about and though I'm saying to the actress "I love you, darling," all the time I keep thinking of the other party.
Raft refused to appear in The Story of Temple Drake (1933) with Miriam Hopkins, as he did not want to play a sadist. He was replaced by Jack La Rue, who had been the original casting for Raft's role in Scarface. Raft was put on suspension in February.
"It's not that I mind being the guy on the wrong side of the law", he said. "But I won't take a role that's pure heel. The character has to have some ray of warmth, some redeeming quality – or it just isn't real."
The film performed poorly at the box office and was seen to have hurt La Rue's career. Raft was taken off suspension in April 1933. He returned to Hollywood to make Midnight Club (1933), set in London.
The Bowery (1933)Edit
Raft was borrowed by Twentieth Century Pictures, a new production company established by Darryl F. Zanuck (former head of production at Warners). He was to appear in their first film, Raoul Walsh's energetic period piece The Bowery, as Steve Brodie, supposedly the first man to jump off the Brooklyn Bridge and survive, with Wallace Beery, Jackie Cooper, Fay Wray, and Pert Kelton. Raft memorably dances into the picture in his opening scene wearing a derby. The film was highly popular.
He was meant to be in It's a Pleasure to Lose, based on the life of Nick the Greek, but instead made Bolero (1934), playing a dancer opposite Carole Lombard. Raft refused to do the film until it was re-written; the studio suspended him for a time but he eventually did it and the resulting movie was a big hit. The New York Times said "Raft is a vivid and pictorially interesting type, rather than an actor in the technical sense, and consequently he proves unequal to the full implications of the fame-hungry dancer. The exterior attractiveness which Mr. Raft brings to the rôle gives 'Bolero' considerable color, nevertheless."
In March 1934 Raft was suspended a second time for refusing the male lead in Mae West's It Ain't No Sin (later Belle of the Nineties.) because his part was subordinate to West's. In May Raft signed a new contract with Paramount, to reflect his star status.
Raft went into The Trumpet Blows (1934), playing a matador (an attempt to invoke Valentino's Blood and Sand); for a time he was promoted as a "second Valentino". Raft walked out on the film unhappy with his role, but later came back after some rewrites were done. The film was a box office disappointment.
Raft followed it with Limehouse Blues (1934; with Anna May Wong). In February 1934 Raft admitted to having been involved in three fights during his career as a dancer and actor, including one where he hit the producer of Bolero. August 1934 Raft was involved in a brawl at the Hollywood Brown Derby.
At the end of 1934 Raft was listed in a survey of theatre managers as among Paramount's secondary tier of stars “if properly cast”. Mae West and Bing Crosby were on top; others on Raft's level included the Marx Brothers, Carole Lombard, Marlene Dietrich, Claudette Colbert, Gary Cooper, and W. C. Fields.
The Glass Key (1935)Edit
He starred in a brutal and fast-paced adaptation of Dashiell Hammett's The Glass Key (1935; remade in 1942 with Alan Ladd). He tried a comedy Every Night at Eight (1935) and was borrowed by Columbia Pictures to appear in She Couldn't Take It (1935), a comedy in the vein of It Happened One Night (1934). Raft then was borrowed by 20th Century Fox for It Had to Happen (1936). Back at Paramount he was in Yours for the Asking (1936).
Raft was meant to team with Lombard for a third time in The Princess Comes Across (1936) but refused to make it as he was unhappy with the choice of cameraman. He was replaced by Fred MacMurray and was suspended again in February 1936.
Raft was meant to make You and Me, the directorial debut of Norman Krasna, but refused to work for a first-time director. Raft was put on suspension and $24,000 of his salary was withheld. In October 1936 he and Paramount patched up their differences and Paramount paid him back the $24,000.
Souls at Sea (1937)Edit
Raft was offered a part opposite the studio's biggest male star, Gary Cooper, in Souls at Sea (1937) directed by Henry Hathaway. Raft originally turned it down as his character was a coward and he left Paramount and his $4000 a week contract in November 1936. (The contract still had two years to go but Zukor of Paramount agreed to let him go). Sam Goldwyn wanted Raft for the film version of Dead End and Universal, David O. Selznick and 20th Century Fox were keen on using Raft; Lloyd Nolan was announced as Raft's replacement in Souls at Sea. Raft was discussing a three-film-a-year deal with United Artists for three years, to start with Dead End.
However Raft agreed to return to Paramount and the film when his part was rewritten to be more sympathetic.
Souls at Sea was a big hit. In 1937 Raft was the third highest paid star in Hollywood, behind Cooper and Warner Baxter, earning $202,666. In May 1937 Raft reportedly tested for the role of Rhett Butler in the film of Gone with the Wind.
Paramount announced him for Millions for Defence with Ray Milland and Frances Farmer about the Barbary War, but the film was not made. Instead he made a drama with Sylvia Sidney, You and Me (1938) directed by Fritz Lang, then was reunited with Hathaway for another adventure story, Spawn of the North (1938), with Henry Fonda and John Barrymore.
He was announced for The World Applauds and Two-Time Loser.
Paramount wanted Raft to appear in St. Louis Blues but he refused and was replaced by Lloyd Nolan. "Raft is Hollywood's authority on walk outs", wrote one columnist. He was suspended, then allowed to do a comedy, The Lady's from Kentucky (1939). In January 1939 he refused to make The Magnificent Fraud and was again replaced by Lloyd Nolan. Raft's contract was meant to go until February of that year but they decided to end it early.
Warner Bros: 1939–1943Edit
Raft received an offer from Warner Bros. to appear opposite James Cagney in a prison film, Each Dawn I Die (1939). He followed this with I Stole a Million (1939) for Universal. Each Dawn I Die was a big success and Warners offered Raft a long term contract in July 1939, at three films a year.
Hal Wallis later wrote that "Our association with Raft was a constant struggle from start to finish. Hypersensitive to public accusations of underworld connections, he flatly refused to play the heavy in any film... Time and time again we offered him gangster parts and time and time again he turned them down."
Raft was meant to remake The Patent Leather Kid, one of his favorite films and appear in the story of John Dillinger film with Cagney but both projects were called off. Instead he was assigned to Invisible Stripes (1939) with William Holden as his brother and Humphrey Bogart in support. Raft was borrowed by Walter Wanger to play a gangster in The House Across the Bay (1940), which was a flop. He was cast in City for Conquest (1940) but turned down the role and was replaced by Anthony Quinn.
He was meant to be in Star of Africa but the film was not made. He was also meant to make The Dealer's Name was George from a story by Ketti Frings but turned down the movie; it was revived in 1945 as a possible Humphrey Bogart movie but was ultimately never made.
They Drive by Night (1940), directed by Walsh, was a trucking melodrama, with Raft playing the lead, Bogart appearing in a supporting role as his brother, and Ann Sheridan portraying Raft's leading lady. In July 1940 he reprised his vaudeville act.
In August 1940 he turned down the lead in South of Suez (1940) and was replaced by George Brent. Raft was again placed on suspension but was meant to go back off it to appear in The Sea Wolf (1941), but he did not like the role and was suspended again. John Garfield took his place. MGM were going to borrow him to co-star with Norma Shearer in The World We Make but the film was never made.
Raft also turned down the leads in High Sierra (which had been turned down by Paul Muni) and The Maltese Falcon (1941). Both roles were played by Humphrey Bogart. Instead Raft made Manpower (1941), with Edward G. Robinson and Marlene Dietrich. Robinson recalled Raft as "touchy, difficult and thoroughly impossible to play with." During filming, Raft and Robinson came to blows, with photographs splashed across newspapers.
Raft then turned down the lead in All Through the Night (1942), refusing to turn up on the first day of filming because he did not want to play a "heel". Bogart took that role as well. It meant Raft was unable to take up Fox's offer to appear in To the Shores of Tripoli.
Raft wanted to appear in a film version of the musical Broadway (1942), made at Universal. Jack Warner refused to loan him out so Raft spent eight months on suspension without pay. They could only do this while making movies that Raft turned down; eventually Warners ran out of movies and they would have to go back to paying him. They let him make Broadway. Raft said he had to pay $27,500 out of his own pocket and negotiate so that Warners could borrow Robert Cummings from Universal for another film. The resulting film was a mild box office success. Raft was reported to have turned down Bogart's role in Casablanca (1942), although according to some Warner Bros. memos, this story is apocryphal. Raft was discussed as a possibility for the lead at one stage, but never offered it.
Raft was one of many Warners names who appeared in Stage Door Canteen (1943). He was reportedly working on a play based on his life with W. R. Burnett called Hell's Kitchen. He finally returned to filming at Warners with the espionage thriller Background to Danger (1943), a film intended to capitalize on the success of Casablanca (Sydney Greenstreet and Peter Lorre were in support – Raft and Lorre got into a fistfight on set.). In November 1942, Raft bought himself out of his Warners contract in order to do Hell's Kitchen on stage. He ended up never doing the play on stage.
Freelance star and producerEdit
Raft's career as a freelance actor initially began well. He toured the US, England and Africa, performing for the troops in January through to March 1944.
In March 1943 he was voted the 6th most popular star among African American movie audiences - Variety said "Raft has always been a prime favorite with the Negro filmgoer." His price as a guest star on radio was $1,500-$2,500.
He was offered the lead in Double Indemnity (1944) by Billy Wilder but turned it down. "We knew then that we'd have a good picture", said Wilder later. (Raft later admitted "I wasn't very intelligent then.")
Raft's first film after leaving Warners was Follow the Boys (1944), a musical at Universal, which featured a number of Universal's stars in a guest spots and Raft in the lead. It achieved a healthy gross. 20th Century Fox hired him to a contract so he could appear in a musical, Nob Hill (1945), replacing Fred MacMurray; directed by Hathaway, it was a huge hit.
Following this he made a thriller at RKO for director Edwin Marin, Johnny Angel (1945), which was an unexpected hit as well, making a profit of over a million dollars. Also popular was Whistle Stop (1946), a melodrama for United Artists, which gave an early good role to Ava Gardner. Mr. Ace (1946), with Sylvia Sidney and director Marin for producer Benedict Bogeaus, was a flop. However it did lead to a radio series starring Raft, The Cases of Mr. Ace (1947).
In 1946, Raft earned a reported $108,000 for the year. Raft announced he had created his own production company, Star Films, with Sam Bischoff as president, and would make three films in two years for $3.5 million. He and Marin returned to RKO to make the film noir Nocturne (1946), produced by Joan Harrison which was popular.
Raft's next three films were all directed by Marin: Christmas Eve (1947), at United Artists for Bogeaus, a box office disappointment; Intrigue (1947) at United Artists for Star Films; Race Street (1948) at RKO.
In June 1947 Raft received some bad publicity when his friend Bugsy Siegel was murdered. However the following year Hedda Hopper wrote a profile on Raft which said the actor was "going stronger than ever today" adding that "he has made millions but hasn't got 'em" due to a fondness for gambling and a loyalty to helping old friends.
Decline as a starEdit
Star Film's second movie was a story of the French Foreign Legion, Outpost in Morocco (1949), partly shot on location in Africa. The film was a box office disappointment. He followed this with a series of thrillers: Johnny Allegro (1949), directed by Ted Tetzlaff for Columbia; Red Light (1949), by Roy Del Ruth for United Artists; and A Dangerous Profession (1949), by Tetzlaff for RKO. None of these performed particularly strongly at the box office, and Raft's standing as a box office attraction had been damaged. The Johnny Allegro shoot went on for so long that Raft missed out on the chance to star in The Big Steal (1949); he was replaced by Robert Mitchum.
Raft went to England to make I'll Get You for This, shot in 1950 but not released for another year. In the summer of 1951, Raft had the title role in the radio adventure series Rocky Jordan. He played "the owner of a cabaret in Cairo whose life is steeped in intrigue." It only lasted a few months.
Three films for Lippert PicturesEdit
Raft appeared in two low budget thrillers, Escape Route (1952), shot in England with Sally Gray, and Loan Shark (1952). Both were released through Lippert Pictures. He starred in a syndicated TV series I'm the Law (1953) which ran one season. The Man from Cairo (1953), also for Lippert and shot in Europe and Africa, was the last film in which Raft had top billing. He resumed his dancing career, doing an exhibit in Las Vegas. "As far as films are concerned, I'm dead", he said. "Nobody has been breaking their necks trying to hire me." He tried to persuade Darryl Zanuck to remake The Honor System. "I want to play heavies again", he said. "I think I made a mistake going straight."
Raft had an excellent role as mob boss supporting Robert Taylor in Rogue Cop (1954), a hit at MGM. Also popular was Black Widow (1954), a noir with Ginger Rogers, but A Bullet for Joey (1955), which reunited Raft with Robinson, was a flop.
In 1955 Raft was offered the chance to buy a 2% share in the Flamingo Hotel for $65,000 if he acted as entertainment director. Raft agreed but was rejected for a gaming licence because of "too many associations with underworld figures". He appealed, arguing he knew many gangsters "but I never did business with any of them" and managed to get the decision overturned in December 1955. He went to work at the hotel negotiating their show business deals.
He was hired by Santo Trafficante Jr. to work as a greeter at the Capri Casino in Havana, Cuba, where he was a part owner. This ended when Fidel Castro took over the country and stamped out the casinos. (Raft was in Havana the night the revolutionaries arrived.)
Return to movie makingEdit
In July 1958, Raft was offered a role in his first movie in four years: Some Like It Hot (1959), playing a gangster. Due to Marilyn Monroe's tardiness on set, it turned into 16 weeks of work. He made a film in England, Jet Over the Atlantic.
The success of Some Like It Hot did not lead to a comeback, but Raft managed to get roles as a casino owner in Ocean's 11 (1960), and had a cameo as himself in The Ladies Man (1961). In Britain he was in a pilot that never went to series, Two Guys Abroad (1962), and back in Hollywood had small roles in For Those Who Think Young (1964) and The Patsy (1964).
In 1965 Raft was convicted of income tax evasion. He pled guilty to one count and was fined $2,500. The following year he testified in front of a New York grand jury about Mafia financial transactions.
Raft received an offer from Andy Neatrour to work as a host and part owner of a gambling club in London, the Colony Club. Raft went there in 1966. While there, he had parts in several movies, including a cameo in 1967's James Bond spoof Casino Royale, a French film with Jean Gabin The Upper Hand (1966) and Five Golden Dragons (1967). The club was a success. However, after he went to the US for a short holiday he was banned from re-entering London in 1967 as an "undesirable".
In the early 1970s, Raft appeared in a now-famous Alka-Seltzer television commercial playing the role of a prison inmate. He worked as a goodwill ambassador for the Riviera Hotel in Las Vegas. He had to sell his house and move into an apartment in Century City.
His final film appearances were in Hammersmith Is Out (1972), Sextette (1978), reunited with long-ago co-star Mae West, and The Man with Bogart's Face (1980), a nod to 1940s detective movies. and on The Mike Douglas Show 
In popular cultureEdit
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Ray Danton played Raft in The George Raft Story (1961), which co-starred Jayne Mansfield. Raft excoriated the film upon its release due to inaccuracies. In the 1991 biographical movie Bugsy, the character of George Raft was played by Joe Mantegna.
Raft has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame: for movies at 6150 Hollywood Boulevard and for television at 1500 Vine Street.
Junior Soprano tells Tony that his uncle Eckle, whom he never knew about, looked similar to Raft.
Raft married Grace Mulrooney (1902-1970) in 1923, long before his stardom. The pair separated soon thereafter, but the devoutly Catholic Mulrooney refused to grant a divorce, and Raft remained married to her, and continued to support her, until her death in 1970. A romantic figure in Hollywood, Raft had love affairs with Betty Grable, Marlene Dietrich, Tallulah Bankhead, Carole Lombard, and Mae West. He stated publicly that he wanted to marry Norma Shearer, with whom he had a long romance, but his wife's refusal to allow a divorce eventually caused Shearer to end the affair.
Links to criminal figuresEdit
When James Cagney became president of the Screen Actors Guild in 1942 for a two-year term, he took a role in the guild's fight against the Mafia, which had taken an active interest in the movie industry. Cagney's wife, Billie, once received a phone call telling her that Cagney was dead. Cagney alleged that, having failed to scare him and the guild off, they sent a hit man to kill him by dropping a heavy light onto his head. On hearing about the rumor of the hit, George Raft made a call, and the hit was supposedly cancelled.
Raft was investigated for tax evasion in 1942.
In 1944 Raft's name was mentioned in connection with an illegal dice game.
In 1946 Raft was sued by an attorney for assault.
Raft died from emphysema at the age of 79 in Los Angeles, on November 24, 1980. Two days earlier, Mae West had died, and the two stretchers holding the stars' bodies were briefly alongside one other in the hallway of the mortuary for a coincidental silent reunion almost half a century after their first film together.
Raft left behind no will. His estate consisted of a $10,000 insurance policy and some furniture. In the last years of his life he had mainly lived on $800 a month, a combination of social security and his pension. He was interred in Forest Lawn – Hollywood Hills Cemetery in Los Angeles. Raft's personal effects, wardrobe, etc., were sold by means of a simple classified advertisement, listing the lot for $800 in Hemmings Motor News in the fall of 1981.
- Queen of the Night Clubs (1929) (with Texas Guinan) as Gigola
- Gold Diggers of Broadway (1929) as Dancer (uncredited)
- Side Street (1929) (with Tom Moore, Owen Moore, and Matt Moore (Raft unbilled dancer) as Georgie Ames – the Dancer (uncredited)
- Quick Millions (1931) (with Spencer Tracy and Marguerite Churchill) as Jimmy Kirk
- Goldie (1931) (with Spencer Tracy and Jean Harlow) as Pickpocket (uncredited)
- Hush Money (1931) (with Joan Bennett and Myrna Loy) as Maxie
- Palmy Days (1931) (with Eddie Cantor) as Joe – Yolando's Henchman
- Taxi! (1932) (with James Cagney and Loretta Young) as William Kenny – Dance Contestant (uncredited)
- Dancers in the Dark (1932) (with Miriam Hopkins) as Louie Brooks
- Scarface (1932) (with Paul Muni and Ann Dvorak (Raft flips the nickel in his breakthrough role) as Guino Rinaldo
- Night World (1932) (with Lew Ayres, Mae Clarke, and Boris Karloff) as Ed Powell
- Love Is a Racket (1932) as Sneaky (scenes deleted)
- Madame Racketeer (1932) (with Alison Skipworth and Richard Bennett) as Jack Houston
- Night After Night (1932) (with Mae West as a fictionalized Texas Guinan (Raft's 1st leading role) as Joe Anton
- If I Had a Million (1932; Raft plays a forger) as Eddie Jackson
- Under Cover Man (1932) (with Nancy Carroll) as Nick Darrow
- Winner Take All (1932) (with James Cagney) as Bandleader at Guinan's (archive footage) (uncredited)
- Pick-Up (1933) (with Sylvia Sidney) as Harry Glynn
- Midnight Club (1933) (with Clive Brook) (Raft 2nd billed) as Nick Mason
- The Bowery (1933) (with Wallace Beery, Fay Wray, and Pert Kelton) (Raft 2nd billed) as Steve Brodie
- All of Me (1934) (with Fredric March and Miriam Hopkins) (Raft 3rd billed) as Honey Rogers
- Bolero (1934) (with Carole Lombard and Ray Milland) (besides Scarface, Raft's signature film) as Raoul De Baere
- The Trumpet Blows (1934) (with Adolphe Menjou) as Manuel Montes
- Limehouse Blues (1934) (with Anna May Wong) as Harry Young
- Rumba (1935) (with Carole Lombard) as Joe Martin
- Stolen Harmony (1935) (with Lloyd Nolan and William Cagney) as Ray Angelo, alias Ray Ferraro
- The Glass Key (1935) (with Edward Arnold) as Ed Beaumont
- Every Night at Eight (1935) (with Alice Faye and Frances Langford) as 'Tops' Cardona
- She Couldn't Take It (1935) (with Joan Bennett) as Spot Ricardi / Joseph Ricard
- It Had to Happen (1936) (with Rosalind Russell) as Enrico Scaffa
- Yours for the Asking (1936) (with Dolores Costello and Ida Lupino) as Johnny Lamb
- Souls at Sea (1937) (with Gary Cooper) (Raft 2nd billed) as Powdah
- You and Me (1938) with Sylvia Sidney (with bizarre musical interludes by Kurt Weill) as Joe Dennis
- Spawn of the North (1938) (with Henry Fonda and John Barrymore) as Tyler Dawson
- The Lady's from Kentucky (1939) (with Ellen Drew) as Marty Black
- Each Dawn I Die (1939) with James Cagney (Raft 2nd billed) as 'Hood' Stacey
- I Stole a Million (1939) (with Claire Trevor) as Joe Lourik, alias Joe Harris
- Invisible Stripes (1939) (with William Holden and Humphrey Bogart) as Cliff Taylor
- The House Across the Bay (1940) (with Joan Bennett) as Steve
- They Drive by Night (1940) (with Ann Sheridan, Ida Lupino, and Humphrey Bogart) as Joe Fabrini
- Manpower (1941) (with Edward G. Robinson and Marlene Dietrich) (Raft 3rd billed but played the lead) as Joe Fabrini
- Broadway (1942) (with Pat O'Brien and Broderick Crawford) (young B'way dancer) as Himself
- Stage Door Canteen (1943) (with an all-star cast) as Himself
- Background to Danger (1943) (with Sydney Greenstreet and Peter Lorre) as Joe Barton
- Follow the Boys (1944) (with Vera Zorina) as Tony West
- Nob Hill (1945) (with Joan Bennett and Vivian Blaine) as Tony Angelo
- Johnny Angel (1945) (with Claire Trevor and Hoagy Carmichael) as Johnny Angel
- Whistle Stop (1946) (with Ava Gardner and Victor McLaglen) as Kenny Veech
- Mr. Ace (1946) (with Sylvia Sidney) as Eddie Ace
- Nocturne (1946) (with Lynn Bari) as Joe Warne
- Christmas Eve (1947) (with George Brent, Randolph Scott, and Joan Blondell) as Mario Torio
- Intrigue (1947) (with June Havoc) as Brad Dunham
- Race Street (1948) (with William Bendix and Marilyn Maxwell) as Daniel J. 'Dan' Gannin
- Outpost in Morocco (1949) (with Marie Windsor and Akim Tamiroff) as Capt. Paul Gerard
- Johnny Allegro (1949) (with Nina Foch and Will Geer) as Johnny Allegro
- Red Light (1949) (with Virginia Mayo, Gene Lockhart, and Raymond Burr) as Johnny Torno
- A Dangerous Profession (1949) (with Ella Raines, Pat O'Brien, and Jim Backus) as Vince Kane
- We Shall Go to Paris (1950), (also known as Nous Irons a Paris) as Himself
- I'll Get You for This (1951; AKA Lucky Nick Cain) (with Coleen Gray) as Nick Cain
- Loan Shark (1952) (with Dorothy Hart) as Joe Gargen
- Escape Route (1952; AKA I'll Get You) as Steve Rossi
- The Man from Cairo (1953) (Raft's last top billing in a theatrical film) as Mike Canelli
- I'm the Law (1954; 26-episode TV series) as Police Lt. George Kirby
- Rogue Cop (1954) (with Robert Taylor and Janet Leigh) (Raft 3rd billed) as Dan Beaumonte
- Black Widow (1954) (with Ginger Rogers, Van Heflin, and Gene Tierney) (Raft 4th billed) as Detective Lt. C.A. Bruce
- A Bullet for Joey (1955) (with Edward G. Robinson) (Raft 2nd billed) as Joe Victor aka Steiner
- Around the World in 80 Days (1956) (with David Niven and Marlene Dietrich) as Bouncer at the Barbary Coast Saloon
- Some Like It Hot (1959) (with Marilyn Monroe, Tony Curtis, and Jack Lemmon) (Raft 4th billed) as "Spats" Colombo, Chicago mobster
- Jet Over the Atlantic (1959) (with Guy Madison and Virginia Mayo) (Raft 3rd billed) as Stafford
- Ocean's 11 (1960) (with the Rat Pack - Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis, Jr., Peter Lawford, and Joey Bishop) as Jack Strager, casino owner
- The Ladies Man (1961) (with Jerry Lewis) (Raft cameo)
- Two Guys Abroad (1962) as Nightclub co-owner
- For Those Who Think Young (1964) as Detective (uncredited)
- The Patsy (1964) as Himself
- The Upper Hand (1966) (with Jean Gabin) (Raft 2nd billed) as Charles Binnaggio
- Casino Royale (1967) as Himself
- Five Golden Dragons (1967) (with Robert Cummings and Klaus Kinski) as Dragon #2
- Skidoo (1968) (with Jackie Gleason and Groucho Marx) as Capt. Garbaldo
- Madigan's Millions (1968)
- Hammersmith Is Out (1972) (with Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, and Peter Ustinov) as Guido Scartucci
- Deadhead Miles (1972) as Himself
- Sextette (1978) (with Mae West and Timothy Dalton) as Himself
- The Man with Bogart's Face (1980) as Petey Cane (final film role)
- Hollywood on Parade No. A-9 (1933)
- Hollywood on Parade No. B-5 (1933)
- Hollywood on Parade No. B-8 (1934)
- The Fashion Side of Hollywood (1935)
- Screen Snapshots Series 18, No. 4 (1938)
- Meet the Stars #6: Stars at Play (1941)
- Hedda Hopper's Hollywood No. 2 (1941)
- Hollywood Park (1946)
- Screen Snapshots: Vacation at Del Mar (1949)
Select radio appearancesEdit
- Kraft Cheese Program (1936)
- Lux Radio Theatre – "Cheating Cheaters" (31 August 1936) – with June Lang
- Lux Radio Theatre – "Spawn of the North" (12 September 1938) – with Dorothy Lamour and Fred MacMurray
- Bob Hope – "Bob is Remodeling His House" (1939)
- Screen Guild Theatre: "A Mug, a Moll and a Mountaineer" (2 April 1939)
- Procter and Gamble's Knickerbocker Playhouse – "Bulldog Drummond" (1939)
- Campbell Soup Playhouse – "A Free Soul" (1941)
- Lux Radio Theatre – "They Drive By Night" (2 June 1941) – with Lana Turner
- Screen Guild Theatre – "Torrid Zone" (25 Jan 1942)
- Lux Radio Theatre – "Manpower" (16 March 1942) – with Marlene Dietrich and Edward G. Robinson
- Lux Radio Theatre – "Broadway" (30 November 1942) – with Lloyd Nolan
- Lux Radio Theatre – "Each Dawn I Die" (22 March 1943) – with Franchot Tone
- Lux Radio Theatre – Air Force (7 December 1943)
- Lux Radio Theatre – "Action in the North Atlantic" (15 May 1944) – with Raymond Massey
- The Cases of Mr. Ace (4 June – 3 Sept 1947) – regular series
- Lux Radio Theatre- "Intrigue" (5 October 1948)
- Rocky Jordan (27 June – 22 August 1951)
- Martin and Lewis Show" (12 October 1951)
- George Raft on IMDb
- By, J. B. (1974, Jun 04). "George Raft: Grease, games" The Washington Post
- Yablonsky, Lewis George Raft iUniverse 2000. ISBN 0595010032
- United States Census 1910; Census Place: Manhattan Ward 12, New York, New York; Roll: T624_1025; Page: 19A; Enumeration District: 0668; Image: 1107; FHL Number: 1375038.
- George Raft With Nancy Carroll in Play of Revenge The Washington Post 18 Dec 1932: 33.
- Mike Douglas Show via YouTube
- George Raft birth data, italiangen.org; accessed August 15, 2015.
- United States Census 1900; Census Place: Manhattan, New York, New York; Roll: T623_1109; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 642.
- via Associated Press, "'Tough guy' George raft dies of emphysema at 85", The Milwaukee Sentinel, November 25, 1980; accessed August 10, 2009.
"After growing up in New York's tough Hell's Kitchen area, Raft was a boxer, electrician, and baseball player before landing a job as a dancer in nightclubs in the 1920s."
- Beaver, Jim. George Raft profile, Films in Review (April 1978)
- Thackrey, T. O. (25 November 1980). "George raft, tough guy in films and life, dead at 85". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 162998070.
- "CIRCUITOUS ROUTE TO HOLLYWOOD FOR RAFT". Los Angeles Times. 23 October 1932. p. B7.
- "George Raft Started Out As Pugilist: Became Fast Hoofer And Was Snapped Up As Actor By Chance" D E. The China Press 25 Dec 1932: C13.
- "Movie tough guy George Raft dies". (1980, Nov 25). Chicago Tribune
- Weil, Martin (25 November 1980). "Screen tough guy George Raft dies of emphysema off-stage life mirrored star's Hollywood image". Washington Post.
- Yablonsky p 11–12
- D, E. (1932, Dec 25). George raft started out as pugilist. The China Press
- By, J. M. (1937, Nov 07). Studio learns the actor means what he says. The Washington Post (1923–1954) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/150918620
- EARLE. (1926, Feb 08). The Washington Post
- Yablonsky p 21
- "81st Street". Variety. 28 May 1924. p. 33.
- Yablonsky p20-21
- Yablonsky, Lewis George Raft iUniverse 2000; ISBN 0595010032 p. 238.
- Astaire, Fred, Steps in Time; ISBN 0-06-156756-6.
- "5th Avenue". Variety. 1 September 1926. p. 22.
- Yabslonsky p 45-47
- Cite error: The named reference
circiwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Review of The City Chap at Variety
- "George Raft". Variety. 30 December 1925. p. 29.
- Hopper, H. (1948, Oct 31). Being the type wins tough guy recognition. Los Angeles Times
- Scheuer, P. K. (1928, Oct 15). NIGHT-CLUB 'RACKET' IN LOEW DEBUT. Los Angeles Times
- "Loew's State". Variety. 17 October 1928. p. 39.
- Schallert, E. (1929, Mar 08). CHARM MARKS TALK NOVELTY. Los Angeles Times
- "Queen of the Night Clubs". Variety. March 20, 1929. p. 12.
- Busby, M. (1929, Mar 05). NIGHT-CLUB HOSTESS IN FILM DEBUT. Los Angeles Times
- Burnett Mate, Ken; McGilligan, Pat; White, Dennis L. Film Comment; New York Vol. 19, Iss. 1, (Jan/Feb 1983): 58-68,70,80.
- (1939, Jan 21). "SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD". New York Times
- "NOMAD STARS COMING HOME: Gary Cooper Returning to Appear With Bankhead Eula Guy Todd Chosen for "Society Girl" Adrienne Ames Plans Trip to Honolulu" Kingsley, Grace. Los Angeles Times 28 Mar 1932: A8.
- Raft's Suavity Utilized in Film Los Angeles Times 17 Apr 1932: B20.
- Kingsley, G. (1932, May 19). "TIMELY THEMES PROGRAM BASIS". Los Angeles Times
- Merrick, M. (1932, May 20). "RAFT DUE FOR FILM STARDOM". Los Angeles Times
- Parish, James Robert. The George Raft File: The Unauthorized Biography. New York: Drake Publishers, 1973; ISBN 0-87749-520-3.
- Merrick, M. (1932, Sep 01). "HOLLYWOOD IN PERSON". Los Angeles Times
- "George Raft Funny Kind of Star". Variety. 13 December 1932. p. 3.
- "Widely read story becomes film play with notable cast" (1933, May 28). The Washington Post
- "Schwartz faces re-indictment on three counts" (1933, Feb 18). Los Angeles Times
- "Raft to resume with Paramount" (1933, Apr 27). New York Times
- Schallert, E. (1933, Aug 15)."Dr. Rockwell, noted comedian, ensnared by films; news, gossip of studio, theaters" Los Angeles Times
- "HOLLYWOOD HAPPENINGS" (1933, Oct 01). New York Times
- "MOVIE REVIEW An Ambitious Dancer". New York Times. February 17, 1934.
- Shaffer, G. (1934, Mar 10). George Raft leaves cast of Mae West film. Chicago Daily Tribune (1923–1963) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/181490340
- "GEORGE RAFT REFUSES PART IN MAE WEST FILM". The West Australian. 50 (9, 936). Western Australia. 4 May 1934. p. 3. Retrieved 27 July 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Schallert, E. (1934, Mar 16). "'Life of Virgie Waters substituted for 'Alien Corn' on Ann Harding's schedule" Los Angeles Times
- "NO LONGER A "SECOND VALENTINO."". Western Mail. 53 (2, 706). Western Australia. 6 January 1938. p. 33. Retrieved 27 July 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- By, J. M. (1937, Aug 01). Scenes kept from public often best. The Washington Post (1923–1954) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/150963429
- By, G. R. (1934, Feb 25). In which a young man who has a reputation speaks his mind. The Washington Post (1923–1954) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/150532869
- "RAFT MIXES IN BATTLE" (1934, Aug 04). Los Angeles Times
- By, D. W. (1934, Nov 25). "TAKING A LOOK AT THE RECORD" New York Times
- Schallert, E. (1934, Dec 03). "Henry Hull to pursue career as important character lead in 'Transient Lady'". Los Angeles Times
- "Who'll take their picture?" (1936, Feb 12). Los Angeles Times
- "NEWS OF THE SCREEN" (1936, Sep 03). New York Times
- (1936, Nov 20). "News from Hollywood" New York Times
- "Raft Back at Par". Variety. 14 October 1936. p. 3.
- Schallert, E. (1936, Nov 16). "STUDIOS GO ON MOST TERRIFIC ACTOR-BORROWING SPREE EVER". Los Angeles Times
- "Raft Talking UA Deal after his Par Walk". Variety. 18 November 1936. p. 2.
- Schallert, E. (1936, Nov 20). "GEORGE RAFT, PARAMOUNT MAKE UP; STAR GOES INTO 'SOULS AT SEA'". Los Angeles Times
- Read, K. (1937, May 30). "ODD AND INTERESTING". Los Angeles Times
- "HIGHLIGHTS FROM THE STUDIOS" (1937, Oct 03). New York Times
- Schallert, E. (1938, July 19). "George Raft to star in Two-Time Loser", Los Angeles Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- By, L.N. (1938, Oct 09). "John Payne indebted to Dick Powell", The Washington Post, retrieved June 26, 2018.
- By, T. M. (1939, Jul 23). "A SLICK LATIN FROM OLD MANHATTAN", New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- By DOUGLAS W CHURCHILL (1939, Jul 15). SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD, New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- Wallis, Hal B.; Higham, Charles (1980). Starmaker : the autobiography of Hal Wallis. Macmillan Pub. Co. p. 48.
- Yablonsky p 58
- (1939, Mar 06). "NEWS OF THE SCREEN" New York Times
- By DOUGLAS W CHURCHILL (1940, May 27). "SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD", New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- By DOUGLAS W CHURCHILL (1940, Jun 29). "SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD", New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- (1945, Dec 03). ""PORTRAIT IN BLACK TO BECOME A FILM", New York Times; retrieved June 28, 2016.
- "Strand NY". Variety. 31 July 1940. p. 134.
- (1940, Aug 21). "SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD". New York Times
- By DOUGLAS W CHURCHILL (1940, Oct 31). "SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD" New York Times
- By DOUGLAS W CHURCHILL (1940, Nov 04). "NEWS OF THE SCREEN". New York Times
- (1940, Aug 09). "SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD", New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- Robinson, Edward G.; Spigelglass, Leonard (1973). All my yesterdays; an autobiography. Hawthorn Books. p. 244-245.
- Schallert, E. (1941, Aug 01). Raft refuses to play 'heel' role at Warners. Los Angeles Times
- By DOUGLAS W CHURCHILL By Telephone to The New York Times. (1941, Aug 30). "SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD", New York Times; accessed June 26, 2018.
- By, T. B. (1942, Jan 11). "THE HOLLYWOOD SCENE", New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- "A FEW HOLLYWOOD ACHES AND PAINS: Metro Gauges Public Reaction to Ayres Case -- Mr. Raft Protests" by THOMAS F. BRADY HOLLYWOOD.. New York Times 5 Apr 1942: X3.
- Behlmer, Rudy. Inside Warner Bros. (1913–1951); ISBN 0-671-63135-7.
- "SCREEN". (1942, Oct 30). Los Angeles Times
- By Telephone to The New York Times. (1942, Nov 13). "SCREEN NEWS HERE AND IN HOLLYWOOD", New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- Adler, D. (1967, Jul 30). "George raft loses A toss". Los Angeles Times
- "Bette, Bogart". Variety. 31 March 1943. p. 44.
- "Junkets on Radio Coin". Variety. 14 July 1943. p. 94.
- Scheuer, P. K. (1944, Aug 06). "Film history made by 'Double Indemnity'". Los Angeles Times
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- (1944, Jul 24). "George Raft is signed by RKO for Johnny Angel -- four new pictures due this week", New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- Richard Jewell & Vernon Harbin, The RKO Story, New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House, 1982. pg. 205
- M'CAREY'S WAGE OF $1,113,035 YEAR'S HIGHEST: Treasury Report Places Film Producer First, Chicago Daily Tribune (1923–1963) [Chicago, Ill], June 17, 1946: pg. 6.
- "RAFT IS ORGANIZING OWN MOVIE STUDIOS: Actor and Sam Bischoff Will Produce as Star Films, Inc. --James Mason in Deal" Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES.. New York Times, September 13, 1946, pg. 5.
- "Underworld keeps its secrets about Siegel", (1947, Jun 26), Los Angeles Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- GEORGE RIDES HIGH: LOOKING AT HOLLYWOOD WITH HEDDA HOPPER RAFT Chicago Daily Tribune 31 Oct 1948: b8.
- By A.H. WEILER. (1947, Dec 07). "George Raft plans CYO film, New York Times; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- "MITCHUM IN LEAD OF 'THE BIG STEAL': RKO Moves Actor Into Role Originally Given to Raft -- Bank Tightens Loans", New York Times; December 23, 1948, pg. 25
- Scannell, Walter (Winter 2014). "Tough Guys Do Dance". Nostalgia Digest. 40 (1): 26–31.
- "GEORGE RAFT TO GIVE PICTURES AWAY". Goulburn Evening Post. New South Wales, Australia. May 14, 1953. p. 1. Retrieved July 27, 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "GEORGE RAFT DANCES AGAIN". The World's News (2707). New South Wales, Australia. November 7, 1953. p. 27. Retrieved July 27, 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Raft Gets okay for 2% Buy of Vegas Casino". Variety. 28 December 1955. p. 2.
- English, T. J. (2019). The Corporation: Gangsters, Drugs, Sex and Violence: The Rise and Fall of American's Cuban Mafia. London: Blink. p. 379. ISBN 9781911274513. OCLC 1079204333.
- Fry, Colin The Krays: A Violent Business: The Definitive Inside Story of Britain's Most Notorious Brothers in Crime Random House, May 5, 2011.
- IMDB The Mike Douglas Show Episode #19.151
- Heller, Jean (October 30, 1969). "Funds For Parvin Foundation Came From Flamingo Hotel Sale". The Evening Sun. Hanover, Pennsylvania. p. 29. Retrieved August 29, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
Other stockholders included singer Tony Martin and actor George Raft.
- Marriage details. "Ancestry.com".
- Wallace, Stone. George Raft: The Man Who Would Be Bogart; ISBN 1-59393-204-9.
- Warren, Doug; Cagney, James (1983). Cagney: The Authorized Biography (Mass Market ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-312-90207-7.
- Cagney, James (2005) . Cagney by Cagney. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-52026-3.
- "George Raft FBI File". archive.org.
- "TAX INQUIRY ON GEORGE RAFT". Truth (2742). Sydney. 26 July 1942. p. 20. Retrieved 27 July 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "INDIGNANT ROLE FOR ACTOR RAFT IN BOOKIE TRIAL" (1944, Jul 18). Chicago Daily Tribune
- "Actor George Raft Sued". The Mercury. CLXIV (23, 733). Tasmania, Australia. 31 December 1946. p. 9. Retrieved 27 July 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Mickey Cohen". Variety. 29 May 1957. p. 46.
- Raft denied entry into UK, news.google.com; accessed August 25, 2015.
- "George Raft leaves only $10,000 policy, furniture", (1981, Jan 31), Chicago Tribune; retrieved June 26, 2018.
- Everett Aaker, The Films of George Raft, McFarland & Company, 2013 p 184-188
- A.M. Sperber & Eric Lax, Bogart, HarperCollins, 2011
- "PROJECTION JOTTINGS". New York Times. 19 Feb 1933. p. X5.
- "Joan Bennett Set for 'Man in Iron Mask': Brent Plays Minister Atwill in 'The Gorilla' New Television Plans New Raft Controversy" Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times, January 20, 1939: p. 10.
- Review of Chesting Cheaters radio show at Variety
- Review of show at Variety
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- Rocky Jordan infosite, thrillingdetective.com; accessed August 1, 2016.
- 1900 United States Federal Census, Census Place: Manhattan, New York, New York; Roll T623_1109; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 642.[non-primary source needed]
- 1910; Census Place: Manhattan Ward 12, New York, New York; Roll T624_1025; Page: 19A; Enumeration District: 668; Image: 1104[non-primary source needed]
- Beaver, Jim. George Raft. Films in Review, April, 1978.
- Lewis, Brad. Hollywood's Celebrity Gangster. The Incredible Life and Times of Mickey Cohen. Enigma Books: New York, 2007. ISBN 978-1-929631-65-0.
- Parish, James Robert. The George Raft File: The Unauthorized Biography. New York: Drake Publishers, 1973. ISBN 0-87749-520-3.
- Wallace, Stone. George Raft-The Man Who Would Be Bogart. Albany: BearManor Media, 2008. ISBN 1-59393-123-9.
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