Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Lana Turner (/ˈlɑːnə ˈtɜːrnər/; born Julia Jean Turner; February 8, 1921 – June 29, 1995) was an American film, television, stage, and radio actress. Over the course of her nearly 50-year career, she achieved fame as both a pin-up model and a dramatic actress as well as for her highly publicized personal life. A major box-office attraction during the 1940s, Turner was recognized among her peers as a hard-working and versatile actress,[1] and by the public as a popular culture icon of Hollywood glamour.[2]

Lana Turner
Blonde woman facing the camera
Turner in a studio publicity photo c. 1956
Born Julia Jean Turner
(1921-02-08)February 8, 1921
Wallace, Idaho, U.S.
Died June 29, 1995(1995-06-29) (aged 74)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Education Hollywood High School
Occupation Actress
Years active 1937–1985
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Artie Shaw (m. 1940; div. 1940)
Steve Crane (m. 1942–ann. 1943; m. 1943–div. 1944)
Bob Topping (m. 1948; div. 1952)
Lex Barker (m. 1953; div. 1957)
Fred May (m. 1960; div. 1962)
Robert Eaton (m. 1965; div. 1969)
Ronald Pellar (m. 1969; div. 1972)
Children Cheryl Crane
Signature
Lana Turner signature.svg

Born to working-class parents in northern Idaho, Turner spent her early life there before her family relocated to San Francisco, California. In 1936, while still in high school, she was discovered while purchasing a soda at the Top Hat Malt Shop in Hollywood. At the age of 16, she was signed to a personal contract by Warner Bros. director Mervyn LeRoy, who took her with him when he moved to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1938. Turner attracted attention in her first film, LeRoy's They Won't Forget (1937), and she later transitioned into featured roles, often appearing as an ingénue. Her auburn hair was bleached blonde in 1939, and she remained blonde for the rest of her life, aside from altering it for a few film roles.

During the early 1940s, Turner established herself as a leading actress in such films as the film noir Johnny Eager (1941); the musical Ziegfeld Girl (1941) opposite James Stewart, Judy Garland, and Hedy Lamarr; the horror film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1941); and the romantic war drama Somewhere I'll Find You (1942), one of several films in which she starred opposite Clark Gable. Turner's reputation as a glamorous femme fatale was enhanced by her critically acclaimed performance in the film noir The Postman Always Rings Twice (1946). Her popularity continued through the 1950s in dramas such as The Bad and the Beautiful (1952) and Peyton Place (1957), the latter of which earned her an Academy Award nomination for Best Actress.

Media controversy surrounded Turner in 1958 when her daughter Cheryl Crane stabbed Turner's lover Johnny Stompanato to death in their Beverly Hills home during a domestic struggle. Turner's next film, Imitation of Life (1959), proved to be one of the greatest financial successes of her career, but onward from the early 1960s, her roles were fewer. Turner spent most of the 1970s and early 1980s in semi-retirement. In 1982, she accepted a much publicized and lucrative recurring guest role in the television series Falcon Crest, affording the series the highest rating it ever achieved. Turner made her final film appearance in 1980, and died from throat cancer in 1995, aged 74.

Contents

Early lifeEdit

 
The Elks Club in Wallace, Idaho, where Turner performed in her youth

Lana Turner was born Julia Jean Turner[3] on February 8, 1921 at Providence Hospital[4] in Wallace, Idaho, a small mining community in the Idaho Panhandle region.[5][6] She was the only child of John Virgil Turner, a miner from Mt. Pleasant, Tennessee (September 11, 1894 – December 14, 1930),[7] who was 26 years old when Turner was born, and Mildred Frances Cowan from Lamar, Arkansas (February 12, 1904 – February 22, 1982),[8] who was 16 years old when Turner was born. Her parents had met while Mildred, the daughter of a mine inspector, was visiting Picher, Oklahoma with her father, who was inspecting local mines there.[9] Turner was of Dutch, English, Irish, and Scottish ancestry.[9]

The Turner family lived in Burke, Idaho at the time of her birth,[10] and relocated to nearby Wallace,[a] where Turner's father opened a dry cleaning service and worked in the nearby silver mines.[12] As a child, Julia Turner was known to family and friends as "Judy."[13] Turner expressed interest in performance at a young age, performing short routines at her father's Elks chapter in Wallace.[1]

Hard times forced the family to relocate to San Francisco, California when Turner was six years old, and her parents soon separated.[14] On December 14, 1930,[15] her father won some money at a traveling craps game, stuffed his winnings in his left sock, and headed for home. He was later found murdered on the corner of Minnesota and Mariposa Streets, on the edge of San Francisco's Potrero Hill and the Dogpatch District with his left shoe and sock missing.[13][16] He had been bludgeoned to death.[13] His robbery and homicide were never solved.[13]

Though not baptized at birth, Turner was raised in the Roman Catholic tradition by her mother[17] and converted at age seven.[18] She and her mother attended mass in Stockton, California.[19] She would later attend the Convent of the Immaculate Conception in San Francisco, hoping to become a nun in her adulthood.[1] In the mid-1930s, Turner's mother developed respiratory problems and was advised by her doctor to move to a drier climate, upon which the two moved to Los Angeles in 1936.[1][16] Turner and her mother lived in poverty, and the two were sometimes separated, as Turner lived with family friends or acquaintances so her mother could save money. Her mother reportedly worked 80 hours per week as a beautician to support herself and her daughter.[20][21] After Turner was discovered, her mother became the overseer of her career.[22]

CareerEdit

1937–1939: Discovery and early workEdit

 
Turner in an early MGM publicity photo, prior to her change to the blonde hair she would wear from 1941 onward[23]

Turner's discovery is considered by film historians to be a show-business legend and a part of Hollywood mythology,[b] recounted numerous times with slight variations.[25][26] One version of the story erroneously has her discovery occurring at Schwab's Pharmacy,[27] but according to both Turner and a 1995 Los Angeles Times article, this was a reporting error that began circulating in articles published by columnist Sidney Skolsky.[24] According to Turner,[24] as a junior at Hollywood High School, she skipped a typing class and bought a Coke at the Top Hat Malt Shop[28][29] located on the southeast corner of Sunset Boulevard and McCadden Place.[30] While in the shop, Turner was spotted by William R. Wilkerson, publisher of The Hollywood Reporter. Wilkerson was attracted by her beauty and physique, and with the permission of her mother, referred her to the actor/comedian/talent agent Zeppo Marx.[31] In December 1936, Turner was introduced by Marx to film director Mervyn LeRoy, who signed her to a fifty-dollar weekly contract with Warner Bros. on February 22, 1937.[28] At the suggestion of LeRoy, she would take the stage name Lana Turner, a name she would come to legally adopt several years later.[32]

Her first picture with Warner Bros. was James Whale's comedy The Great Garrick (1937) in a supporting part.[33] LeRoy then cast Turner in They Won't Forget (1937),[31] a crime drama in which she played a teenage murder victim. Though the part was minor, William Wilkerson wrote in The Hollywood Reporter that Turner's performance was "worthy of more than a passing note."[34] Turner earned the nickname "the Sweater Girl" from her form-fitting attire in a scene in They Won't Forget.[31][35] According to her daughter, this was a nickname Turner detested throughout her entire career.[36] In late 1937, she signed a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for $100 a week, and graduated from high school in between filming.[36] The same year, she was loaned to United Artists for a minor role as a maid in The Adventures of Marco Polo.[34]

According to LeRoy, she made the switch thanks to him, for he left Warner Bros. to work at MGM and was advised by studio head Jack L. Warner to take her with him, because Warner believed that she would not "amount to anything."[37] Her first starring role for MGM was scheduled to be an adaptation of The Sea-Wolf, co-starring Clark Gable, but the project was eventually shelved.[38] Instead, she was assigned opposite teen idol Mickey Rooney in the Andy Hardy film Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938). This appearance, as a flirtatious girl described as "the kissing bug," convinced Louis B. Mayer that LeRoy's protégée Turner could be the next Jean Harlow, a sex symbol who had died six months before Turner's arrival at MGM.[36]

1940–1945: Establishment as a sex symbolEdit

 
Turner in a publicity still from Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1941), in which she appears in a hallucinogenic montage opposite Ingrid Bergman[39]

Mayer helped further Turner's career by giving her the leads in several youth-oriented films in the late 1930s and early 1940s, such as Dramatic School (1938), These Glamour Girls (1939), and Dancing Co-Ed (1939).[40] In early 1940, she was set to star in a remake of Our Dancing Daughters, but the film was never made.[41] She was also set to appear opposite Clark Gable in The Uniform, which began production in December 1940.[42] Turner, however, was replaced by Rosalind Russell, and the film was released under the title They Met in Bombay. Instead, Turner took a supporting role in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1941), a Freudian-influenced horror film, with Spencer Tracy and Ingrid Bergman.[43] The same year, she had a lead role in the musical Ziegfeld Girl, opposite James Stewart, Judy Garland, and Hedy Lamarr.[44] She then starred opposite Robert Taylor in Johnny Eager, a violent mobster film,[45] followed by a lead role in the romantic drama Slightly Dangerous (1943).[46] She also had a cameo in The Youngest Profession (1943).[47] Turner's increasing prominence in Hollywood films during World War II led her to becoming a popular pin-up girl at the time.[48]

She went on to appear in four films with Clark Gable between 1941 and 1954, beginning with Honky Tonk (1941).[49] The Turner-Gable films' successes were heightened by gossip-column rumors about a relationship between the two.[50] In January 1942, she began shooting her second picture with Gable, titled Somewhere I'll Find You;[51] however, the production was halted for several weeks after the death of Gable's wife, Carole Lombard, in a plane crash.[52] Meanwhile, the press continued to fuel rumors that Turner and Gable were romantic offscreen, which Turner vehemently denied.[36] Consequently, the publicity generated by this would lead MGM to play up her image as a sex symbol in her following film, a romantic comedy titled Slightly Dangerous (1943).[36] In promotion of Somewhere I'll Find You, Turner embarked on a nationwide war bond tour, during which she returned to her hometown of Wallace, Idaho with her mother, where she was greeted with a large celebration: "We checked into our hotel, and were told that the Mayor had declared a holiday in my honor," she recalled. "A banner stretched across the street read, in large letters, WELCOME HOME, LANA. We'd been in our rooms only a few moments when people who claimed to have known us when we lived in Wallace began knocking on the door."[53] In 1945, she starred in the war drama Keep Your Powder Dry, about three women who join the Women's Army Corps,[54] followed by a lead role in the comedy Week-End at the Waldorf, the latter of which was a box-office hit.[55]

1946–47: Shift toward dramatic rolesEdit

 
Turner with John Garfield in The Postman Always Rings Twice, considered by many critics to be one of her career-defining performances[36]

After the war, Turner was cast in a lead role opposite John Garfield in The Postman Always Rings Twice (1946), a film noir based on James M. Cain's debut novel of the same name.[56] In the film, she portrays Cora, a diner proprietor who devises a plan to murder her husband with a drifter who has become her lover.[57] The now-classic film noir marked a turning point in Turner's career as her first femme fatale role. Reviews of the film, and in particular, Turner's performance, were glowing, with a critic of The New York Times writing it was "the role of her career."[36] Life magazine named the film their "Movie of the Week" in April 1946, and noted that both Turner and Garfield were "aptly cast" and "take over the screen, [creating] more fireworks than the Fourth of July."[58] Turner commented on her decision to take the role:

I finally got tired of making movies where all I did was walk across the screen and look pretty. I got a big chance to do some real acting in The Postman Always Rings Twice, and I'm not going to slip back if I can help it. I tried to persuade the studio to give me something different. But every time I went into my argument about how bad a picture was, they'd say, "well, it's making a fortune". That licked me.[59]

 
Turner greeting fans in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1946

The Postman Always Rings Twice became a major box office success, which prompted the studio to take more risks on Turner, casting her outside of the glamorous sex symbol roles she had come to be known for.[59] In August 1946, it was announced Turner was set to replace Katharine Hepburn in the big-budgeted historical drama Green Dolphin Street (1947), a role for which she darkened her hair and lost 15 pounds.[59][60] It was Carey Wilson who insisted on casting Turner based on her performance in The Postman Always Rings Twice.[60] Turner later recalled she was surprised about replacing Hepburn, saying: "I'm about the most un-Hepburnish actress on the lot. But it was just what I wanted to do."[59] It was her first starring role that did not center on her looks. In an interview, Turner said: "I even go running around in the jungles of New Zealand in a dress that's filthy and ragged. I don't wear any make-up and my hair's a mess." Nevertheless, she insisted she would not give up her glamorous image.[59] Filming of Green Dolphin Street took place in Oregon in late 1946.[61]

Later that year, Turner headlined the romantic drama Cass Timberlane, a role for which Jennifer Jones, Vivien Leigh, and Virginia Grey previously were considered.[62] As of early 1946, Turner was set for the role, but schedules with Green Dolphin Street almost prohibited her from taking it, and by late 1946, she was nearly recast.[63] Production of Cass Timberlane was very exhausting for Turner, as it was shot in between retakes of Green Dolphin Street.[64] Cass Timberlane earned Turner favorable reviews, with Variety noting: "Turner is the surprise of the picture via her top performance thespically. In a role that allows her the gamut from tomboy to the pangs of childbirth and from being another man’s woman to remorseful wife, she seldom fails to acquit herself creditably."[65]

In August 1947, Turner agreed to appear as the female lead in Homecoming (1948), only moments after having completing filming of Cass Timberlane.[66] She was the studio's first choice for the role, but they were reluctant to offer her the part, considering her overbooked schedule.[66] Paired again with Clark Gable in Homecoming, their chemistry projected on the screen was well received by the audience, and they were nicknamed "the team that generates steam."[67] By this period, Turner was at the zenith of her film career, and was not only MGM's most popular star, but also one of the 10 best-paid women in the United States.[36]

1948–1960: Critical successes and contract terminationEdit

 
Turner with George Cukor on the set of A Life of Her Own (1950)

In 1948, Turner appeared in her first Technicolor film, as Lady de Winter in The Three Musketeers, with Gene Kelly, Van Heflin, and June Allyson.[68] She had agreed to do the film in November 1947, thereby giving up an unfinished film project called Bedeviled.[69] However, in January 1948, it was reported that she had withdrawn from the production.[70] Initially, Louis B. Mayer gave her permission for doing so because of her schedule,[70] but she was later that month put on suspension.[71] She ultimately received permission to appear in the film,[71] which went on to become a box office success.[72]

In 1949, she was to headline the drama A Life of Her Own (1950), directed by George Cukor. The project was shelved for several months, and Turner insisted in December 1949 that she had nothing to do with it, saying: "Everybody agrees that the script is still a pile of junk. I'm anxious to get started. By the time this one comes out, it will be almost three years since I was last on the screen, in The Three Musketeers. I don't think it's healthy to stay off the screen that long."[73] The same year, she had been considered for the lead part in Samson and Delilah, which eventually went to Hedy Lamarr.[74] A Life of Her Own was one of the least-successful of Cukor's films, and resulted in MGM attempting to rebrand Turner by casting her in musicals:[75] The first, Mr. Imperium (1951), was also a box office flop,[76] while The Merry Widow (1952) was more commercially successful despite unfavorable critical reviews.[77] She then starred opposite Kirk Douglas in Vincente Minnelli's The Bad and the Beautiful (1952), a drama set among Hollywood insiders.[78] The Bad and the Beautiful marked a resurgence for Turner as it was both a critical and commercial success, receiving numerous Academy Award nominations.[78] The same year, she appeared in advertisements for Lustre-Creme Shampoo, who extolled her selection by Modern Screen as having the "most beautiful hair in the world."[79]

 
Turner promoting Imitation of Life in New York City, March 26, 1959

In 1955, Turner appeared in the Biblical epic The Prodigal (1955),[80] followed by John Farrow's The Sea Chase (1955), a seafaring adventure film starring John Wayne.[81] MGM gave Turner the titular role of Diane de Poitiers in the period drama Diane (1956), which had originally been optioned by the studio in the 1930s for Greta Garbo.[82] Though an elaborate marketing campaign was crafted to promote the film, it was a box office flop,[83][84] and after its release MGM opted not to renew Turner's contract.[81] This was a difficult time for Hollywood's major studios because a recent court decision forced them to divest themselves of their movie theaters. In addition, television had caught on in a big way; the public was staying home. Turner was just one of MGM's star roster to be let go. Her career recovered briefly after she appeared in the hugely successful big-screen adaptation of Grace Metalious's best-selling novel Peyton Place (1957), for which she was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress.[85] Another few box-office failures followed (Another Time, Another Place, for example) when the 1958 scandal surrounding her daughter's killing of Johnny Stompanato threatened to derail her career completely.[86]

In the trail of the related negative publicity, Turner accepted the lead role in Ross Hunter's remake of Imitation of Life (1959) under the direction of Douglas Sirk. Universal Studios capitalized on her new-found notoriety; the result was one of the biggest hits of the year, and the biggest of Turner's career; she owned 50% of the earnings of the picture and during just the first year of the film's release she earned $11 million. According to Hunter, the film made an excess of $50 million in box office receipts.[87] Critics and audiences could not help noticing that the plots of Peyton Place and Imitation of Life each seemed to mirror certain parts of Turner's private life. Specifically, both films depicted the troubled, complicated relationship between a single mother and her teenaged daughter.[88]

She made her last film at MGM starring with Bob Hope in Bachelor in Paradise (1961), which received mostly positive critical reception.[89] Turner's projects of this era include By Love Possessed (1961), based on James Gould Cozzens' novel. On July 19, 1961, it became the first in-flight movie to be shown on a regular basis on a scheduled airline flight, by Trans World Airlines (TWA) to its first-class passengers.[90] Other highlights of this period include two Hunter productions (for whom she did Imitation of Life), Portrait in Black (1960), a box office success,[91] co-starring Anthony Quinn and Sandra Dee, and Madame X (1966), which proved to be her last major starring role.[92]

1961–1985: Later roles, television, and theaterEdit

In 1969, Turner appeared in her only lead starring role on television in Harold Robbins' The Survivors; the series was given a major national marketing campaign, with billboards featuring life-sized images of Turner.[93] Despite ABC's extensive publicity campaign and the presence of other big-name stars, the program fared badly, and it was cancelled halfway into the season after a 15-week run.[93] Turner was cast in a lead role in the 1974 British horror film Persecution, in which she played a disturbed wealthy woman tormenting her son.[94] She followed this with the lead role in Bittersweet Love (1976), a romantic comedy about a woman who unwittingly marries her half-brother.[95] Lawrence Van Gelder of The New York Times wrote in his review of the film: "Apart from serving as a reminder that Miss Turner was never one of our subtler actresses, Bittersweet Love is the movie that asks the question, "Can a young, married couple about to become parents recapture love and happiness after discovering they share the same sire?""[96]

In the mid-1970s, Turner began appearing in theater productions, including a single performance of The Pleasure of His Company opposite Louis Jourdan at the Arlington Park Theater in Chicago in 1975.[97] From 1976 to 1978, she starred in a touring production of Bell, Book and Candle,[98][99] and in late of 1978, appeared in a Chicago production of Divorce Me, Darling,[100] an original play described in one review as being about "a San Francisco wife whose career as a lawyer leads to her arranging (without knowing it) the divorce of her philandering husband's latest floozy so that the floozy may marry the husband. Miss Turner's poise was useful. So was her way of wearing clothes for which [director] Alex Gottlieb's comedy thoughtfully created several chances for change."[101] In 1980, Turner made her final feature film appearance in the comedy horror film Witches' Brew, an adaptation of Fritz Leiber's 1943 book Conjure Wife.[102]

Turner later admitted that she was on a "downhill slide" for much of the 1970s, drinking heavily, not eating, missing performances, and weighing only 95 pounds.[103] "I was a sipper but I never got high or drunk," Turner said in a 1982 interview. "It was much more insidious. It was starting to affect my liver and my health ... I was very sick."[103] She decided to stop drinking, and began eating all organic food; she would credit herbalism as helping her overcome her alcoholism.[103]

Between 1982 and 1983, she appeared as the mysterious Jacqueline Perrault on Falcon Crest,[104] marking her first television appearance in twelve years.[105] She subsequently guest-starred on an episode of The Love Boat in 1985,[106] but the majority of her final decade was spent out of the public eye. On October 25, 1981, the National Film Society presented Turner with an Artistry in Cinema award.[107] In 1994, she received the Donostia Lifetime Achievement Award at the San Sebastián International Film Festival in Spain.[108] In the fall of 1982, Turner released an autobiography entitled Lana: The Lady, The Legend, The Truth.[109]

Personal lifeEdit

 
Turner with husband Steve Crane and newborn daughter, Cheryl; September 1943

Turner suffered from depression for much of her life,[110] and in her autobiography admitted to being an alcoholic, though she tempered the admission by noting that she was only "a sipper, not a drinker."[111] In September 1951, she attempted suicide by slitting her wrists, following the end of her fourth marriage to Bob Topping.[112][113] Her death was prevented however by her business manager, Benton Cole, who broke down her bathroom door and was able to call emergency medical services, saving Turner's life.[114] In 1980, Turner had what she referred to as a "religious awakening" and became a devout Roman Catholic,[112] after which she stopped drinking and began focusing on her health.[115]

Though she wanted to have multiple children,[116] Turner had Rh negative blood, which made it difficult to carry a child to term.[117][118] In her autobiography, she admitted to having had two abortions and also suffering three stillbirths.[119] She gave birth to her only child, daughter Cheryl, on July 25, 1943.[120] Turner had a close relationship with her daughter.[18] As a teenager, Cheryl came out as a lesbian to her mother and father, Steve Crane;[117] reflecting on it, Cheryl recalled: "I always felt I had the full support of my parents ... I was never made to feel that it was anything strange."[121]

Turner was a lifelong Democrat who was involved in the Hollywood Democratic Committee and campaigned for Franklin D. Roosevelt during the 1944 presidential election.[122]

RelationshipsEdit

Turner was well known inside Hollywood circles for dating often, for changing partners often, and for never shying away from the topic of how many lovers she'd had in her lifetime. However, she claimed that sex was not important to her and that she was more of a romantic:

All those years that my image on the screen as "sex goddess"—well that makes me laugh. Sex was never important to me. I'm sorry if that disappoints you, but it's true. Romance, yes. Romance was very important. But I never liked being rushed into bed, and I never allowed it. I'd put it off as long as I could and I gave in only when I was in love, or thought I was. It was always the courtship, the cuddling, and the closeness that I cared about, never the act of sex itself—with some exceptions of course. I'm not masquerading as a prude, but I've always been portrayed as a sexy woman, and that's wrong. Sensuous, yes. When I'm involved with someone I care for deeply, I can feel sensual. But that's a private matter.[123]

In 1946 after her divorce from second husband Steve Crane, Turner briefly dated Howard Hughes, an affair that lasted for twelve weeks.[124] She was also romantically involved with Tyrone Power for several months, and she considered him to be the love of her life.[125] In her 1982 autobiography, Turner claims to have become pregnant with Power's child in 1947, but she chose to have an abortion.[18][125] While on a goodwill trip to Europe and South Africa the same year, Power fell in love with Linda Christian in Rome, and later married her.[126] Turner claimed she was chaste for the remainder of her life after her final divorce in 1969 and had no desire to marry again.[127]

MarriagesEdit

Turner habitually married, marrying eight times to seven different husbands,[117] and later famously said: "My goal was to have one husband and seven children, but it turned out to be the other way around."[116] In a 1982 interview on The Phil Donahue Show, she said: "It's too damn easy to get married, and it's hell to get divorced," and expressed her belief that couples should first cohabit before deciding to proceed to matrimony.[18]

  • Artie Shaw (m. 1940; div. 1940),[128] a bandleader. Married only four months, Turner was 19 when she and Shaw eloped to Las Vegas on their first date.[129] A young Judy Garland, who reported that she had a crush on Artie at that time, was both shocked and heartbroken. The sudden marriage was highly publicized, and there was even talk of MGM releasing her from her contract.[130] She later referred to their stormy and verbally abusive relationship as "my college education."[131]
  • Joseph Stephen "Steve" Crane (m. 1942 – annul. 1943; m. 1943 – div. 1944).[128][132][133] Turner married Crane, an actor and restaurateur, in Las Vegas in 1942, but the marriage was annulled within four months after she discovered that Crane's previous divorce had not yet been finalized.[133] After a brief separation (during which Crane attempted suicide), they remarried in order to provide for their newborn daughter Cheryl. However, their brief second marriage barely lasted a year.[128]
 
Turner arriving in Monterey, California with husband Bob Topping, 1951
  • Henry J. "Bob" Topping Jr. (m. 1948; div. 1952).[128] A millionaire socialite, brother of New York Yankees owner Dan Topping and a grandson of tin-plate magnate Daniel G. Reid, Topping proposed to Turner at the 21 Club in Los Angeles by dropping a diamond ring into her martini.[134] The ceremony occurred three days after Topping was divorced from his third wife, actress Arline Judge, who had been previously married to his brother Dan. Although worth millions when they married, Topping suffered heavy financial losses due to poor investments and excessive gambling.[135] The couple's marriage resulted in a church trial for the officiant because the marriage took place less than a year after Topping's divorce from Judge. Cheryl Crane writes in her memoir that her mother's wedding to Bob Topping was a beautiful, lavish affair held in the spacious Topping family mansion in Greenwich, Connecticut.[136] Despite the fact that both the bride and the groom had been married and divorced multiple times previously, Turner wore a traditional white gown, the bridesmaids wore equally beautiful gowns of her choosing, and young Cheryl served as the flower girl.[137] Crane goes on to state that she later saw this as her mother's attempt to finally have a beautiful, traditional wedding while she was still young after three failed marriages in which the ceremonies took place before justices of the peace, with Turner usually attired in a simple dress suit and heels.[138]
  • Lex Barker (m. 1953; div. 1957).[128] Turner married Barker, a fellow actor, and the two remained together for four years. Her daughter Cheryl alleged that Barker had molested and raped her on a regular basis.[139] When Turner was made aware of the sexual assaults, she allegedly forced Barker out of the home at gunpoint[140] and immediately filed for divorce.[141]
  • Frederick "Fred" May (m. 1960; div. 1962).[128] The couple married on November 27, 1960, and separated in September 1962, divorcing shortly after.[142] May was a rancher and a member of the May department-store family. Turner lived with him on his ranch in Chino, California, where the two took care of horses and other animals.[143] Following the divorce, Turner remained friends with May and his subsequent wife, both of whom she spoke positively of.[18]
  • Robert P. Eaton (m. 1965; div. 1969).[144][145] A film producer and businessman, Eaton went on to write The Body Brokers, a behind-the-scenes look at the Hollywood movie world, featuring a character named Marla Jordan, based on Turner.
  • Ronald Pellar (m. 1969; div. 1972), also known as Ronald Dante or Dr. Dante.[146] Pellar, a nightclub hypnotist, met Turner in 1969 at a Los Angeles disco, and the two married that same year.[147] After about six months of marriage, Pellar disappeared a few days after Turner had written a $35,000 check to him in order to help him in an investment; he used the money for other purposes.[148] In addition, she later accused him of stealing $100,000 worth of jewelry from her.[148] Pellar denied that he stole from Turner and no charges were ever filed against him.[149] She would later joke that he had hypnotized her into marrying him.[147]

Johnny Stompanato killingEdit

 
Turner's former home in Beverly Hills where Johnny Stompanato was killed in 1958

Turner met mobster Johnny Stompanato during the spring of 1957, shortly after ending her fifth marriage to Barker. Stompanato introduced himself to her as "John Steele" to conceal his identity, specifically his ties to the Los Angeles underworld and association with gangster Mickey Cohen, which he feared would dissuade Turner from dating him.[150] After a friend informed her of who he was, she tried to break off the affair out of fear of bad publicity.[151] Stompanato was not easily deterred, however, and over the course of the following year, they carried on a relationship filled with violent arguments, physical abuse, and repeated reconciliations.[152][153]

In the fall of 1957, Stompanato visited Turner in England, where she was filming Another Time, Another Place (1958), co-starring Sean Connery. In her autobiography, Turner said that she arranged for Stompanato's visit because she was lonely and having a difficult time filming. Their reunion was initially happy, but the two soon began fighting. Stompanato became suspicious when Turner would not allow him to visit the set and, during one fight, he violently choked her, causing damage to her vocal cords; the injury resulted in her missing three weeks of filming.[154] Turner later wrote that she and her makeup man, Del Armstrong, called Scotland Yard in order to have Stompanato deported.[155][156] Stompanato got wind of the plan and showed up on the set with a gun, threatening her and her co-star Sean Connery, whom he warned to keep away from Turner.[157] Connery answered by grabbing the gun out of Stompanato's hand and twisting his wrist, causing him to run off the set sheepishly.[158] Turner and Armstrong later returned with two Scotland Yard detectives to the rented house where she and Stompanato were staying. The detectives advised Stompanato to leave and escorted him out of the house and also to the airport, where he boarded a plane back to the United States.[159][160]

 
Turner arriving at the inquest for Stompanato's murder, April 12, 1958

On the evening of April 4, 1958, after the Oscar telecast which she had attended without him, Stompanato arrived at Turner's rented house at 730 North Bedford Drive in Beverly Hills. The two began arguing heatedly in the bedroom, during which Stompanato threatened to kill Turner, her daughter, and her mother.[152] Fearing that her mother's life was in danger, Turner's fourteen-year-old daughter, Cheryl, grabbed a kitchen knife and ran to Turner's defense.[161] According to testimony provided by Turner at the coroner's inquest, Cheryl, who had been listening to the couple's fight behind the closed door, stabbed Stompanato in the stomach when Turner attempted to usher him out of the bedroom.[162] Turner testified in court that she initially believed Cheryl had only hit him in the stomach, but realized he had been stabbed when she saw blood on his shirt.[162] The court ultimately deemed the killing a justifiable homicide.[117]

Due to Turner's high profile and the fact that the killing involved her teenage daughter, the case quickly became a media sensation, with over one hundred reporters and journalists attending the trial, described by attendees as "near-riotous."[163] Though Turner and her daughter were exonerated of any wrongdoing, public opinion on the event was varied, with numerous publications intimating that Turner's testimony at the inquest was a performance; Life magazine published a photo of Turner testifying in court with stills of her in court room scenes from three films she had starred in.[164] Stompanato's family in Illinois sought a wrongful death suit of $750,000 (equivalent to $6,400,000 in 2017) in damages against both Turner and her ex-husband, Steve Crane.[114] The suit was settled out of court for a reported $20,000 in 1962.[114]

DeathEdit

A lifelong, heavy cigarette smoker[165][166] and regular drinker,[167] Turner was diagnosed with throat cancer in the spring of 1992 after visiting her doctor, complaining of a sore throat.[168][169] In a press release, she stated that the cancer had been detected early and had not impacted her vocal cords or larynx.[169] On May 13, 1992, she underwent exploratory surgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center to remove the cancer.[169] At the urging of her daughter, Turner underwent radiation therapy to further treat the cancer,[165] and in February 1993, announced that she was in full remission.[170] Despite treatment, the cancer returned in July 1994.[171] In September 1994, she made her final public appearance at the San Sebastián International Film Festival in Spain to accept a Lifetime Achievement Award, and was confined to a wheelchair for much of the event.[165] Turner died nine months later at the age of 74 on June 29, 1995, of complications from the cancer at her home in Century City, Los Angeles.[172] Her remains were cremated and scattered in Oahu, Hawaii.[173][174]

Cheryl Crane, Turner's only child, and Crane's life partner Joyce "Josh" LeRoy, whom she said she accepted "as a second daughter,"[175] inherited some of Turner's personal effects and $50,000 in Turner's will (her estate was estimated in court documents to be worth $1.7 million [$3.0 million in 2017 dollars]) with the majority of her estate being left to Carmen Lopez Cruz, her maid and companion for 45 years and her caregiver during her final illness.[176] Crane challenged the will and Lopez claimed that the majority of the estate was consumed by probate costs, legal fees, and medical expenses.[177]

LegacyEdit

 
Turner on the cover of Cinelandia magazine, 1944

Turner cultivated a poised and elegant persona over the course of her career,[178][179] and has been cited as one of the most glamorous film stars of all time.[85][180][181] In 1951, the Academy of Contemporary Arts named her the "most glamorous woman in the history of international art."[182] Turner has also been noted as a popular culture icon and sex symbol.[2][183] A 1966 film review characterized her as "the glitter and glamour of Hollywood" as well as "a symbol of the American Dream fulfilled. Because of her, being discovered at a soda fountain has become almost as cherished an ideal as being born in a log cabin."[2] Film historian Jill Fields traces Turner's glamorous persona to her first film appearance in They Won't Forget, which famously earned her the "Sweater Girl" nickname due to her prominently-displayed bosom.[2][184] Commenting on her image, she once told a journalist: "Forsaking glamour is like forsaking my identity. It's an image I've worked too hard to obtain and preserve."[2]

While Turner consistently embraced her glamorous image, she was also vocal about her dedication to acting and attained a reputation as a versatile, hard-working actress.[179] Behind the scenes, she was known among her peers for possessing a stalwart work ethic.[1][185] A stagehand who worked with her on a 1978 Chicago production of Divorce Me, Darling told reporters that she was "the hardest working broad I've known."[186] In a 1973 Films in Review retrospective on her career, Turner was referred to as "a master of the motion picture technique and a hardworking craftsman."[185] Film historian Jeanine Basinger similarly championed Turner's acting abilities, writing of her performance in The Bad and the Beautiful: "None of the sex symbols who have been touted as actresses–not Hayworth or Gardner or Taylor or Monroe–have ever given such a fine performance."[187] In critical circles, Turner is also frequently associated with film noir and the femme fatale archetype due to her career-defining role in The Postman Always Rings Twice.[188][189]

Director Michael Gordon, who worked with Turner on Portrait in Black, remembered her as "a very talented actress whose chief reliability was what I regarded as impoverished taste... Lana was not a dummy, and she would give me wonderful rationalizations why she should wear pendant earrings. They had nothing to do with the role, but they had to do with her particular self-image."[190] Roger Moore, her co-star in Diane, praised Turner's acting technique and remembered her as "a wonderful actress and feisty lady," recalling an incident on the set in which she told the film's producer Edwin Knopf to "fuck off" over an apparently trivial disagreement.[191] When Moore later inquired about the disagreement, Turner responded: "Sweetheart, when I first came on this lot, all the producers fucked me. So now I'm fucking them."[192]

 
Turner appears in a mural by Eloy Torrez on the side of the Hollywood High School auditorium (fourth from left)

Turner's rocky personal life was subject to significant media attention and became infused with her career and legacy.[193] Film scholar Richard Dyer cites her as an example of one of Hollywood's earliest stars whose publicized private life perceptibly inflected their careers: "Her career is marked by an unusually, even spectacularly, high degree of interpenetration between her publicly available private life and her films... not only do her vehicles furnish characters and situations in accord with her off-screen image, but frequently incidents in them echo incidents in her life so that by the end of her career films like Peyton Place, Imitation of Life, Madame X and Love Has Many Faces seem in parts like mere illustrations of her life."[194] Basinger echoes similar sentiments, noting that she was often "cast only in roles that were symbolic of what the public knew—or thought they knew—of her life from headlines she made as a person, not as a movie character ... Her person became her persona."[183]

On May 24, 1950, Turner left her hand and footprints in front of the Grauman's Chinese Theatre.[195] On February 8, 1960, her 39th birthday, she was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6241 Hollywood Boulevard for her contributions to the motion picture industry.[179] In 2002, artist Eloy Torrez included Turner in an outdoor mural, Portrait of Hollywood, painted on the auditorium of Hollywood High School, her alma mater.[196]

Cultural depictionsEdit

Turner has been depicted and referenced in numerous works across literature, film, and music. In literature, she is the subject of the poem "Lana Turner has collapsed" by the poet Frank O'Hara,[197] and she and Stompanato appear as minor characters in James Ellroy's novel L.A. Confidential (1990).[198] Portrayals of Turner have also appeared in film: Brenda Bakke portrayed her in a scene of the 1995 film adaptation of Ellroy's novel,[199] and filmmaker Woody Allen wrote and directed September (1987), a drama that deals with a troubled relationship between mother and daughter haunted by a Stompanato-like scenario.[200]

In popular music, Turner appears mentioned on the rap section of Madonna's "Vogue" next to stars from the Golden Age era of Hollywood such as Rita Hayworth and Marilyn Monroe.[201] Turner is mentioned in Nina Simone's "My Baby Just Cares for Me,"[202] and alongside fellow pin-up girls Betty Grable and Dorothy Lamour in "Nancy (with the Laughing Face)," a song popularly recorded by Frank Sinatra.[203] American singer-songwriter Elizabeth Grant, better known as Lana Del Rey, devised her stage name inspired by Turner and the Ford Del Rey sedan.[204][205]

FilmographyEdit

Radio appearancesEdit

 
Turner appearing on The Orson Welles Almanac, July 5, 1944
Air date Program Episode Role Notes Ref.
June 2, 1941 Lux Radio Theatre They Drive by Night Lana Carlsen Guest-starring with Lucille Ball[206] [207]
January 19, 1942 Philip Morris Playhouse The Devil and Miss Jones Mary Jones Co-starring with Lionel Barrymore[208] [209]
July 5, 1944 The Orson Welles Almanac The Mercury Wonder Show Herself Guest-starring with Susan Hayward [210]
June 19, 1944 The Orson Welles Almanac Fifth War Loan Drive [211]
May 3, 1945 Suspense Fear Paints a Picture Julia [212]
April 11, 1946 Lux Radio Theatre Honky Tonk Elizabeth Cotton Co-starring with John Hodiak [213]
June 17, 1946 Screen Guild Theater Marriage Is a Private Affair Theo Scofield West Co-starring with John Hodiak [214]
August 14, 1946 Academy Award Theater Vivacious Lady Francey [213]
April 13, 1948 The Bob Hope Show Herself Skit performed with Bob Hope [215]
September 19, 1949 Lux Radio Theatre Green Dolphin Street Marianne Patourel [216]

Stage creditsEdit

Year Title Role Notes Ref.
1971 Forty Carats Ann Stanley Touring performance [217]
1975 The Pleasure of His Company Jessica Anne Poole Single performance; Arlington Park Theater, Chicago [97]
1978 Divorce Me, Darling Performances at Drury Lane Theatre, Chicago[100] [218]
1976–78 Bell, Book and Candle Gillian Holroyd Touring performance; co-starring with Patrick Horgan[98] [99]
1980–82 Murder Among Friends Angela Forrester Touring performance[219] [127]

AccoladesEdit

Institution Category Year Nominated work Result Ref.
Academy Awards Best Actress 1958 Peyton Place Nominated [220]
David di Donatello Golden Plate 1966 Madame X Won [221]
Hollywood Walk of Fame Hollywood Star 1960 N/A Honored [179]
San Sebastián International Film Festival Donostia Award 1994 N/A Honored [108]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Per the official city of Wallace website, the Turner home in Wallace was located at 217 Bank Street, immediately west of downtown Wallace. The home is located within the Wallace Historic District, which is on the National Register of Historic Places (OMB no. 1024-0018).[11]
  2. ^ An article published in the Los Angeles Times in 1995 after Turner's death recounts the varied retellings of her discovery, and notes their status as show-business legends. Turner would dismiss the widely-circulated version that had the event occurring at Schwab's Pharmacy, insisting she met William R. Wilkerson at the Top Hat Malt Shop while drinking a Coca-Cola.[24]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Los Angeles Times Staff (June 30, 1995). "Lana Turner, Glamorous Star of 50 Films, Dies at 75". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Fields 2007, p. 109.
  3. ^ "'Lana' Turner Official Now". Eugene Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon: UP. May 7, 1950. p. 6D – via Google News.   
  4. ^ Fernandes, Charles (July 3, 1995). "A star was born in Idaho; Wallace folks remember Turner's early years; Her family moved to San Francisco when she was 6 years old". Couer d'Alene Press. Lewiston Tribune. Retrieved June 25, 2017. 
  5. ^ Grever, Brindley (May 15, 1941). "Lana Turner, Born in Wallace, Idaho, Twenty Years Ago, Now a Star". Spokane Daily Chronicle. p. 16 – via Google News.   
  6. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 10–11.
  7. ^ "John Virgil Madison Turner". Geni. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Mildred Frances Turner (Cowan)". Geni. Retrieved March 20, 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Turner 1982, p. 11.
  10. ^ Buenneke, Troy D. (1991). "Burke, Idaho, 1884–1925: The Rise and Fall of a Mining Community". Idaho Yesterdays. 35–36. Idaho Historical Society. p. 26. 
  11. ^ Marsh, Greg. "Lana Turner lived in Historic Wallace". City of Wallace, Idaho. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2017. 
  12. ^ Bamont & Jacobson 2017, p. 161.
  13. ^ a b c d Basinger 1976, p. 19.
  14. ^ Wayne 2003, p. 164.
  15. ^ "Blow Kills Veteran in Mystery Blow". San Francisco Chronicle. December 15, 1930. p. 6. 
  16. ^ a b Wayne 2003, pp. 164–165.
  17. ^ Turner 1982, p. 16.
  18. ^ a b c d e "Lana Turner Full Interview". The Phil Donahue Show (Interview). Interview with Lana Turner. 1982.  Video on YouTube.
  19. ^ Turner 1982, p. 14.
  20. ^ Fischer 1991, p. 22.
  21. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 21.
  22. ^ Fischer 1991, pp. 22–23.
  23. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 97.
  24. ^ a b c Wilkerson, W.R. III (July 1, 1995). "Writing the End to a True-to-Life Cinderella Story : Remembrance: The facts of Lana Turner's discovery at a soda fountain have changed through the years, but the legend remains". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 23, 2018. 
  25. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 18.
  26. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 27.
  27. ^ Fields 2007, p. 79.
  28. ^ a b Wayne 2003, p. 165.
  29. ^ Lewis 2017, p. 91.
  30. ^ Lawson & Rufus 2000, p. 41.
  31. ^ a b c Busch, Niven (December 23, 1940). "Lana Turner". Life. Time Inc. 9 (26): 63–64. ISSN 0024-3019 – via Google Books.   
  32. ^ Turner 1982, p. 24.
  33. ^ Jordan 2009, p. 221.
  34. ^ a b Wayne 2003, p. 166.
  35. ^ Fischer 1991, p. 187.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h Langer, Carole (dir.) (2001). Lana Turner ... a Daughter's Memoir. Turner Classic Movies. 
  37. ^ Morella & Epstein 1971, p. 29.
  38. ^ Breuer 1989, p. 129.
  39. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 104.
  40. ^ Wayne 2003, pp. 168–172.
  41. ^ "'Our Dancing Daughters' Will Star Lana Turner". Schenectady Gazette. March 28, 1940. p. 10. 
  42. ^ Parsons, Louella O. (December 6, 1940). "Clark Gable and Lana Turner Cast As New Hollywood Co-Starring Team". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. p. 22. 
  43. ^ "Speaking of Pictures ... These Freudian Montage Shots Show Mental State of Jekyll Changing to Hyde". Life. Time: 14–16. August 25, 1941. ISSN 0024-3019 – via Google Books.   
  44. ^ Barton 2010, p. 101.
  45. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 54.
  46. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 58.
  47. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 122.
  48. ^ Fischer 1991, pp. 187–189.
  49. ^ Basinger 1976, pp. 51–3.
  50. ^ Wayne 2003, p. 173.
  51. ^ "Gable and Lana Turner Star". San Jose Evening News. San Jose, California. October 17, 1942. p. 4 – via Google News.   
  52. ^ Wayne 2003, p. 174.
  53. ^ Turner 1982, p. 81.
  54. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 133.
  55. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 135.
  56. ^ Maslin, Janet (April 26, 1981). "The Story is the Same But Hollywood Has Changed". The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2018. 
  57. ^ Brook 2013, p. 120.
  58. ^ "Movie of the Week: The Postman Always Rings Twice". Life. p. 129 – via Google Books.   
  59. ^ a b c d e MacPherson, Virginia (October 15, 1946). "Imagine This, Lads; Lana Turner Asks That You Concentrate On Her Acting". Toledo Blade. p. 1. 
  60. ^ a b Manners, Dorothy (August 3, 1946). "Lana Turner To Play Lead In 'Green Dolphin Street". St. Petersburg Times. p. 13. 
  61. ^ Turner 1982, p. 111.
  62. ^ "Notes for Cass Timberlane (1948)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved June 25, 2017. 
  63. ^ Manners, Dorothy (August 3, 1946). "News Of The Movies". The San Antonio Light. p. 6 – via Newspaper Archive.   
  64. ^ "Cass Timberlane: Overview Article". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved June 25, 2017. 
  65. ^ Variety Staff (December 31, 1946). "Cass Timberlane". Variety. Retrieved May 25, 2018. 
  66. ^ a b Parsons, Louella (August 12, 1947). "Hepburn's Screen Career Unaffected by Frankness". St. Petersburg Times. p. 8. 
  67. ^ "Homecoming: Overview Article". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved June 25, 2017. 
  68. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 77.
  69. ^ Thomas, Bob (December 5, 1947). "Independents Seek Shelter of Major Studios for Cold Winter". Denton Record-Chronicle. p. 4. 
  70. ^ a b Parsons, Louella (January 15, 1948). "Hollywood". Middletown Times Herald. p. 12. 
  71. ^ a b Basinger 1976, p. 80.
  72. ^ Hollimon, Rod. "The Three Musketeers (1948)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  73. ^ Thomas, Bob (December 7, 1949). "Lana Turner Says She Is Now the Home-Girl Type". Argus-Press. p. 13. 
  74. ^ Barton 2010, p. 169.
  75. ^ Shipman 1970, p. 526.
  76. ^ Valentino 1976, pp. 171–73.
  77. ^ Miller, Frank. "The Merry Widow". Turner Classic Movies. Pop Culture 101. Archived from the original on May 23, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2018. 
  78. ^ a b Landazuri, Margarita. "The Bad and the Beautiful". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on December 8, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  79. ^ "Lana Turner ... Lustre-Cream presents". Life. Time Inc.: 6 June 23, 1952. ISSN 0024-3019 – via Google Books.   
  80. ^ Parish & Bowers 1973, p. 777.
  81. ^ a b Wayne 2003, p. 183.
  82. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 211.
  83. ^ Newsroom Staff (May 23, 2017). "The life and legacy of Roger Moore". NBC5. Medford, Oregon. Retrieved May 23, 2018. 
  84. ^ Parish & Bowers 1973, p. 745.
  85. ^ a b Kashner & MacNair 2002, p. 254.
  86. ^ Kashner & MacNair 2002, pp. 264–265.
  87. ^ Kashner & MacNair 2002, p. 267.
  88. ^ Kashner & MacNair 2002, p. 257.
  89. ^ Wayne 2003, p. 188.
  90. ^ Slide 1998, p. 101.
  91. ^ Wayne 2003, p. 187.
  92. ^ Valentino 1976, pp. 247–249.
  93. ^ a b Robbins 2008, p. 222.
  94. ^ Valentino 1976, pp. 255–57.
  95. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 288.
  96. ^ Van Gelder, Lawrence (March 24, 1977). "Film: Dilemma of Incest". The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2018. 
  97. ^ a b Valentino 1976, p. 284.
  98. ^ a b "Lana's Lectures". San Bernardino Sun. August 28, 1977. p. 113 – via California Digital Newspaper Collection.   
  99. ^ a b Gussow, Mel (July 22, 1977). "Along the Straw-Hat Trail". The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2018. 
  100. ^ a b "This Weekend in Chicago". The Pantagraph. December 14, 1978. p. 11 – via Newspapers.com. 
  101. ^ "Reviews". Drama: The Quarterly Review. British Theatre Association (124–131): 27. 1977. 
  102. ^ Greene 2018, p. 127.
  103. ^ a b c Hanauer, Joan (August 31, 1982). "Drinking Problem". United Press International (UPI). Retrieved March 20, 2017. 
  104. ^ "Lana Turner takes to the tube". Wilmington Morning Star. Wilmington, Delaware. December 23, 1981. p. 2C – via Google News.   
  105. ^ Associated Press (December 26, 1981). "Lana Turner to Appear On CBS's 'Falcon Crest'". The New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2017. 
  106. ^ Davis, William (February 15, 1985). "Clear Seas For 'Love Boat'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 20, 2017. 
  107. ^ Speed, F. Maurice; Cameron-Wilson, James. "Film Review". W.H. Allen: 118. 
  108. ^ a b Wayne 2003, p. 194.
  109. ^ Lawson, Wayne (September 5, 1982). "Screen Beauty Tells All". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  110. ^ Turner 1982, p. 17.
  111. ^ Turner 1982, p. 303.
  112. ^ a b Flint, Peter B. (June 30, 1995). "Lana Turner, the Sultry Actress, Is Dead at 75". The New York Times. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  113. ^ Turner 1982, p. 158.
  114. ^ a b c Maltin, Leonard. "Biography for Lana Turner". Turner Classic Movies. Leonard Maltin Movie Guide. Retrieved June 25, 2017. 
  115. ^ Turner 1982, p. 306.
  116. ^ a b Parish 2011, p. 249.
  117. ^ a b c d Crane, Cheryl (August 8, 2001). "Lana Turner's Daughter Tells Her Story". CNN (Interview). Interview with Larry King. Retrieved May 9, 2018. 
  118. ^ Turner 1982, p. 85.
  119. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 9, 85, 142.
  120. ^ Turner 1982, p. 87.
  121. ^ Crane, Cheryl (December 1987). "Meredith MacRae Interviews Cheryl Crane". Born Famous (Interview). Interview with Meredith MacRae.  Video on YouTube.
  122. ^ Jordan 2011, p. 232.
  123. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 309–10.
  124. ^ Brown & Broeske 2004, pp. 199–201.
  125. ^ a b Wayne 2003, p. 178.
  126. ^ Turner 1982, p. 123.
  127. ^ a b Chambers, Andrea; Adelson, Suzanne (November 8, 1982). "Lana Turner". People. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. 
  128. ^ a b c d e f Valentino 1976, p. 28.
  129. ^ Crane 1988, pp. 39–43.
  130. ^ Parsons, Louella O. (March 7, 1940). "Lana Turner Slated to Co-Star With Lew Ayres". Schenectady Gazette. p. 10. 
  131. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 100.
  132. ^ "Lana Turner Weds Hollywood Broker". Eugene Register-Guard. Eugene, Oregon: Associated Press. July 17, 1942. p. 1 – via Google News.   
  133. ^ a b Basinger 1976, pp. 141–42.
  134. ^ Crane 1988, p. 94.
  135. ^ "Henry J. (Bob) Topping Dies; Was Heir to Tin Plate Fortune". The New York Times. April 23, 1968. p. 47. Retrieved May 23, 2018.   
  136. ^ Crane 1988, pp. 93–7.
  137. ^ Crane 1988, p. 97.
  138. ^ "Actress's Marriage Stirs Church Trial". The New York Times. May 20, 1948. Retrieved May 23, 2018.   
  139. ^ Crane 1988, p. 167.
  140. ^ Archer, Greg (November 26, 2008). "The Kid Stays in the Picture". The Advocate. Archived from the original on January 5, 2013. 
  141. ^ McNally, Owen (December 21, 1997). "A Plain-spoken Person of Privilege". Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016. 
  142. ^ "Lana Turner, Fifth Husband Separate; No Divorce Yet". Deseret News and Telegram. Salt Lake City, Utah: UPI. September 23, 1962. p. C7 – via Google News.   
  143. ^ Turner 1982, p. 261.
  144. ^ "Milestones: April 11, 1969". Time. April 11, 1969. Retrieved June 25, 2017.   
  145. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 275, 286.
  146. ^ Turner 1982, p. 286.
  147. ^ a b Turner 1982, pp. 286–87.
  148. ^ a b "Crime Story". Vanity Fair. Condé Nast Publications. 62: 268. 1999. ISSN 0733-8899. 
  149. ^ Jones, J. Harry (August 5, 2006). "The amazing Dr. Dante has seen it all". UT San Diego. Archived from the original on July 4, 2014. 
  150. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 200–3.
  151. ^ Turner 1982, p. 202.
  152. ^ a b Feldstein 2000, p. 120.
  153. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 202–36.
  154. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 209–10.
  155. ^ Fischer 1991, p. 217.
  156. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 210–11.
  157. ^ Wayne 2003, p. 185.
  158. ^ Schochet, Stephen (2003). "Who Is James Bond?". Family-Content.com. Archived from the original on August 26, 2004. Retrieved June 25, 2017. 
  159. ^ Turner 1982, p. 206.
  160. ^ "Killing Of Stompanato Unfolds Story Of Romance With Actress". Lewiston Morning Tribune. April 6, 1958. p. 2 – via Google News.   
  161. ^ "Cheryl Crane: Past Can't Hurt Me Now". Spokane Chronicle. January 12, 1988. p. F4 – via Google News.   
  162. ^ a b Lewis 2017, p. 94.
  163. ^ Feldstein 2000, pp. 120–121.
  164. ^ Feldstein 2000, p. 122.
  165. ^ a b c Parish 2001, p. 239.
  166. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 36, 287.
  167. ^ Turner 1982, pp. 141, 306.
  168. ^ "Lana Turner reveals she has throat cancer". The Union Democrat. May 26, 1992. p. 5A. Retrieved June 25, 2017 – via Google News.   
  169. ^ a b c Associated Press (May 26, 1992). "Lana Turner recovering after throat cancer surgery". UPI. Retrieved May 25, 2018. 
  170. ^ "People". St. Paul Pioneer Press. February 20, 1993. p. 10D. 
  171. ^ Sentinel Staff (July 23, 1994). "Lana Turner Determined to Beat Cancer Recurrence". Orlando Sentinel. p. A2. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved June 25, 2017. 
  172. ^ "Movie star Lana Turner part of Hollywood lore". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. June 30, 1995. p. 6B. 
  173. ^ Wayne 2003, p. 13.
  174. ^ Wilson 2016, p. 761.
  175. ^ Paiva, Fred Melo (April 6, 2008). "Go, Johnny, go". O Estado de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). p. J8. 
  176. ^ O'Neill, Ann W. (September 5, 1999). "Lana Turner's Troubled Legacy Shows Signs of Life After Death : Tales of Suzy Bombmaker ... a "Politically Incorrect" boss ... and the judge who said too much". Los Angeles Times. The Court Files. Retrieved March 22, 2017. 
  177. ^ "Appeals Court Allows Lana Turner's Daughter to Challenge Trust Provisions". Metropolitan News-Enterprise. September 7, 2001. p. 5. Retrieved June 25, 2017. 
  178. ^ Fields 2007, pp. 109–11.
  179. ^ a b c d Los Angeles Times Staff (June 30, 1995). "Lana Turner". Los Angeles Times. Hollywood Star Walk. Retrieved May 23, 2018. 
  180. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 11.
  181. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 13.
  182. ^ "Glamour Award to Lana Turner". The Sydney Morning Herald. A.A.P. July 4, 1951. p. 4D – via Google News.   
  183. ^ a b Basinger 2008, p. 182.
  184. ^ Dyer 1991, p. 188.
  185. ^ a b "Lana Turner". Films in Review. National Board of Review of Motion Pictures. 24: 246. 1973. 
  186. ^ "Lana Turner". Detroit Free Press. People Page. October 29, 1978. p. 45 – via Newspapers.com.   
  187. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 88.
  188. ^ Blaser, John (January 1996). "The Femme Fatale". No Place for a Woman: The Family in Film Noir. University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved June 21, 2017. 
  189. ^ "GLS 592: The Hard Boiled Dames of Film Noir". Graduate Liberal Studies Program. University of North Carolina, Wilmington. Archived from the original on May 23, 2018. Retrieved June 21, 2017. 
  190. ^ Davis 2005, p. 119.
  191. ^ Moore 2014, p. 13.
  192. ^ Moore 2014, pp. 13–14.
  193. ^ Dyer 1991, pp. 186–88.
  194. ^ Dyer 1991, pp. 18687.
  195. ^ "Lana Turner leaves Footprints At Grauman's Chinese Theater". Morning Avalanche Newspaper. May 24, 1950. p. 24. 
  196. ^ Garcia, Mark. "The HHS Auditorium Mural". Hollywood High School Alumni Association. Archived from the original on May 24, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  197. ^ O'Hara, Frank. "Lana Turner has collapsed!". Poets.org. Academy of American Poets. Retrieved March 22, 2017. 
  198. ^ Dargis 2003, p. 33.
  199. ^ Brook 2013, p. 148.
  200. ^ Chambers, Andrea (February 15, 1988). "Cheryl Crane, Lana Turner's Daughter, Tells Her Story of a Harrowing Hollywood Childhood". People. Archived from the original on June 25, 2017. 
  201. ^ Raha 2008, p. 103.
  202. ^ Parker 2003, p. 28.
  203. ^ Ingham 2005, p. 138.
  204. ^ Petrusich, Amanda (September 29, 2015). "Lana Del Rey Is Exhausted". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on April 30, 2016. 
  205. ^ Varga, George (February 14, 2018). "Lana Del Rey has legs, a stalker, four Grammy nominations and a possible Broadway musical". The San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on May 24, 2018. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  206. ^ Grams 2000, p. 300.
  207. ^ Billips & Pierce 1995, p. 251.
  208. ^ "Lana Turner Friday Star on 'Playhouse'". Harrisburg Telegraph. November 8, 1941. p. 22. Retrieved July 22, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.   
  209. ^ Pitts 2015, p. 78.
  210. ^ Heyer 2005, p. 182.
  211. ^ Clements & Weber 1996, p. 163.
  212. ^ Fear Paints a Picture. Suspense. CBS Radio. May 3, 1945 – via Internet Archive.   
  213. ^ a b Valentino 1976, p. 267.
  214. ^ Basinger 1976, p. 62.
  215. ^ Turner, Lana; Hope, Bob (April 13, 1948). The Bob Hope Show (Radio broadcast). NBC.  Video on YouTube.
  216. ^ Billips & Pierce 1995, p. 415.
  217. ^ The New York Times Biographical Service. 26. Arno Press. 1995. p. 944. 
  218. ^ "CTA Transit News". 29 (2–33). Chicago Transit Authority. 1976: 86. 
  219. ^ "Lana Turner: Still All Glamour". The Pittsburgh Press. May 30, 1982. p. 69 – via Newspapers.com.   
  220. ^ "Awards for Peyton Place". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved May 24, 2018. 
  221. ^ Valentino 1976, p. 251.

Works citedEdit

External linksEdit