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Cleopatra VII Philopator
Kleopatra-VII.-Altes-Museum-Berlin1.jpg
The Berlin Cleopatra, a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra VII wearing a royal diadem, mid-1st century BC (i.e. around the time of her visits to Rome in 46–44 BC), discovered in a villa along the Via Appia; it is now located in the Altes Museum, Antikensammlung Berlin.[1][2][3][note 1]
Queen of Ptolemaic Kingdom
Reign 51 – 10 or 12 August 30 BC (21 years)[4][note 2]
Predecessor Ptolemy XII Auletes
Successor Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Co-rulers Ptolemy XII Auletes
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
Ptolemy XIV
Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Born 69 BC
Alexandria, Ptolemaic Kingdom
Died 10 or 12 August 30 BC
(aged 39)[note 2]
Alexandria, Egypt
Burial Unlocated tomb
(probably in Egypt)
Spouse Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
Ptolemy XIV
Mark Antony
Issue Caesarion, Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar
Alexander Helios
Cleopatra Selene, Queen of Mauretania
Ptolemy XVI Philadelphus
Full name
Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator
Dynasty Ptolemaic
Father Ptolemy XII Auletes
Mother Unknown, presumably Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra V Tryphaena)[note 3]
Cleopatra VII in hieroglyphs
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Cleopatra
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Horus name (1): Wer(et)-neb(et)-neferu-achet-seh
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The great Lady of perfection, excellent in counsel
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Horus name (2): Weret-tut-en-it-es
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The great one, sacred image of her father
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The goddess Cleopatra who is beloved of her father

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator;[5] 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)[note 2] was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, nominally survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion.[note 4] She was also a diplomat, naval commander, linguist, and medical author.[6] As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the Hellenistic period that had lasted since the reign of Alexander (336–323 BC).[note 5] Her native language was Koine Greek and she was the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language.[note 6]

In 58 BC Cleopatra presumably accompanied her father Ptolemy XII during his exile to Rome, after a revolt in Egypt allowed his eldest daughter Berenice IV to claim the throne. The latter was killed in 55 BC when Ptolemy XII returned to Egypt with Roman military assistance. When Ptolemy XII died in 51 BC, Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII acceded to the throne as joint rulers, but a fallout between them led to open civil war. After losing the 48 BC Battle of Pharsalus in Greece against his rival Julius Caesar in Caesar's Civil War, the Roman statesman Pompey the Great fled to Egypt, a Roman client state. However, Ptolemy XIII had Pompey killed while Caesar occupied Alexandria in pursuit of Pompey. As consul of the Roman Republic, Caesar attempted to reconcile Ptolemy XIII with Cleopatra. However, Ptolemy XIII's chief adviser Potheinos viewed Caesar's terms as favoring Cleopatra, so his forces, which eventually fell under the control of Cleopatra's younger sister Arsinoe IV, besieged both Caesar and Cleopatra at the palace. The siege was lifted by reinforcements in early 47 BC and Ptolemy XIII died shortly thereafter in the Battle of the Nile. Arsinoe IV was eventually exiled to Ephesus and Caesar, now an elected dictator, declared Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIV as joint rulers of Egypt. However, Caesar maintained a private affair with Cleopatra that produced a son, Caesarion (i.e. Ptolemy XV). Cleopatra traveled to Rome as a client queen in 46 and 44 BC, staying at Caesar's villa. When Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC Cleopatra attempted to have Caesarion named as his heir, but this fell instead to Caesar's grandnephew Octavian (known as Augustus by 27 BC, when he became the first Roman emperor). Cleopatra then had Ptolemy XIV killed and elevated her son Caesarion as co-ruler.

In the Liberators' civil war of 43–42 BC, Cleopatra sided with the Roman Second Triumvirate formed by Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. After their meeting at Tarsos in 41 BC, Cleopatra had an affair with Antony that would eventually produce three children: Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II, and Ptolemy Philadelphus. Antony used his authority as triumvir to carry out the execution of Arsinoe IV at Cleopatra's request. He became increasingly reliant on Cleopatra for both funding and military aid during his invasions of the Parthian Empire and the Kingdom of Armenia. In the Donations of Alexandria, Cleopatra's children with Antony were declared rulers over various erstwhile territories under Antony's authority. This event, along with Antony's marriage to Cleopatra and divorce of Octavia Minor, sister of Octavian, led to the Final War of the Roman Republic. After engaging in a war of propaganda, Octavian forced Antony's allies in the Roman Senate to flee Rome in 32 BC and declared war on Cleopatra. The naval fleet of Antony and Cleopatra was defeated at the 31 BC Battle of Actium by Octavian's general Agrippa. Octavian's forces invaded Egypt in 30 BC and defeated those of Antony, leading to his suicide. When Cleopatra learned that Octavian planned to bring her to Rome for his triumphal procession, she committed suicide by poisoning, the popular belief being that she was bitten by an asp.

Cleopatra's legacy survives in numerous works of art, both ancient and modern, and many dramatizations of incidents from her life in literature and other media. She was described in various works of Roman historiography and Latin poetry. The latter produced a generally polemic and negative view of the queen that pervaded later Medieval and Renaissance literature. In the visual arts, ancient depictions of Cleopatra include Roman and Ptolemaic coinage, statues, busts, reliefs, cameo glass, cameo carvings, and paintings. She was the subject of many works in Renaissance and Baroque art, which included sculptures, paintings, poetry, theatrical dramas such as William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra (1608) and operas such as George Frideric Handel's Giulio Cesare in Egitto (1724). In modern times Cleopatra has appeared in both the applied and fine arts, burlesque satire, Hollywood films such as Cleopatra (1963), and brand images for commercial products, becoming a pop culture icon of Egyptomania since the Victorian era.

Contents

Etymology

The name Cleopatra originates from the Greek name Kleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα), meaning "glory of her father" in the feminine form.[7] It is derived from kleos (Greek: κλέος), "glory", combined with pater (Greek: πατήρ), "ancestors", using the genitive form patros (Greek: πατρός).[8] The masculine form would have been written either as Kleopatros (Greek: Κλεόπατρος) or Patroklos (Greek: Πάτροκλος).[8] Cleopatra was the name of Alexander the Great's sister, as well as Cleopatra Alcyone, wife of Meleager in Greek mythology.[9] Through the marriage of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I Syra (a Seleucid princess), the name entered the Ptolemaic dynasty.[10][11] Cleopatra's adopted title Thea Philopatora (Greek: Θεά Φιλοπάτωρα) means "goddess who loves her father."[12][13][note 7]

Biography

Background

 
Hellenistic portrait of Ptolemy XII Auletes, the father of Cleopatra, located in the Louvre, Paris[14]

Ptolemaic pharaohs were crowned by the Egyptian High Priest of Ptah at Memphis, Egypt, but resided in the multicultural and largely Greek city of Alexandria, established by Alexander the Great of Macedon.[15][16][17][note 8] They spoke Greek and governed Egypt as Hellenistic Greek monarchs, refusing to learn the native Egyptian language.[18][19][20][note 6] In contrast, Cleopatra could speak multiple languages by adulthood and was the first Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language.[21][22][20][note 9] She also spoke Ethiopian, Trogodyte, Hebrew (or Aramaic), Arabic, the Syrian language (perhaps Syriac), Median, Parthian, and Latin, although her Roman contemporaries would have preferred to speak with her in her native Koine Greek.[22][20][23][note 10] Aside from Greek, Egyptian, and Latin, these languages reflected Cleopatra's desire to restore North African and West Asian territories that once belonged to the Ptolemaic Empire.[24]

Roman interventionism in Egypt predated the reign of Cleopatra.[25][26][27] When Ptolemy IX Lathyros died in late 81 BC, he was succeeded by his daughter Berenice III.[28][29] However, with opposition building at the royal court against the idea of a sole reigning female monarch, Berenice III accepted joint rule and marriage with her cousin and stepson Ptolemy XI Alexander II, an arrangement made by the Roman dictator Sulla.[28][29] Ptolemy XI had his wife killed shortly after their marriage in 80 BC, but was lynched soon thereafter in the resulting riot over the assassination.[28][30][31] Ptolemy XI, and perhaps his uncle Ptolemy IX or father Ptolemy X Alexander I, willed the Ptolemaic Kingdom to Rome as collateral for loans, so that the Romans had legal grounds to take over Egypt, their client state, after the assassination of Ptolemy XI.[28][32][33] The Romans chose instead to divide the Ptolemaic realm among the illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX, bestowing Cyprus to Ptolemy of Cyprus and Egypt to Ptolemy XII Auletes.[28][30]

Early childhood

Cleopatra VII was born in early 69 BC to the ruling Ptolemaic pharaoh Ptolemy XII and an unknown mother,[34][note 11] perhaps Ptolemy XII's wife Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra V Tryphaena),[35][17][note 3] the mother of Cleopatra's older sister, Berenice IV Epiphaneia.[36][37][38][note 12] Cleopatra Tryphaena disappears from official records a few months after the birth of Cleopatra in 69 BC.[39][40] The three younger children of Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra's sister Arsinoe IV and brothers Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator and Ptolemy XIV,[36][37][38] were born in the absence of his wife.[41][42] Cleopatra's childhood tutor was Philostratos, from whom she learned the Greek arts of oration and philosophy.[43] During her youth Cleopatra presumably studied at the Musaeum, including the Library of Alexandria.[44][45]

Reign and exile of Ptolemy XII

In 65 BC the Roman censor Marcus Licinius Crassus argued before the Roman Senate that Rome should annex Ptolemaic Egypt, but his proposed bill and the similar bill of tribune Servilius Rullus in 63 BC were rejected.[46][47] Ptolemy XII responded to the threat of possible annexation by offering remuneration and lavish gifts to powerful Roman statesmen, such as Pompey during his campaign against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and eventually Julius Caesar after he became Roman consul in 59 BC.[48][49][50][note 13] However, Ptolemy XII's profligate behavior bankrupted him and he was forced to acquire loans from the Roman banker Gaius Rabirius Postumus.[51][52][53]

 
Most likely a posthumously painted portrait of Cleopatra with red hair and her distinct facial features, wearing a royal diadem and pearl-studded hairpins, from Roman Herculaneum, Italy, 1st century AD[54][55][note 14]

In 58 BC the Romans annexed Cyprus and on accusations of piracy drove Ptolemy of Cyprus, Ptolemy XII's brother, to commit suicide instead of enduring exile to Paphos.[56][57][53][note 15] Ptolemy XII remained publicly silent on the death of his brother, a decision which, along with ceding traditional Ptolemaic territory to the Romans, damaged his credibility among subjects already enraged by his economic policies.[56][58][59] Ptolemy XII was then exiled from Egypt by force, traveling first to Rhodes, then Athens, and finally the villa of triumvir Pompey in the Alban Hills, near Praeneste, Italy.[56][57][60][note 16] Ptolemy XII spent nearly a year there on the outskirts of Rome, ostensibly accompanied by his daughter Cleopatra, then about 11.[56][60][note 17] Berenice IV sent an embassy to Rome to advocate for her rule and oppose the reinstatement of her father Ptolemy XII, but Ptolemy had assassins kill the leaders of the embassy, an incident that was covered up by his powerful Roman supporters.[61][52][62][note 18] When the Roman Senate denied Ptolemy XII the offer of an armed escort and provisions for a return to Egypt, he decided to leave Rome in late 57 BC and reside at the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus.[63][64][65]

The Roman financiers of Ptolemy XII remained determined to restore him to power.[66] Pompey persuaded Aulus Gabinius, the Roman governor of Syria, to invade Egypt and restore Ptolemy XII, offering him 10,000 talents for the proposed mission.[66][67][68] Although it put him at odds with Roman law, Gabinius invaded Egypt in the spring of 55 BC by way of Hasmonean Judea, where Hyrcanus II had Antipater the Idumaean, father of Herod the Great, furnish the Roman-led army with supplies.[66][69] As a young cavalry officer, Mark Antony was under Gabinius's command. He distinguished himself by preventing Ptolemy XII from massacring the inhabitants of Pelousion, and for rescuing the body of Archelaos, the husband of Berenice IV, after he was killed in battle, ensuring him a proper royal burial.[70][71] Cleopatra, now 14 years of age, would have traveled with the Roman expedition into Egypt; years later, Antony would profess that he had fallen in love with her at this time.[70][72]

Gabinius was put on trial in Rome for abusing his authority, for which he was acquitted, but his second trial for accepting bribes led to his exile, from which he was recalled seven years later in 48 BC by Caesar.[73][74] Crassus replaced him as governor of Syria and extended his provincial command to Egypt, but he was killed by the Parthians at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC.[73][75] Ptolemy XII had Berenice IV and her wealthy supporters executed, seizing their properties.[76][77][78] He allowed Gabinius's largely Germanic and Gallic Roman garrison, the Gabiniani, to harass people in the streets of Alexandria and installed his longtime Roman financier Rabirius as his chief financial officer.[76][79][80][note 19] Within a year Rabirius was placed under protective custody and sent back to Rome after his life was endangered for draining Egypt of its resources.[81][82][78][note 20] Despite these problems, Ptolemy XII created a will designating Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII as his joint heirs, oversaw major construction projects such as the Temple of Edfu and a temple at Dendera, and stabilized the economy.[83][82][84][note 21] On 31 May 52 BC Cleopatra was made a regent of Ptolemy XII as indicated by an inscription in the Temple of Hathor at Dendera.[85][86][87][note 22] Rabirius was unable to collect the entirety of Ptolemy XII's debt by the time of the latter's death, and so it was passed on to his successors Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII.[81][74]

Accession to the throne

Left: Cleopatra dressed as a pharaoh and presenting offerings to the goddess Isis, on a limestone stele dedicated by a Greek man named Onnophris, dated 51 BC, and located in the Louvre, Paris
Right: The cartouches of Cleopatra and Caesarion on a limestone stele of the High Priest of Ptah in Egypt, dated to the Ptolemaic period, and located in the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Ptolemy XII died sometime before 22 March 51 BC, when Cleopatra, in her first act as queen, began her voyage to Hermonthis, near Thebes, to install a new sacred Buchis bull, worshiped as an intermediary for the god Montu in the Ancient Egyptian religion.[5][88][89][note 23] Cleopatra faced several pressing issues and emergencies shortly after taking the throne. These included famine caused by drought and a low level of the annual flooding of the Nile, and lawless behavior instigated by the Gabiniani, the now unemployed and assimilated Roman soldiers left by Gabinius to garrison Egypt.[90][91] Inheriting her father's debts, Cleopatra also owed the Roman Republic 17.5 million drachmas.[92]

In 50 BC Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, proconsul of Syria, sent his two eldest sons to Egypt, most likely to negotiate with the Gabiniani and recruit them as soldiers in the desperate defense of Syria against the Parthians.[93] However, the Gabiniani tortured and murdered these two, perhaps with secret encouragement by rogue senior administrators in Cleopatra's court.[93][94] Cleopatra sent the Gabiniani culprits to Bibulus as prisoners awaiting his judgment, but he sent them back to Cleopatra and chastised her for interfering in their adjudication, which was the prerogative of the Roman Senate.[95][94] Bibulus, siding with Pompey in Caesar's Civil War, failed to prevent Caesar from landing a naval fleet in Greece, which ultimately allowed Caesar to reach Egypt in pursuit of Pompey.[95]

By 29 August 51 BC, official documents started listing Cleopatra as the sole ruler, evidence that she had rejected her brother Ptolemy XIII as a co-ruler.[92][94][96] She had probably married him,[75] but there is no record of this.[5] The incestuous Ptolemaic practice of sibling marriage was introduced by Ptolemy II and his sister Arsinoe II.[97][98][99] A long-held royal Egyptian practice, it was loathed by contemporary Greeks.[97][98][99][note 24] By the reign of Cleopatra, however, it was considered a normal arrangement for Ptolemaic rulers.[97][98][99]

Despite Cleopatra's rejection of him, Ptolemy XIII still retained powerful allies, notably the eunuch Potheinos, his childhood tutor, regent, and administrator of his properties.[100][91][101] Others involved in the cabal against Cleopatra included Achillas, a prominent military commander, and Theodotus of Chios, another tutor of Ptolemy XIII.[100][102] Cleopatra seems to have attempted a short-lived alliance with her brother Ptolemy XIV, but by the autumn of 50 BC Ptolemy XIII had the upper hand in their conflict and began signing documents with his name before that of his sister, followed by the establishment of his first regnal date in 49 BC.[5][103][104][note 25]

Assassination of Pompey

 
A Roman portrait of Pompey made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original from 70–60 BC, and located in the Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy

In the summer of 49 BC, Cleopatra and her forces were still fighting against Ptolemy XIII within Alexandria when Pompey's son Gnaeus Pompeius arrived, seeking military aid on behalf of his father.[103] After returning to Italy from the wars in Gaul and crossing the Rubicon in January of 49 BC, Caesar had forced Pompey and his supporters to flee to Greece.[105][106] In perhaps their last joint decree, both Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII agreed to Gnaeus Pompeius's request and sent his father 60 ships and 500 troops, including the Gabiniani, a move that helped erase some of the debt owed to Rome.[105][107] Losing the fight against her brother, Cleopatra was then forced to flee Alexandria and withdraw to the region of Thebes.[108][109][110] By the spring of 48 BC Cleopatra had traveled to Roman Syria with her younger sister, Arsinoe IV, to gather an invasion force that would head to Egypt.[111][104][112] She returned with an army, but her advance to Alexandria was blocked by her brother's forces, including some Gabiniani mobilized to fight against her, so she camped outside Pelousion in the eastern Nile Delta.[113][104][114]

In Greece, Caesar and Pompey's forces engaged each other at the decisive Battle of Pharsalus on 9 August 48 BC, leading to the destruction of most of Pompey's army and his forced flight to Tyre, Lebanon.[113][115][116][note 26] Given his close relationship with the Ptolemys, Pompey ultimately decided that Egypt would be his place of refuge, where he could replenish his forces.[117][116][114][note 27] Ptolemy XIII's advisers, however, feared the idea of Pompey using Egypt as his base in a protracted Roman civil war.[117][118][119] In a scheme devised by Theodotus, Pompey arrived by ship near Pelousion after being invited by a written message, only to be ambushed and stabbed to death on 28 September 48 BC.[117][115][120][note 28] Ptolemy XIII believed he had demonstrated his power and simultaneously defused the situation by having Pompey's head, severed and embalmed, sent to Caesar, who arrived in Alexandria by early October and took up residence at the royal palace.[121][122][123][note 28] Caesar expressed grief and outrage over the killing of Pompey and called on both Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra to disband their forces and reconcile with each other.[121][124][123][note 29]

Relationship with Julius Caesar

Ptolemy XIII arrived at Alexandria at the head of his army, in clear defiance of Caesar's demand that he disband and leave his army before his arrival.[125][126] Cleopatra initially sent emissaries to Caesar, but upon allegedly hearing that Caesar was inclined to having affairs with royal women, she came to Alexandria to see him personally.[125][127][126] Historian Cassius Dio records that she did so without informing her brother, dressing in an attractive manner and charming him with her wit.[125][128][129] Plutarch provides an entirely different and perhaps mythical account that alleges she was bound inside a bed sack to be smuggled into the palace to meet Caesar.[125][130][131][note 30]

 
The Tusculum portrait, a contemporary Roman sculpture of Julius Caesar located in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy

When Ptolemy XIII realized that his sister was in the palace consorting directly with Caesar, he attempted to rouse the populace of Alexandria into a riot, but he was arrested by Caesar, who used his oratorical skills to calm the frenzied crowd.[132][133][134] Caesar then brought Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII before the assembly of Alexandria, where Caesar revealed the written will of Ptolemy XII—previously possessed by Pompey—naming Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII as his joint heirs.[135][133][127][note 31] Caesar then attempted to arrange for the other two siblings, Arsinoe IV and Ptolemy XIV, to rule together over Cyprus, thus removing potential rival claimants to the Egyptian throne while also appeasing the Ptolemaic subjects still bitter over the loss of Cyprus to the Romans in 58 BC.[136][133][137][note 31]

Judging that this agreement favored Cleopatra over Ptolemy XIII and that the latter's army of 20,000 including the Gabiniani could most likely defeat Caesar's army of 4,000 unsupported troops, Potheinos decided to have Achillas lead their forces to Alexandria to attack both Caesar and Cleopatra.[136][133][138][note 32] The resulting siege of the palace with Caesar and Cleopatra trapped together inside lasted into the following year of 47 BC.[139][124][140][note 33] After Caesar managed to execute Potheinos, Arsinoe IV joined forces with Achillas and was declared queen, but soon afterward had her tutor Ganymedes kill Achillas and take his position as commander of her army.[141][142][143][note 34] Ganymedes then tricked Caesar into requesting the presence of the erstwhile captive Ptolemy XIII as a negotiator, only to have him join the army of Arsinoe IV.[141][144][145]

Sometime between January and March of 47 BC Caesar's reinforcements arrived, including those led by Mithridates of Pergamon and Antipater the Idumaean.[141][124][146][note 35] Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV withdrew their forces to the Nile, where Caesar attacked them. Ptolemy XIII tried to flee by boat but it capsized and he drowned.[147][124][148][note 36] Ganymedes was perhaps killed in the battle, Theodotus was found years later in Asia by Marcus Junius Brutus and executed, while Arsinoe IV was forcefully paraded in Caesar's triumph in Rome before being exiled to the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[149][150][151] Cleopatra was conspicuously absent from these events and resided in the palace, most likely because she had been pregnant with Caesar's child since September 47 BC.[152][153][154]

Caesar's term as consul had expired at the end of 48 BC.[149] However, Antony, an officer of his, helped to secure Caesar's election as dictator lasting for a year, until October 47 BC, providing Caesar with the legal authority to settle the dynastic dispute in Egypt.[149] Wary of repeating the mistake of Cleopatra's sister Berenice IV in having a female monarch as sole ruler, Caesar appointed her 12-year-old brother, Ptolemy XIV, as joint ruler with the 22-year-old Cleopatra in a nominal sibling marriage, but Cleopatra continued living privately with Caesar.[155][124][146][note 37] The exact date at which Cyprus was returned to her control is not known, although she had a governor there by 42 BC.[156][146]

Caesar is alleged to have joined Cleopatra for a cruise of the Nile and sightseeing of Egyptian monuments,[124][157][158] although this may be a romantic tale reflecting later well-to-do Roman proclivities and not a real historical event.[159] The historian Suetonius provided considerable details about the voyage, including use of Thalamegos, the pleasure barge constructed by Ptolemy IV, which during his reign measured 300 feet (91 m) in length and 80 feet (24 m) in height and was complete with dining rooms, state rooms, holy shrines, and promenades along its two decks, resembling a floating villa.[159][160] Caesar could have had an interest in the Nile cruise owing to his fascination with geography; he was well-read in the works of Eratosthenes and Pytheas and perhaps wanted to discover the source of the river, but turned back before reaching Ethiopia.[161][162]

Caesar departed from Egypt around April 47 BC, allegedly to confront Pharnaces II of Pontus, son of Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was stirring up trouble for Rome in Anatolia.[163] It is possible that Caesar, married to the prominent Roman woman Calpurnia, also wanted to avoid being seen together with Cleopatra when she bore him their son.[163][157] He left three legions in Egypt, later increased to four, under the command of the freedman Rufio to secure Cleopatra's tenuous position, but also perhaps to keep her activities in check.[163][164][165]

Caesarion, Cleopatra's alleged child with Caesar, was born 23 June 47 BC, and was originally named "Pharaoh Caesar", as preserved on a stele at the Serapeum in Memphis.[166][124][167][note 38] Perhaps owing to his still childless marriage with Calpurnia, Caesar remained publicly silent about Caesarion (but perhaps accepted his parentage in private).[168][note 39] Cleopatra, on the other hand, made repeated official declarations about Caesarion's parentage, with Caesar as the father.[168][169][170]

 
Egyptian portrait of a Ptolemaic queen, possibly Cleopatra, c. 51 – 30 BC, located in the Brooklyn Museum[171]

Cleopatra and her nominal joint ruler Ptolemy XIV visited Rome sometime in late 46 BC, presumably without Caesarion, and were given lodging in Caesar's villa within the Horti Caesaris.[172][167][173][note 40] As with their father Ptolemy XII, Caesar awarded both Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV the legal status of "friend and ally of the Roman people" (Latin: socius et amicus populi Romani), in effect client rulers loyal to Rome.[174][175][176] Cleopatra's visitors at Caesar's villa across the Tiber included the senator Cicero, who found her to be arrogant.[177][178] Sosigenes of Alexandria, one of the members of Cleopatra's court, aided Caesar in the calculations for the new Julian calendar, put into effect 1 January 45 BC.[179][180][181] The Temple of Venus Genetrix, established in the Forum of Caesar on 25 September 46 BC, contained a golden statue of Cleopatra (which stood there at least until the 3rd century AD), associating the mother of Caesar's child directly with the goddess Venus, mother of the Romans.[182][180][183] The statue also subtly linked the Egyptian goddess Isis with the Roman religion.[177]

Cleopatra's presence in Rome most likely had an effect on the events at the Lupercalia festival a month before Caesar's assassination.[184][185] Antony attempted to place a royal diadem on Caesar's head, with the latter refusing in what was most likely a staged performance, perhaps to gauge the Roman public's mood about accepting Hellenistic-style kingship.[184][185] Cicero, who was present at the festival, mockingly asked where the diadem came from, an obvious reference to the Ptolemaic queen who he abhorred.[184][185] Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (15 March 44 BC), but Cleopatra stayed in Rome until about mid-April, in the vain hope of having Caesarion recognized as Caesar's heir.[186][187][188] However, Caesar's will named his grandnephew Octavian as the primary heir, and Octavian arrived in Italy around the same time Cleopatra decided to depart for Egypt.[186][187][189] A few months later, Cleopatra decided to kill Ptolemy XIV by poisoning, elevating her son Caesarion as her co-ruler.[190][191][170][note 41]

Cleopatra in the Liberators' civil war

 
Cleopatra's Gate in Tarsos (now Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey), the site where she met Mark Antony in 41 BC[192]

Octavian, Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 BC, in which they were each elected for five-year terms to restore order in the Republic and bring Caesar's assassins to justice.[193][194] Cleopatra received messages from both Gaius Cassius Longinus, one of Caesar's assassins, and Publius Cornelius Dolabella, proconsul of Syria and Caesarian loyalist, requesting military aid.[193] She decided to write Cassius an excuse that her kingdom faced too many internal problems, while sending the four legions left by Caesar in Egypt to Dolabella.[193][195] However, these troops were captured by Cassius in Palestine.[193][195] While Serapion, Cleopatra's governor of Cyprus, defected to Cassius and provided him with ships, Cleopatra took her own fleet to Greece to personally assist Octavian and Antony, but her ships were heavily damaged in a Mediterranean storm and she arrived too late to aid in the fighting.[193][196] By the autumn of 42 BC, Antony had defeated the forces of Caesar's assassins at the Battle of Philippi in Greece, leading to the suicide of Cassius and Brutus.[193][197]

By the end of 42 BC, Octavian had gained control over much of the western half of the Roman Republic and Antony the eastern half, with Lepidus largely marginalized.[198] In the summer of 41 BC Antony established his headquarters at Tarsos in Anatolia and summoned Cleopatra there in several letters, which she rebuffed until Antony's envoy Quintus Dellius convinced her to come.[199][200] The meeting allowed Cleopatra to clear up the misconception that she had supported Cassius during the civil war and address territorial exchanges in the Levant, but Antony also undoubtedly desired to form a personal, romantic relationship with the queen.[201][200][note 42] Cleopatra sailed up the Kydnos River to Tarsos in Thalamegos, inviting Antony and his officers for two nights of lavish banquets on board the ship.[202][203] Cleopatra managed to clear her name as a supposed supporter of Cassius, arguing she had really attempted to help Dolabella in Syria, and convinced Antony to have her exiled sister, Arsinoe IV, executed at Ephesus.[204][205] Cleopatra's former rebellious governor of Cyprus was also handed over to her for execution.[204][206]

Relationship with Mark Antony

Cleopatra invited Antony to come to Egypt before departing from Tarsos, which led Antony to visit Alexandria by November 41 BC.[204][207] Antony was well-received by the populace of Alexandria, both for his heroic actions in restoring Ptolemy XII to power and coming to Egypt without an occupation force like Caesar had done.[208][209] In Egypt, Antony continued to enjoy the lavish royal lifestyle he had witnessed aboard Cleopatra's ship docked at Tarsos.[210][206] He also had his subordinates, such as Publius Ventidius Bassus, drive the Parthians out of Anatolia and Syria.[209][211][212][note 43]

Cleopatra carefully chose Antony as her partner for producing further heirs, as he was deemed to be the most powerful Roman figure following Caesar's demise.[213] With his powers as a triumvir, Antony also had the broad authority to restore former Ptolemaic lands, which were currently in Roman hands, to Cleopatra.[214][215] While it is clear that both Cilicia and Cyprus were under Cleopatra's control by 19 November 38 BC, the transfer probably occurred earlier in the winter of 41–40 BC, during her time spent with Antony.[214]

By the spring of 40 BC, Antony left Egypt due to troubles in Syria, where his governor Lucius Decidius Saxa was killed and his army taken by Quintus Labienus, a former officer under Cassius who now served the Parthian Empire.[216] Cleopatra provided Antony with 200 ships for his campaign and as payment for her newly acquired territories.[216] She would not see Antony again until 37 BC, but she maintained correspondence, and evidence suggests she kept a spy in his camp.[216] By the end of 40 BC, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, a boy named Alexander Helios and a girl named Cleopatra Selene II, both of whom Antony acknowledged as his children.[217][218] Helios (Greek: Ἥλιος), the sun, and Selene (Greek: Σελήνη), the moon, were symbolic of a new era of societal rejuvenation,[219] as well as an indication that Cleopatra hoped Antony would repeat the exploits of Alexander the Great by conquering the Parthians.[209]

 
The Meeting of Antony and Cleopatra (1885), by Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Mark Antony's Parthian campaign in the east was disrupted by the events of the Perusine War (41–40 BC), initiated by his ambitious wife Fulvia against Octavian in the hopes of making her husband the undisputed leader of Rome.[219][220] It has been suggested that Fulvia wanted to cleave Antony away from Cleopatra, but the conflict emerged in Italy even before Cleopatra's meeting with Antony at Tarsos.[221] Fulvia and Antony's brother Lucius Antonius were eventually besieged by Octavian at Perusia (modern Perugia, Italy) and then exiled from Italy, after which Fulvia died at Sicyon in Greece while attempting to reach Antony.[222] Her sudden death led to a reconciliation of Octavian and Antony at Brundisium in Italy in September 40 BC.[222][209] Although the agreement struck at Brundisium solidified Antony's control of the Roman Republic's territories east of the Ionian Sea, it also stipulated that he concede Italia, Hispania, and Gaul, and marry Octavian's sister Octavia the Younger, a potential rival for Cleopatra.[223][224]

In December 40 BC Cleopatra received Herod the Great in Alexandria as an unexpected guest and refugee who fled a turbulent situation in Judea.[225] Herod had been installed as a tetrarch there by Antony, but he was soon at odds with Antigonus II Mattathias of the long-established Hasmonean dynasty.[225] The latter had imprisoned Herod's brother and fellow tetrarch Phasael, who was executed while Herod was fleeing toward Cleopatra's court.[225] Cleopatra attempted to provide him with a military assignment, but Herod declined and traveled to Rome, where the triumvirs Octavian and Antony named him king of Judea.[226][227] This act put Herod on a collision course with Cleopatra, who would desire to reclaim the former Ptolemaic territories that comprised his new Herodian kingdom.[226]

An ancient Roman sculpture possibly depicting either Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt,[228][229][note 44] or her daughter, Cleopatra Selene II, Queen of Mauretania,[230] located in the Archaeological Museum of Cherchell, Algeria

Relations between Antony and Cleopatra perhaps soured when he not only married Octavia, but also bore her two children, Antonia the Elder in 39 BC and Antonia Minor in 36 BC, and moved his headquarters to Athens.[231] However, Cleopatra's position in Egypt was secure.[209] Her rival Herod was occupied with civil war in Judea that required heavy Roman military assistance, but received none from Cleopatra.[231] Since the authority of Antony and Octavian as triumvirs had expired on 1 January 37 BC, Octavia arranged for a meeting at Tarentum, where the triumvirate was officially extended to 33 BC.[232] With two legions granted by Octavian and a thousand soldiers lent by Octavia, Antony traveled to Antioch, where he made preparations for war against the Parthians.[233]

Antony summoned Cleopatra to Antioch to discuss pressing issues, such as Herod's kingdom and financial support for his Parthian campaign.[233][234] Cleopatra brought her now three-year-old twins to Antioch, where Antony saw them for the first time and where they probably first received their surnames Helios and Selene as part of Antony and Cleopatra's ambitious plans for the future.[235][236] In order to stabilize the east, Antony not only enlarged Cleopatra's domain,[234] but also established new ruling dynasties and client rulers who would be loyal to him, yet would ultimately outlast him.[237][215][note 45]

In this arrangement Cleopatra gained significant former Ptolemaic territories in the Levant, including nearly all of Phoenicia (Lebanon) minus Tyre and Sidon, which remained in Roman hands.[238][215][234] She also received Ptolemais Akko (modern Acre, Israel), a city that was established by Ptolemy II.[238] Given her ancestral relations with the Seleucids, she was granted the region of Coele-Syria along the upper Orontes River.[239][234] She was even given the region surrounding Jericho in Palestine, but she leased this territory back to Herod.[240][227] At the expense of the Nabataean king Malichus I (a cousin of Herod), Cleopatra was also given a portion of the Nabataean Kingdom around the Gulf of Aqaba on the Red Sea, including Ailana (modern Aqaba, Jordan).[241][227] To the west Cleopatra was handed Cyrene along the Libyan coast, as well as Itanos and Olous in Roman Crete.[242][234] Although still administered by Roman officials, these territories nevertheless enriched her kingdom and led her to declare the inauguration of a new era by double-dating her coinage in 36 BC.[243][244]

 
Roman aurei bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in 43 BC

Antony's enlargement of the Ptolemaic realm by relinquishing directly-controlled Roman territory was exploited by his rival Octavian, who tapped into the public sentiment in Rome against the empowerment of a foreign queen at the expense of their Republic.[245] Octavian, fostering the narrative that Antony was neglecting his virtuous Roman wife Octavia, granted both her and Livia, his own wife, extraordinary privileges of sacrosanctity.[245] Some 50 years before, Cornelia Africana, daughter of Scipio Africanus, had been the first living Roman woman to have a statue dedicated to her.[243] She was now followed by Octavia and Livia, whose statues were most likely erected in the Forum of Caesar to rival that of Cleopatra's, erected by Caesar.[243]

In 36 BC, Cleopatra accompanied Antony to the Euphrates in his journey toward invading the Parthian Empire.[246] She then returned to Egypt, perhaps due to her advanced state of pregnancy.[247] By the summer of 36 BC, she had given birth to Ptolemy Philadelphus, her second son with Antony.[247][234]

Antony's Parthian campaign in 36 BC turned into a complete debacle for a number of reasons, in particular the betrayal of Artavasdes II of Armenia, who defected to the Parthian side.[248][215][249] After losing some 30,000 men, more than Crassus at Carrhae (an indignity he had hoped to avenge), Antony finally arrived at Leukokome near Berytus (modern Beirut, Lebanon) in December, engaged in heavy drinking before Cleopatra arrived to provide funds and clothing for his battered troops.[248][250] Antony desired to avoid the risks involved in returning to Rome, and so he traveled with Cleopatra back to Alexandria to see his newborn son.[248]

Donations of Alexandria

 
A denarius minted in 32 BC; on the obverse is a diademed portrait of Cleopatra, with the Latin inscription "CLEOPATRA[E REGINAE REGVM]FILIORVM REGVM", and on the reverse a portrait of Mark Antony with the inscription reading ANTONI ARMENIA DEVICTA.[251][252]

As Antony prepared for another Parthian expedition in 35 BC, this time aimed at their ally Armenia, Octavia traveled to Athens with 2,000 troops in alleged support of Antony, but most likely in a scheme devised by Octavian to embarrass him for his military losses.[253][254][note 46] Antony received these troops but told Octavia not to stray east of Athens as he and Cleopatra traveled together to Antioch, only to suddenly and inexplicably abandon the military campaign and head back to Alexandria.[253][254] When Octavia returned to Rome Octavian portrayed his sister as a victim wronged by Antony, although she refused to leave Antony's household.[255][215] Octavian's confidence grew as he eliminated his rivals in the west, including Sextus Pompeius and even Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, who was placed under house arrest after revolting against Octavian in Sicily.[255][215][250]

Quintus Dellius was sent as Antony's envoy to Artavasdes II of Armenia in 34 BC to negotiate a potential marriage alliance that would wed the Armenian king's daughter to Antony and Cleopatra's son Alexander Helios.[256][257] When this was declined, Antony marched his army into Armenia, defeated their forces and captured the king and Armenian royal family.[256][258] Antony then held a military parade in Alexandria as an imitation of a Roman triumph, dressed as Dionysos as he rode into the city on a chariot and presented the royal prisoners to Cleopatra, who was seated on a golden throne above a silver dais.[256][259] News of this event was heavily criticized in Rome as a perversion of time-honored Roman rites and rituals to be enjoyed instead by an Egyptian queen.[256]

 
A papyrus document dated February 33 BC granting military commander Publius Canidius Crassus tax exemptions in Egypt and containing the signature of Cleopatra VII, by an official, but with "make it happen" Greek: γινέσθωι, translit. ginesthō added in the queen's own hand.[260][261]

In an event held at the gymnasium soon after the triumph, known as the Donations of Alexandria, Cleopatra dressed as Isis and declared that she was the Queen of Kings with her son Caesarion, King of Kings, while Alexander Helios was declared king of Armenia, Media, and Parthia, and two-year-old Ptolemy Philadelphos was declared king of Syria and Cilicia.[262][263][264] Cleopatra Selene was also bestowed with Crete and Cyrene.[265][266] Antony and Cleopatra may have been wed during this ceremony.[265][264][note 47] Antony sent a report to Rome requesting ratification of these territorial claims. Octavian wanted to publicize it for propaganda purposes, but the two consuls, both supporters of Antony, had it censored from public view.[267][266]

In late 34 BC, following the Donations of Alexandria, Antony and Octavian engaged in a heated war of propaganda that would last for years.[268][266][170][note 48] Antony claimed that his rival had illegally deposed Lepidus from their triumvirate and barred him from raising troops in Italy, while Octavian accused Antony of unlawfully detaining the king of Armenia, marrying Cleopatra despite still being married to his sister Octavia, and wrongfully claiming Caesarion as the heir of Caesar instead of Octavian.[268][266] The litany of accusations and gossip associated with this propaganda war have shaped the popular perceptions about Cleopatra from Augustan-period literature all the way to various media in modern times.[269][270] Cleopatra was said to have had brainwashed Mark Antony with witchcraft and sorcery and was as dangerous as Homer's Helen of Troy in destroying civilization.[271] Horace's Satires preserved an account that Cleopatra once dissolved a pearl worth 2.5 million drachmas in vinegar just to win a dinner party bet.[272] The accusation that Antony had stolen books of the Library of Pergamon to restock the Library of Alexandria later turned out to be an admitted fabrication by Gaius Calvisius Sabinus.[273]

A papyrus document dated to February 33 BC, later used to wrap a mummy, contains the signature of Cleopatra, probably by an official authorized to sign for her.[260][261] It concerns certain tax exemptions in Egypt granted to Publius Canidius Crassus (or Quintus Caecillius),[note 49] former Roman consul and Antony's confidant, who would command his land forces at Actium.[274][261] A subscript in a different handwriting at the bottom of the papyrus reads "make it happen" (Greek: γινέσθωι, translit. ginesthō); this is undoubtedly the autograph of the queen, as it was Ptolemaic practice to countersign documents to avoid forgery.[274][261]

Battle of Actium

 
A reconstructed statue of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated c. 30 BC

In a speech to the Roman Senate on the first day of his consulship on 1 January 33 BC, Octavian accused Antony of attempting to subvert Roman freedoms and territorial integrity as a slave to his Oriental queen.[275] Before Antony and Octavian's joint imperium expired on 31 December 33 BC, Antony declared Caesarion as the true heir of Julius Caesar in an attempt to undermine Octavian.[275] On 1 January 32 BC the Antonian loyalists Gaius Sosius and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus were elected as consuls.[274] On 1 February 32 BC Sosius gave a fiery speech condemning Octavian, now a private citizen without public office, introducing pieces of legislation against him.[274][276] During the next senatorial session, Octavian entered the Senate house with armed guards and levied his own accusations against the consuls.[274][277] Intimidated by this act, the next day the consuls and over two hundred senators still in support of Antony fled Rome and joined the side of Antony.[274][277][278]

Antony and Cleopatra traveled together to Ephesus in 32 BC, where she provided him with 200 of the 800 naval ships he was able to acquire.[274] Domitius Ahenobarbus, wary of having Octavian's propaganda confirmed to the public, attempted to persuade Antony to have Cleopatra excluded from the campaign against Octavian.[279][280] Publius Canidius Crassus made the counterargument that Cleopatra was funding the war effort and was a competent monarch.[279][280] Cleopatra refused Antony's requests that she return to Egypt, judging that by blocking Octavian in Greece she could more easily defend Egypt.[279][280] Cleopatra's insistence that she be involved in the battle for Greece led to defections of prominent Romans such as Domitius Ahenobarbus and Lucius Munatius Plancus.[279][277]

During the spring of 32 BC Antony and Cleopatra traveled to Athens, where she persuaded Antony to send Octavia an official declaration of divorce.[279][277][264] This encouraged Munatius Plancus to advise Octavian that he should seize Antony's will, invested with the Vestal Virgins.[279][277][266] Although a violation of sacred and legal rights, Octavian forcefully acquired the document from the Temple of Vesta, a useful tool in the propaganda war against Antony and Cleopatra.[279][266] Octavian highlighted parts of the will, such as Caesarion being named heir to Caesar, that the Donations of Alexandria were legal, that Antony should be buried alongside Cleopatra in Egypt instead of Rome, and that Alexandria would be made the new capital of the Roman Republic.[281][277][266] In a show of loyalty to Rome, Octavian decided to begin construction of his own mausoleum at the Campus Martius.[277] Octavian's legal standing was also improved by being elected consul in 31 BC.[277] With Antony's will made public, Octavian had his casus belli and Rome declared war on Cleopatra,[281][282][283] not Antony.[note 50] The legal argument for war was based less on Cleopatra's territorial acquisitions, with former Roman territories ruled by her children with Antony, and more on the fact that she was providing military support to a private citizen now that Antony's triumviral authority had expired.[284]

Left: a silver tetradrachm of Cleopatra VII minted at Seleucia Pieria, Syria
Right: a silver tetradrachm of Cleopatra minted at Ascalon, Israel

Antony and Cleopatra had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian had a fully professional force.[285][280] Antony wanted to cross the Adriatic Sea and blockade Octavian at either Tarentum or Brundisium,[286] but Cleopatra, concerned primarily with defending Egypt, overrode the decision to attack Italy directly.[287][280] Antony and Cleopatra set up their winter headquarters at Patrai in Greece and by the spring of 31 BC they moved to Actium along the southern Ambracian Gulf.[287][286]

Cleopatra and Antony had the support of various allied kings, but conflict between Cleopatra and Herod had previously erupted and an earthquake in Judea provided him with an excuse to be absent from the campaign.[288] They also lost the support of Malichus I of Nabataea, which would prove to have strategic consequences.[289] Antony and Cleopatra lost several skirmishes against Octavian around Actium during the summer of 31 BC, while defections to Octavian's camp continued, including Antony's long-time companion Quintus Dellius.[289] The allied kings also began to defect to Octavian's side, starting with Amyntas of Galatia and Deiotaros of Paphlagonia.[289] While some in Antony's camp suggested abandoning the naval conflict to retreat inland, Cleopatra urged for a naval confrontation instead, to keep Octavian's fleet away from Egypt.[290]

On 2 September 31 BC the naval forces of Octavian, led by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, met those of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium.[290][286][282] Cleopatra, aboard her flagship the Antonias, commanded 60 ships at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf, at the rear of the fleet, in what was likely a move by Antony's officers to marginalize her during the battle.[290] Antony had ordered that their ships should have sails on board for a better chance to pursue or flee from the enemy, which Cleopatra, ever concerned about defending Egypt, used to swiftly move through the area of major combat in a strategic withdrawal to the Peloponnese.[291][292][293] Burstein writes that partisan Roman writers would later accuse Cleopatra of cowardly deserting Antony, but their original intention of keeping their sails on board may have been to break the blockade and salvage as much of their fleet as possible.[293] Antony followed Cleopatra and boarded her ship, identified by its distinctive purple sails, as the two escaped the battle and headed for Tainaron.[291] Antony reportedly avoided Cleopatra during this three-day voyage, until her ladies in waiting at Tainaron urged him to speak with her.[294] The Battle of Actium raged on without Cleopatra and Antony until the morning of 3 September, followed by massive defections of officers, troops, and allied kings to Octavian's side.[294][292][295]

Downfall and death

 
Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II, Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her[296][297]

While Octavian occupied Athens, Antony and Cleopatra landed at Paraitonion in Egypt.[294][298] The couple then went their separate ways, Antony to Cyrene to raise more troops and Cleopatra sailing into the harbor at Alexandria in a misleading attempt to portray the activities in Greece as a victory.[294] It is also uncertain if at this time she actually executed Artavasdes II of Armenia and sent his head to his rival Artavasdes I, king of Media Atropatene, in an attempt to strike an alliance with him.[299][300]

Lucius Pinarius, Mark Antony's appointed governor of Cyrene, received word that Octavian had won the Battle of Actium before Antony's messengers could arrive at his court.[299] Pinarius had these messengers executed and defected to Octavian's side, surrendering to him the four legions under his command that Antony desired to obtain.[299] Antony nearly committed suicide after hearing news of this but was stopped by his staff officers.[299] In Alexandria he built a reclusive cottage on the island of Pharos that he nicknamed the Timoneion, after the philosopher Timon of Athens, who was famous for his cynicism and misanthropy.[299] Herod the Great, who had personally advised Antony after the Battle of Actium that he should betray Cleopatra, traveled to Rhodes to meet Octavian and resign his kingship out of loyalty to Antony.[301] Octavian was impressed by his speech and sense of loyalty, so he allowed him to maintain his position in Judea, further isolating Antony and Cleopatra.[301]

Cleopatra perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion.[302] Cleopatra planned to relinquish her throne to him, taking her fleet from the Mediterranean into the Red Sea and then setting sail to a foreign port, perhaps in India where she could spend time recuperating.[302][300] However, these plans were ultimately abandoned when Malichus I of Nabataea, as advised by Octavian's governor of Syria Quintus Didius, managed to burn Cleopatra's fleet, in revenge for his losses in a war with Herod that Cleopatra had largely initiated.[302][300] Cleopatra had no other option but to stay in Egypt and negotiate with Octavian.[302] Although most likely later pro-Octavian propaganda, it was reported that at this time Cleopatra started testing the strengths of various poisons on prisoners and even her own servants.[303]

 
The Death of Cleopatra by Guido Cagnacci, 1658

Cleopatra had Caesarion enter into the ranks of the ephebi, which, along with reliefs on a stele from Koptos dated 21 September 31 BC, demonstrated that Cleopatra was now grooming her son to become the sole ruler of Egypt.[304] In a show of solidarity Antony also had Marcus Antonius Antyllus, his son with Fulvia, enter the ephebi at the same time.[302] Separate messages and envoys from Antony and Cleopatra were then sent to Octavian, still stationed at Rhodes, although Octavian seems to have only replied to Cleopatra.[303] Cleopatra requested that her children should inherit Egypt and that Antony should be allowed to live in exile in Egypt, offering Octavian money in the future and immediately sending him lavish gifts.[303][300] Octavian sent his diplomat Thyrsos to Cleopatra after she threatened to burn herself and vast amounts of her treasure within a tomb already under construction.[305] Thyrsos advised her to kill Antony so that her life would be spared, but when Antony suspected foul intent he had this diplomat flogged and sent back to Octavian without a deal.[306]

After lengthy negotiations that ultimately produced no results, Octavian set out to invade Egypt in the spring of 30 BC,[307] stopping at Ptolemais in Phoenicia where his new ally Herod provided his army with fresh supplies.[308] Octavian moved south and swiftly took Pelousion, while Cornelius Gallus, marching eastward from Cyrene, defeated Antony's forces near Paraitonion.[309][310] Octavian advanced quickly onto Alexandria, but Antony returned and won a small victory over his tired troops outside the city's hippodrome.[309][310] However, on 1 August 30 BC Antony's naval fleet surrendered to Octavian, followed by his cavalry.[309][292][311] Cleopatra hid herself in her tomb with her close attendants, sending a message to Antony that she had committed suicide.[309][312][313] In despair, Antony responded to this by stabbing himself in the stomach and taking his own life at age 53.[309][292][300] According to Plutarch he was still dying when brought to Cleopatra at her tomb, telling her he had died honorably and that she could trust Octavian's companion Gaius Proculeius over anyone else in his entourage.[309][314][315] It was Proculeius, however, who infiltrated her tomb using a ladder and detained the queen, denying her the ability to burn herself with her treasures.[316][317] Cleopatra was then allowed to embalm and bury Antony within her tomb before she was escorted to the palace.[316][300]

 
The Death of Cleopatra, by Jean-Baptiste Regnault, 1796–1797

Octavian entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and seized Cleopatra's three youngest children.[316][318] When she met with Octavian she told him bluntly that "I will not be led in a triumph" (Ancient Greek: οὑ θριαμβεύσομαι, translit. ou thriambéusomai) according to Livy, a rare recording of her exact words.[319][320] Octavian promised that he would keep her alive but offered no explanation about his future plans for her kingdom.[321] When a spy informed her that Octavian planned to move her and her children to Rome in three days she prepared for suicide, as she had no intentions of being paraded in a Roman triumph like her sister Arsinoe IV.[321][292][300] It is unclear if Cleopatra's suicide in August 30 BC, at age 39, took place within the palace or her tomb.[322][323][note 2] It is said she was accompanied by her servants Eiras and Charmion, who also took their own lives.[321][324] Octavian was said to be angered by this outcome but had her buried in royal fashion next to Antony in her tomb.[321][325][326] Cleopatra's physician Olympos did not explain her cause of death, although the popular belief is that she allowed an asp, or Egyptian cobra, to bite and poison her.[327][328][300] Plutarch relates this tale, but then suggests an implement (knestis) was used to introduce the toxin by scratching, while Cassius Dio says that she injected the poison with a needle (belone) and Strabo argued for an ointment of some kind.[329][328][330][note 51] No venomous snake was found with her body, but she did have tiny puncture wounds on her arm that could have been caused by a needle.[327][330][326]

Cleopatra decided in her last moments to send Caesarion away to Upper Egypt, perhaps with plans to flee to Nubia, Ethiopia or India.[331][332][310] Caesarion, now Ptolemy XV, would reign for a mere eighteen days until executed on the orders of Octavian on 29 August 30 BC, returning to Alexandria under the false pretense that Octavian would allow him to be king.[333][334][335][note 4] Octavian was convinced by the advice of the philosopher Arius Didymus that there was room for only one Caesar in the world.[336][note 52] With the fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, Egypt was made into a Roman province,[337][292][338][note 53] marking the end of the Hellenistic age.[339][340][note 5] In January 27 BC Octavian was renamed Augustus ('the revered') and amassed constitutional powers that established him as the first Roman emperor, inaugurating the Principate era of the Roman Empire.[341]

Cleopatra's kingdom and role as a monarch

 
Cleopatra VII. 51–30 BC, 40 drachms, minted at Alexandria; obverse: diademed portrait of Cleopatra VII; reverse: an inscription reading "ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ", with an eagle standing on a thunderbolt

Following the tradition of Macedonian rulers, Cleopatra ruled Egypt and other territories such as Cyprus as an absolute monarch, serving as the sole lawgiver of her kingdom.[342] She was the chief religious authority in her realm, presiding over religious ceremonies dedicated to the deities of both the Egyptian and Greek polytheistic faiths.[343] She oversaw the construction of various temples to Egyptian and Greek gods,[344] a synagogue for the Jews in Egypt, and even built the Caesareum of Alexandria dedicated to the cult worship of her patron and lover Julius Caesar.[345][346] Cleopatra was directly involved in the administrative affairs of her domain,[347] tackling crises such as famine by ordering royal granaries to distribute food to the starving populace during a drought at the beginning of her reign.[348] Although the command economy that she managed was more of an ideal than a reality,[349] the government attempted to impose price controls, tariffs, and state monopolies for certain goods, fixed exchange rates for foreign currencies, and rigid laws forcing peasant farmers to stay in their villages during planting and harvesting seasons.[350][351][352] Apparent financial troubles led Cleopatra to debase her coinage, which included silver and bronze currencies but no gold coins like those of some of her distant Ptolemaic predecessors.[353]

Legacy

Children and successors

Left: a Roman head of either Cleopatra Selene II, Queen of Mauretania, or her mother Cleopatra VII, Archaeological Museum of Cherchell, Algeria, late 1st century BC[230][354][355][note 44]
Right: a likely depiction of Cleopatra Selene II,[note 54] wearing an elephant skin cap, raised relief image on a gilded silver dish, from the Boscoreale Treasure, early 1st century AD[356][357]

After her suicide, Cleopatra's three surviving children Cleopatra Selene II, Alexander Helios, and Ptolemy Philadelphos were sent to Rome with Octavian's sister Octavia, a former wife of their father, as their guardian.[358][359] Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios were present in the Roman triumph of Octavian in 29 BC.[358][236] The fates of Alexander Helios and Ptolemy Philadelphus are unknown after this point.[358][236] Octavia arranged the betrothal of Cleopatra Selene II to Juba II, son of Juba I whose North African kingdom of Numidia had been turned into a Roman province in 46 BC by Julius Caesar due to Juba I's support of Pompey.[360][359][318] The emperor Augustus installed Juba II and Cleopatra Selene II, after their wedding in 25 BC, as the new rulers of Mauretania, where they transformed the old Carthaginian city of Iol into their new capital, renamed Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell, Algeria).[360][236] Cleopatra Selene II imported many important scholars, artists, and advisers from her mother's royal court in Alexandria to serve her in Caesarea, now permeated in Hellenistic Greek culture.[361] She also named her son Ptolemy of Mauretania, in honor of their Ptolemaic dynastic heritage.[362][363]

Cleopatra Selene II died around 5 BC and when Juba II died in 23/24 AD he was succeeded by his son Ptolemy.[362][364] However, Ptolemy was eventually executed by the Roman emperor Caligula in 40 AD, perhaps under the pretense that Ptolemy had unlawfully minted his own royal coinage and utilized regalia reserved for the Roman emperor.[365][366] Ptolemy of Mauretania was the last known monarch of the Ptolemaic dynasty, although Queen Zenobia of the short-lived Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century would claim descent from Cleopatra.[367][368] A cult dedicated to Cleopatra still existed as late as 373 AD when Petesenufe, an Egyptian scribe of the book of Isis, explained that he "overlaid the figure of Cleopatra with gold."[369]

Roman literature and historiography

Although almost fifty ancient works of Roman historiography mention Cleopatra, these often include only terse accounts of the Battle of Actium, her suicide, and Augustan propaganda about her personal deficiencies.[371] Although not a biography of Cleopatra, the Life of Antonius written by Plutarch in the 1st century AD provides the most thorough surviving account of Cleopatra's life.[372][373][374] Plutarch lived a century after Cleopatra but relied on primary sources such as Philotas of Amphissa, who had access to the Ptolemaic royal palace, Cleopatra's personal physician named Olympos, and Quintus Dellius, a close confidant of Antony and Cleopatra.[375] Plutarch's work included both the Augustan view of Cleopatra—that became canonical for his period—as well as sources outside of this tradition, such as eyewitness reports.[372][374] The Jewish Roman historian Josephus, writing in the 1st century AD, provides valuable information on the life of Cleopatra via her diplomatic relationship with Herod the Great.[376][377] However, this work relies largely on Herod's memoirs and the biased account of Nicolaus of Damascus, the tutor of Cleopatra's children in Alexandria before he moved to Judea to serve as an adviser and chronicler at Herod's court.[376][377] The Roman History published by the official and historian Cassius Dio in the early 3rd century AD, while failing to fully comprehend the complexities of the late Hellenistic world, nevertheless provides a continuous history of the era of Cleopatra's reign.[376]

 
A (restructured) Roman statue of Cleopatra VII wearing a diadem and 'melon' hairstyle similar to coinage portraits, marble, found near the Tomba di Nerone, Rome along the Via Cassia, Museo Pio-Clementino[1][378][379]

Cleopatra is barely mentioned in the De Bello Alexandrino, the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Julius Caesar.[380][381][382][note 55] The writings of Cicero, who knew her personally, provide an unflattering portrait of Cleopatra.[380] The Augustan-period authors Vergil, Horace, Propertius, and Ovid perpetuated the negative views of Cleopatra approved by the ruling Roman regime,[380][383] although Vergil established the idea of Cleopatra as a figure of romance and epic melodrama.[384][note 56] Horace also viewed Cleopatra's suicide as a positive choice,[385][383] an idea that found acceptance by the Late Middle Ages with Geoffrey Chaucer.[386][387] The historians Strabo, Velleius, Valerius Maximus, Pliny the Elder, and Appian, while not offering accounts as full as Plutarch, Josephus, or Cassius Dio, provided some details of her life that had not survived in other historical records.[380][note 57] Inscriptions on contemporary Ptolemaic coinage and some Egyptian papyrus documents demonstrate Cleopatra's point of view, but this material is very limited in comparison to Roman literary works.[380][388][note 58] The fragmentary Libyka commissioned by Cleopatra's son-in-law Juba II provides a glimpse at a possible body of historiographic material that supported Cleopatra's perspective.[380]

Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world.[389] For instance, the historian Ronald Syme (1903–1989) asserted that she was of little importance to Julius Caesar and that the propaganda of Octavian magnified her importance to an excessive degree.[389] Although the common view of Cleopatra was one of a prolific seductress, she had only two known sexual partners, Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, the two most prominent Romans of the time period who were most likely to ensure the survival of her dynasty.[390][391] Plutarch described Cleopatra as having had a stronger personality and charming wit than physical beauty.[392][17][393][note 59]

Cultural depictions

Depictions in ancient art

Statues
Left image: an Egyptian statue of either Arsinoe II or Cleopatra VII as an Egyptian goddess in black basalt, second half of the 1st century BC;[394] Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg
Right image: the Esquiline Venus, a Roman or Hellenistic-Egyptian statue of Venus (Aphrodite), which may be a depiction of Cleopatra VII,[395] Capitoline Museums, Rome

Cleopatra was depicted in various ancient works of art, in the Egyptian as well as Hellenistic-Greek and Roman styles.[2] Surviving works include statues, busts, reliefs, and minted coins,[2][370] as well as ancient carved cameos,[396] such as one depicting Cleopatra and Mark Antony in Hellenistic style, now in the Altes Museum, Berlin.[1] Contemporary images of Cleopatra were produced both in and outside of Ptolemaic Egypt. For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple.[3][182][397] It was erected there by Julius Caesar and remained in the temple at least until the 3rd century AD, its preservation perhaps owing to Caesar's patronage, although Augustus did not remove or destroy artworks in Alexandria depicting Cleopatra.[398][399]

In regards to surviving Roman statuary, a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra was found near the Tomba di Nerone, Rome along the Via Cassia and is now housed in the Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums.[1][378][379] Plutarch, in his Life of Antonius, claimed that the public statues of Mark Antony were torn down by Augustus, but those of Cleopatra were preserved following her death thanks to her friend Archibius paying the emperor 2,000 talents to dissuade him from destroying hers.[400][369][325]

Since the 1950s scholars have debated whether or not the Esquiline Venus—discovered in 1874 on the Esquiline Hill in Rome and housed in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museums—is a depiction of Cleopatra, based on the statue's hairstyle and facial features, apparent royal diadem worn over the head, and the uraeus Egyptian cobra wrapped around the base.[395][401][402] Detractors of this theory argue that the facial features on the Berlin portrait and coinage of Cleopatra differ and assert that it was unlikely she would be depicted as the naked goddess Venus (i.e. the Greek Aphrodite).[395][401][402] However, she was depicted in an Egyptian statue as the goddess Isis,[403] while some of her coinage depicts her as Venus-Aphrodite.[404][405] The Esquiline Venus is generally thought to be a mid-1st-century AD Roman copy of a 1st-century BC Greek original from the school of Pasiteles.[401]

Coinage portraits
 
Cleopatra and Mark Antony on the obverse and reverse, respectively, of a silver tetradrachm struck at the Antioch mint in 36 BC

Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include specimens from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC.[406] Cleopatra, the only Ptolemaic queen to issue coins on her own behalf, almost certainly inspired her partner Caesar to become the first living Roman to present his portrait on his own coins.[404][note 60] Cleopatra was also the first foreign queen to have her image appear on Roman currency.[407] Coins dated to the period of her marriage to Mark Antony, which also bear his image, portray the queen as having a very similar aquiline nose and prominent chin as that of her husband.[3][408] These similar facial features followed an artistic convention that represented the mutually-observed harmony of a royal couple.[3][2] Her strong, almost masculine facial features in these particular coins are strikingly different from the smoother, softer, and perhaps idealized sculpted images of her in either the Egyptian or Hellenistic styles.[2][409][410] Her masculine facial features on minted currency are similar to that of her father Ptolemy XII Auletes,[411][112] and perhaps also to those of her Ptolemaic ancestor Arsinoe II (316 – 260 BC)[2][412] and even depictions of earlier queens such as Hatshepsut and Nefertiti.[410]

It is likely, due to political expediency, that Antony's visage was made to conform not only to hers but also to those of her Macedonian Greek ancestors who founded the Ptolemaic dynasty, to familiarize himself to her subjects as a legitimate member of the royal house.[2] The inscriptions on the coins are written in Greek, but also in the nominative case of Roman coins rather than the genitive case of Greek coins, in addition to having the letters placed in a circular fashion along the edges of the coin instead of across it horizontally or vertically as was customary for Greek ones.[2] These facets of their coinage represent the synthesis of Roman and Hellenistic culture, and perhaps also a statement to their subjects, however ambiguous to modern scholars, about the superiority of either Antony or Cleopatra over the other.[2] Diana E. E. Kleiner argues that Cleopatra, in one of her coins minted with the dual image of her husband Antony, made herself more masculine looking than other portraits and more like an acceptable Roman client queen than a Hellenistic ruler.[409] Cleopatra had actually achieved this masculine look in coinage predating her affair with Antony, such as the coins struck at the Ashkelon mint during her brief period of exile to Syria and the Levant, which Joann Fletcher explains as her attempt to appear like her father and as a legitimate successor to a male Ptolemaic ruler.[112][413]

Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle.[3][413] The combination of this hairstyle with a diadem are also featured in two surviving sculpted marble heads.[414][370][415][note 61] This hairstyle, with hair braided back into a bun, is the same as that worn by her Ptolemaic ancestors Arsinoe II and Berenice II (266 – 221 BC) in their own coinage.[3][416] After her visit to Rome in 46–44 BC it became fashionable for Roman women to adopt this elaborate hairstyle, but it was abandoned for a more modest, austere look during the conservative rule of Augustus.[3][414][415]

Greco-Roman busts and heads
An ancient Roman portrait head, c. 50–30 BC, depicting a woman from Ptolemaic Egypt, either Queen Cleopatra VII or a member of her entourage during her 46–44 BC visit to Rome with her lover Julius Caesar; British Museum, London[414]

Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts and heads of Cleopatra,[note 62] the sculpture known as the 'Berlin Cleopatra', located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection of the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the head known as the 'Vatican Cleopatra', located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose.[417][418][419][note 63] Both the Berlin Cleopatra and Vatican Cleopatra have royal diadems, similar facial features, and perhaps once resembled the face of her bronze statue housed in the Temple of Venus Genetrix.[418][420][419][note 64] Both heads are dated to the mid-1st century BC and were found in Roman villas along the Via Appia in Italy, the Vatican Cleopatra having been unearthed in the Villa of the Quintilii.[3][417][419][note 65] Francisco Pina Polo writes that Cleopatra's coinage present her image with certainty and asserts that the sculpted portrait of the Berlin head is confirmed as having a similar profile with her hair pulled back into a bun, a diadem, and a hooked nose.[421] A third sculpted portrait of Cleopatra accepted by scholars as being authentic survives at the Archaeological Museum of Cherchel, Algeria.[399][354][355] This portrait features the royal diadem and similar facial features as the Berlin and Vatican heads, but has a more unique hairstyle and may actually depict Cleopatra Selene II, daughter of Cleopatra VII.[355][422][230][note 44] A possible Parian-marble sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a vulture headdress in Egyptian style is located at the Capitoline Museums.[423] Discovered near a sanctuary of Isis in Rome and dated to the 1st century BC, it is either Roman or Hellenistic Egyptian in origin.[424]

Other possible sculpted depictions of Cleopatra include one in the British Museum, London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome.[1][414] The woman in this portrait has facial features similar to others (including the pronounced aquiline nose), but lacks a royal diadem and sports a different hairstyle.[1][414] However, the British Museum head, once belonging to a full statue, could potentially represent Cleopatra at a different stage in her life and may also betray an effort by Cleopatra to discard the use of royal insignia (i.e. the diadem) to make herself more appealing to the citizens of Republican Rome.[414] Duane W. Roller speculates that the British Museum head, along with those in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, Rome, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen (1868–1948), while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin portrait but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle.[425]

Paintings
 
A Roman Second-style painting in the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii, Italy, depicting Cleopatra VII as Venus Genetrix and her son Caesarion as a cupid, mid-1st century BC[401][427]

In the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii, Italy a mid-1st century BC Second-Style wall painting of the goddess Venus holding a cupid near massive temple doors is most likely a depiction of Cleopatra VII as Venus Genetrix with her son Caesarion.[401][427] The commission of the painting most likely coincides with the erection of the Temple of Venus Genetrix in the Forum of Caesar in September 46 BC, where Julius Caesar had a gilded statue erected depicting Cleopatra.[401][427] This statue likely formed the basis of her depictions in both sculpted art as well as this painting at Pompeii.[401][428] The woman in the painting wears a royal diadem over her head and is strikingly similar in appearance to the Vatican Cleopatra, which bears possible marks on the marble of its left cheek where a cupid's arm may have been torn off.[401][429][419][note 66] The room with the painting was walled off by its owner, perhaps in reaction to the execution of Caesarion in 30 BC by order of Octavian, when public depictions of Cleopatra's son would have been unfavorable with the new Roman regime.[401][430] Behind her golden diadem crowned with a red jewel is a translucent veil with crinkles that suggest the 'melon' hairstyle favored by the queen.[429][note 67] Her ivory-white skin, round face, long aquiline nose, and large round eyes were features common in both Roman and Ptolemaic depictions of deities.[429] Roller affirms that "there seems little doubt that this is a depiction of Cleopatra and Caesarion before the doors of the Temple of Venus in the Forum Julium and, as such, it becomes the only extant contemporary painting of the queen."[401]

A steel engraving published by John Sartain in 1885 depicting the now lost painted death portrait of Cleopatra VII (left), an encaustic painting discovered in the ancient Roman ruins of the Egyptian Temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa (in Tivoli, Lazio) in 1818;[431] she is seen here wearing the knotted garment of Isis (corresponding with Plutarch's description of her wearing the robes of Isis),[432] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers such as Ptolemy V (pictured to the right in a golden octodrachm minted in 204–203 BC).[433]

Another painting from Pompeii, dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra VII with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide.[296][297][note 68] The painting was originally thought to depict the Carthaginian noblewoman Sophonisba, who towards the end of the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) drank poison and committed suicide at the behest of her lover Masinissa, King of Numidia.[296] Arguments in favor of it depicting Cleopatra include the strong connection of her house with that of the Numidian royal family, Masinissa and Ptolemy VIII having been associates and Cleopatra's own daughter marrying the Numidian prince Juba II.[296] Sophonisba was also a more obscure figure when this painting was made, while Cleopatra's suicide was far more famous.[296] An asp is absent from the painting, but many Romans held the view that she received poison in another manner than a venomous snakebite.[434] A set of double doors on the rear wall of the painting, positioned very high above the people in it, suggests the described layout of Cleopatra's tomb in Alexandria.[296] A male servant holds the mouth of an artificial Egyptian crocodile (possibly an elaborate tray handle), while another man standing by is dressed as a Roman.[296]

In 1818 a now lost encaustic painting was discovered in the Temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa near Tivoli, Lazio, Italy that depicted Cleopatra committing suicide with an asp biting her bare chest.[431] A chemical analysis performed in 1822 confirmed that the medium for the painting was composed of one-third wax and two-thirds resin.[431] The thickness of the painting over Cleopatra's bare flesh and her drapery were reportedly similar to the paintings of the Fayum mummy portraits.[435] A steel engraving published by John Sartain in 1885 depicting the painting as described in the archaeological report shows Cleopatra wearing authentic clothing and jewelry of Egypt in the late Hellenistic period,[436] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers, as seen in their portraits on various coins minted during their respective reigns.[433] After Cleopatra's suicide, Octavian commissioned a painting to be made depicting her being bitten by a snake, parading this image in her stead during his triumphal procession in Rome.[435][331][307] The portrait painting of Cleopatra's death was perhaps among the great number of artworks and treasures taken from Rome by Emperor Hadrian to decorate his private villa, where it was found in an Egyptian temple.[431][note 69]

A Roman panel painting from Herculaneum, Italy dated to the 1st century AD possibly depicts Cleopatra VII.[54][55] In it she wears a royal diadem, red or reddish-brown hair pulled back into a bun,[note 70] with pearl-studded hairpins,[437] and earrings with ball-shaped pendants, the white skin of her face and neck set against a stark black background.[54] Her hair and facial features are similar to those in the sculpted Berlin and Vatican portraits as well as her coinage.[54] A highly similar painted bust of a woman with a blue headband in the House of the Orchard at Pompeii features Egyptian-style imagery, such as a Greek-style sphinx, and may have been created by the same artist.[54]

Portland Vase
 
Possible depiction of Mark Antony being lured by Cleopatra VII, straddling a serpent, while Anton looks on and Eros flies above[438][439]

The Portland Vase, a Roman cameo glass vase dated to the Augustan period and now in the British Museum, includes a possible depiction of Cleopatra with Mark Antony.[438][440] In this interpretation, Cleopatra can be seen grasping Antony and drawing him towards her while a serpent (i.e. the asp) rises between her legs, Eros floats above, and Anton, the alleged ancestor of Antonian family, looks on in despair as his descendant Antony is led to his doom.[438][439] The other side of the vase perhaps contains a scene of Octavia Minor, abandoned by her husband Antony but watched over by her brother, the emperor Augustus.[438][439] The vase would thus have been created no earlier than 35 BC, when Antony sent his wife Octavia back to Italy and stayed with Cleopatra in Alexandria.[438]

Native Egyptian art
 
Cleopatra VII and her son Caesarion at the Temple of Dendera

The Bust of Cleopatra in the Royal Ontario Museum represents a bust of Cleopatra in the Egyptian style.[441] Dated to the mid-1st century BC, it is perhaps the earliest depiction of Cleopatra as both a goddess and ruling pharaoh of Egypt.[441] This sculpture also has pronounced eyes that share similarities with Roman copies of Ptolemaic sculpted works of art.[442] The Dendera Temple complex near Dendera, Egypt, contains Egyptian-style carved relief images along the exterior walls of the Temple of Hathor depicting Cleopatra and her young son Caesarion as a grown adult and ruling pharaoh making offerings to the gods.[443][444] Augustus had his name inscribed there following the death of Cleopatra.[443][445]

A large Ptolemaic black basalt statue measuring 41 in (1.04 m) in height, now in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, is thought to represent Arsinoe II, wife of Ptolemy II, but recent analysis has indicated that it could depict her descendant Cleopatra VII due to the three uraei adorning her headdress, an increase from the two used by Arsinoe II to symbolize her rule over Lower and Upper Egypt.[400][396][394] The woman in the basalt statue also holds a divided, double cornucopia (dikeras), which can be seen on coins of both Arsinoe II and Cleopatra VII.[400][394] In his Kleopatra und die Caesaren (2006), Bernard Andreae (de) contends that this basalt statue, like other idealized Egyptian portraits of the queen, does not contain realistic facial features and hence adds little to the knowledge of her appearance.[446][note 71] Adrian Goldsworthy writes that, despite these representations in the traditional Egyptian style, Cleopatra would have only dressed as a native "perhaps for certain rites" and instead would usually dress as a Greek monarch, which would include the Greek headband seen in her Greco-Roman busts.[447]

Medieval and Early Modern reception

In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture,[370] a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films.[449] This material largely surpasses the scope and size of existent historiographic literature about her from Classical Antiquity and has made a greater impact on the general public's view of Cleopatra than the latter.[450] The 14th-century English poet Chaucer, in The Legend of Good Women, contextualized Cleopatra for the Christian world of the Middle Ages.[451] His depiction of Cleopatra and Antony, her shining knight engaged in courtly love, has been interpreted in modern times as being either playful or misogynyistic satire.[451] However, Chaucer highlighted Cleopatra's relationships with only two men as hardly the life of a seductress and wrote his works partly in reaction to the negative depiction of Cleopatra in De Mulieribus Claris and De Casibus Virorum Illustrium, Latin works by the 14th-century Italian poet Giovanni Boccaccio.[452][387] The Renaissance humanist Bernardino Cacciante (it), in his 1504 Libretto apologetico delle donne, was the first Italian to defend the reputation of Cleopatra and criticize the perceived moralizing and misogyny in Boccaccio's works.[453] Works of Arabic, Islamic historiography covered the reign of Cleopatra, such as the 10th-century AD Meadows of Gold by Al-Masudi,[454] although his work erroneously claimed that Octavian died soon after Cleopatra's suicide.[455]

Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts, such as a depiction of her and Mark Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in 1409.[386] In the visual arts, the sculpted depiction of Cleopatra as a free-standing nude figure committing suicide began with the 16th-century sculptors Bartolommeo Bandinelli and Alessandro Vittoria.[456] Early prints depicting Cleopatra include those to designs by the Renaissance artists Raphael and Michelangelo, as well as 15th-century woodcuts in illustrated editions of Boccaccio's works.[457]

In the performing arts, the death of Elizabeth I of England in 1603, and the German publication in 1606 of alleged letters of Cleopatra inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his 1594 play Cleopatra in 1607.[458] He was followed by William Shakespeare, whose Antony and Cleopatra, largely based on Plutarch, was first performed in 1608 and provided a somewhat salacious view of Cleopatra in stark contrast to England's own Virgin Queen.[459] Cleopatra was also featured in operas, such as George Frideric Handel's 1724 Giulio Cesare in Egitto, which portrayed the love affair of Caesar and Cleopatra.[460]

Modern depictions and brand imaging

In Victorian Britain, Cleopatra was highly associated with many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture and her image was used to market various household products, including oil lamps, lithographs, postcards and cigarettes.[461] Fictional novels such as H. Rider Haggard's Cleopatra (1889) and Théophile Gautier's One of Cleopatra's Nights (1838) depicted the queen as a sensual and mystic Easterner, while the Egyptologist Georg Ebers' Cleopatra (1894) was more grounded in historical accuracy.[461][462] The French dramatist Victorien Sardou and Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw produced plays about Cleopatra, while burlesque shows such as F. C. Burnand's Antony and Cleopatra offered satirical depictions of the queen connecting her and the environment she lived in with the modern age.[463] Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra was considered canonical by the Victorian era.[464] Its popularity led to the perception that the 1885 painting by Lawrence Alma-Tadema depicted the meeting of Antony and Cleopatra on her pleasure barge in Tarsus, although Alma-Tadema revealed in a private letter that it depicts a subsequent meeting of theirs in Alexandria.[465] In his (unfinished) 1825 short story Egyptian Nights, Alexander Pushkin popularized the claims of the 4th-century Roman historian Sextus Aurelius Victor, previously largely ignored, that Cleopatra had prostituted herself to men who paid for sex with their lives.[466][467] Cleopatra also became appreciated outside the Western world and Middle East, as the Qing-dynasty Chinese scholar Yan Fu (1854–1921) wrote an extensive biography of her.[468]

Georges Méliès' Robbing Cleopatra's Tomb (French: Cléopâtre), an 1899 French silent horror film, was the first film to depict the character of Cleopatra.[469] Hollywood films of the 20th century were influenced by earlier Victorian media, which helped to shape the character of Cleopatra played by Theda Bara in Cleopatra (1917), Claudette Colbert in Cleopatra (1934), and Elizabeth Taylor in Cleopatra (1963).[470] In addition to her portrayal as a 'vampire' queen, Bara's Cleopatra also incorporated tropes familiar from 19th-century Orientalist painting, such as despotic behavior, mixed with dangerous and overt female sexuality.[471] Colbert's character of Cleopatra served as a glamour model for selling Egytpian-themed products in department stores in the 1930s, targeting female moviegoers.[472] In preparation for the film starring Taylor as Cleopatra, women's magazines of the early 1960s advertised how to use makeup, clothes, jewelry, and hairstyles to achieve the 'Egyptian' look similar to the queens Cleopatra and Nefertiti.[473] By the end of the 20th century there were not only forty-three separate films associated with Cleopatra, but also some two hundred plays and novels, forty-five operas, and five ballets.[474]

Written works

Whereas myths about Cleopatra persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on ancient Greek medicine.[371] Only fragments exist of the medical and cosmetic writings attributed to Cleopatra, such as those preserved by Galen, including remedies for hair disease, baldness, and dandruff, along with a list of weights and measures for pharmacological purposes.[475][20][476] Aëtius of Amida attributed a recipe for perfumed soap to Cleopatra, while Paul of Aegina preserved alleged instructions of hers for dying and curling hair.[475] The attribution of certain texts to Cleopatra, however, is doubted by Ingrid D. Rowland, who highlights that the "Berenice called Cleopatra" cited by the 3rd or 4th-century female Roman physician Metrodora was likely conflated by medieval scholars as being Cleopatra VII.[477]

Ancestry

Left: a Hellenistic bust of Ptolemy I, now in the Louvre, Paris
Right: a bust of Seleucus I Nicator, a Roman copy of a Greek original, from the Villa of the Papyri (Herculaneum), now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Cleopatra VII belonged to the Macedonian Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies,[9][478][479][note 72] their European origins traced back to northern Greece.[480] Through her father Ptolemy XII Auletes she was a descendant of two prominent companions of Alexander the Great of Macedon, the general Ptolemy I, founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, and Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian Greek founder of the Seleucid Empire of West Asia.[9][481][482][note 73] While Cleopatra's paternal line can be traced through her father, the identity of her mother is unknown.[483][484][485][note 74] She may have been the daughter of Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra V Tryphaena),[note 3] the cousin-wife[486] or sister-wife of Ptolemy XII.[14][484][487][note 75]

Cleopatra I was the only member of the Ptolemaic dynasty known for certain to have introduced some non-Greek ancestry, being a descendant of Apama, the Sogdian Persian wife of Seleucus I.[488][489][note 76] It is generally believed that the Ptolemies did not intermarry with native Egyptians.[38][490][note 77] Michael Grant asserts there is only one known Egyptian mistress of a Ptolemy and no known Egyptian wife of a Ptolemy, further arguing Cleopatra probably had not a drop of Egyptian blood in her and "would have described herself as Greek."[488][note 78] Stacy Schiff writes that Cleopatra was a Macedonian Greek with some Persian ancestry, arguing that it was rare for the Ptolemies to have an Egyptian mistress.[491][note 79] Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah (a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship about Cleopatra),[note 80] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most.[492][note 81]

Claims that Cleopatra was an illegitimate child never appeared in Roman propaganda against her.[493][494][note 82] Strabo was the only ancient historian who claimed that Ptolemy XII's children born after Berenice IV, including Cleopatra VII, were illegitimate.[493][494][495] Cleopatra V (or VI) was expelled from the court of Ptolemy XII in late 69 BC, a few months after the birth of Cleopatra VII, while Ptolemy XII's three younger children were all born during the absence of his wife.[39] The high degree of inbreeding among the Ptolemies is also illustrated by Cleopatra's immediate ancestry, of which a reconstruction is shown below.[note 83] The family tree given below also lists Cleopatra V, Ptolemy XII's wife, as a daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III, which would make her a cousin of her husband Ptolemy XII, but she could have been a daughter of Ptolemy IX, which would have made her a sister-wife of Ptolemy XII instead.[486] The confused accounts in ancient primary sources have also led scholars to number Ptolemy XII's wife as either Cleopatra V or Cleopatra VI, the latter of whom may have actually been a daughter of Ptolemy XII and which some use as an indication that Cleopatra V had died in 69 BC rather than reappearing as a co-ruler with Berenice IV in 58 BC (during Ptolemy XII's exile in Rome).[496][53]

Ptolemy V EpiphanesCleopatra I
Ptolemy VI PhilometorCleopatra II
Ptolemy VIII PhysconCleopatra III
Cleopatra Selene of SyriaPtolemy IX LathyrosCleopatra IV
Ptolemy X Alexander IBerenice III
Cleopatra VPtolemy XII Auletes
Cleopatra VII

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ For further validation about the "Berlin Cleopatra", see Polo 2013, pp. 184–186, Roller 2010, pp. 54, 174–175, Jones 2006, p. 33, and Hölbl 2001, p. 234.
  2. ^ a b c d Theodore Cressy Skeat, in Skeat 1953, pp. 98–100, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC. Burstein 2004, p. 31 provides the same date as Skeat, while Dodson & Hilton 2004, p. 277 tepidly support this, saying it occurred circa that date. Those in favor of claiming her death occurred on 10 August 30 BC include Roller 2010, pp. 147–148, Fletcher 2008, p. 3, and Anderson 2003, p. 56.
  3. ^ a b c Grant 1972, pp. 3–4, 17, Fletcher 2008, pp. 69, 74, 76, Jones 2006, p. xiii and Burstein 2004, p. 11 label the wife of Ptolemy XII Auletes as Cleopatra V Tryphaena, while Dodson & Hilton 2004, pp. 268–269, 273 and Roller 2010, p. 18 call her Cleopatra VI Tryphaena, due to the confusion in primary sources conflating these two figures, who may have been one in the same. As explained by Whitehorne 1994, p. 182, Cleopatra VI may have actually been a daughter of Ptolemy XII, who appeared in 58 BC to rule jointly with her alleged sister Berenice IV (while Ptolemy XII was exiled and living in Rome), whereas Ptolemy XII's wife Cleopatra V perhaps died as early as the winter of 69–68 BC, when she disappears from historical records. Roller 2010, pp. 18–19 assumes that Ptolemy XII's wife, who he numbers as Cleopatra VI, was merely absent from the court for a decade after being expelled for an unknown reason, eventually ruling jointly with her daughter Berenice IV. Fletcher 2008, p. 76 explains that the Alexandrians deposed Ptolemy XII Auletes and installed "his eldest daughter, Berenike IV, and as co-ruler recalled Cleopatra V Tryphaena from 10 years' exile from the court. Although later historians assumed she must have been another of Auletes' daughters and numbered her 'Cleopatra VI', it seems she was simply the fifth one returning to replace her brother and former husband Auletes."
  4. ^ a b Roller 2010, p. 149 and Skeat 1953, pp. 99–100 explain the nominal short-lived reign of Caesarion, or Ptolemy XV, as lasting eighteen days in August 30 BC. However, Duane W. Roller, relaying Theodore Cressy Skeat, affirms that Caesarion's reign "was essentially a fiction created by Egyptian chronographers to close the gap between [Cleopatra's] death and official Roman control of Egypt (under the new pharaoh, Octavian)," citing, for instance, the Stromata by Clement of Alexandria (Roller 2010, pp. 149, 214, footnote 103).
    Plutarch, translated by Jones 2006, p. 187, wrote in vague terms that "Octavian had Caesarion killed later, after Cleopatra's death."
  5. ^ a b Grant 1972, pp. 5–6 notes that the Hellenistic period, beginning with the reign of Alexander the Great (336–323 BC), came to an end with the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Michael Grant stresses that the Hellenistic Greeks were viewed by contemporary Romans as having declined and diminished in greatness since the age of Classical Greece, an attitude that has continued even into the works of modern historiography. In regards to Hellenistic Egypt, Grant argues that "Cleopatra VII, looking back upon all that her ancestors had done during that time, was not likely to make the same mistake. But she and her contemporaries of the first century BC had another, peculiar, problem of their own. Could the 'Hellenistic Age' (which we ourselves often regard as coming to an end in about her time) still be said to exist at all, could any Greek age, now that the Romans were the dominant power? This was a question never far from Cleopatra's mind. But it is quite certain that she considered the Greek epoch to be by no means finished, and intended to do everything in her power to ensure its perpetuation."
  6. ^ a b The refusal of Ptolemaic dynasty rulers to speak the native language, Late Egyptian, is why Ancient Greek (i.e. Koine Greek) was used along with Late Egyptian on official court documents such as the Rosetta Stone: "Radio 4 Programmes – A History of the World in 100 Objects, Empire Builders (300 BC – 1 AD), Rosetta Stone". BBC. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
    As explained by Burstein 2004, pp. 43–54, Ptolemaic Alexandria was considered a polis (city-state) separate from the country of Egypt, with citizenship reserved for Greeks and Ancient Macedonians, but various other ethnic groups resided there, especially the Jews, as well as native Egyptians, Syrians, and Nubians.
    For further validation, see Grant 1972, p. 3.
    For the multiple languages spoken by Cleopatra, see Roller 2010, pp. 46–48 and Burstein 2004, pp. 11–12.
    For further validation about Ancient Greek being the official language of the Ptolemaic dynasty, see Jones 2006, p. 3.
  7. ^ Tyldesley 2017 offers an alternative rendering of the title Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator as "Cleopatra the Father-Loving Goddess".
  8. ^ For a thorough explanation about the foundation of Alexandria by Alexander the Great and its largely Hellenistic Greek nature during the Ptolemaic period, along with a survey of the various ethnic groups residing there, see Burstein 2004, pp. 43–61.
    For further validation about the founding of Alexandria by Alexander the Great, see Jones 2006, p. 6.
  9. ^ For further information, see Grant 1972, pp. 20, 256 footnote 42.
  10. ^ For the list of languages spoken by Cleopatra as mentioned by the ancient historian Plutarch, see Jones 2006, pp. 33–34, who also mentions that the rulers of Ptolemaic Egypt gradually abandoned the Ancient Macedonian language.
  11. ^ Grant 1972, p. 3 states that Cleopatra could have been born in either late 70 BC or early 69 BC.
  12. ^ Due to discrepancies in academic works, in which some consider Cleopatra VI to be either a daughter of Ptolemy XII or his wife, identical to that of Cleopatra V, Jones 2006, p. 28 states that Ptolemy XII had six children, while Roller 2010, p. 16 mentions only five.
  13. ^ For further information and validation, see Grant 1972, pp. 12–13. In 1972, Michael Grant calculated that 6,000 talents, the price of Ptolemy XII's fee for receiving the title "friend and ally of the Roman people" from the triumvirs Pompey and Julius Caesar, would be worth roughly £7 million or US$17 million, roughly the entire annual tax revenue for Ptolemaic Egypt.
  14. ^ Fletcher 2008, p. 87 describes the painting from Herculaneum further: "Cleopatra's hair was maintained by her highly skilled hairdresser Eiras. Although rather artificial looking wigs set in the traditional tripartite style of long straight hair would have been required for her appearances before her Egyptian subjects, a more practical option for general day-to-day wear was the no-nonsense 'melon hairdo' in which her natural hair was drawn back in sections resembling the lines on a melon and then pinned up in a bun at the back of the head. A trademark style of Arsinoe II and Berenice II, the style had fallen from fashion for almost two centuries until revived by Cleopatra; yet as both traditionalist and innovator, she wore her version without her predecessor's fine head veil. And whereas they had both been blonde like Alexander, Cleopatra may well have been a redhead, judging from the portrait of a flame-haired woman wearing the royal diadem surrounded by Egyptian motifs which has been identified as Cleopatra."
  15. ^ For political background information on the Roman annexation of Cyprus, a move pushed for in the Roman Senate by Publius Clodius Pulcher, see Grant 1972, pp. 13–14.
  16. ^ For further information, see Grant 1972, pp. 15–16.
  17. ^ Fletcher 2008, pp. 76–77 expresses little doubt about this: "deposed in late summer 58 BC and fearing for his life, Auletes had fled both his palace and his kingdom, although he was not completely alone. For one Greek source reveals he had been accompanied 'by one of his daughters', and since his eldest Berenice IV, was monarch, and the youngest, Arisone, little more than a toddler, it is generally assumed that this must have been his middle daughter and favourite child, eleven-year-old Cleopatra."
  18. ^ For further information, see Grant 1972, p. 16.
  19. ^ For further information on Roman financier Rabirius, as well as the Gabiniani left in Egypt by Gabinius, see Grant 1972, pp. 18–19.
  20. ^ For further information, see Grant 1972, p. 18.
  21. ^ For further information, see Grant 1972, pp. 19–20, 27–29.
  22. ^ For further information, see Grant 1972, pp. 28–30.
  23. ^ For further information, see Fletcher 2008, pp. 88–92 and Jones 2006, pp. 31, 34–35.
    Fletcher 2008, pp. 85–86 states that the partial solar eclipse of 7 March 51 BC marked the death of Ptolemy XII and accession of Cleopatra to the throne, although she apparently suppressed the news of his death, alerting the Roman Senate to this fact months later in a message they received on 30 June 51 BC.
    However, Grant 1972, p. 30 claims that the Senate was informed of his death on 1 August 51 BC. Michael Grant indicates that Ptolemy XII could have been alive as late as May, while an ancient Egyptian source affirms he was still ruling with Cleopatra by 15 July 51 BC, although by this point Cleopatra most likely "hushed up her father's death" so that she could consolidate her control of Egypt.
  24. ^ Pfrommer & Towne-Markus 2001, p. 34 write the following about the sibling marriage of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II: "Ptolemy Keraunos, who wanted to become king of Macedon ... killed Arsinoë's small children in front of her. Now queen without a kingdom, Arsinoë fled to Egypt, where she was welcomed by her full brother Ptolemy II. Not content, however, to spend the rest of her life as a guest at the Ptolemaic court, she had Ptolemy II's wife exiled to Upper Egypt and married him herself around 275 B.C. Though such an incestuous marriage was considered scandalous by the Greeks, it was allowed by Egyptian custom. For that reason the marriage split public opinion into two factions. The loyal side celebrated the couple as a return of the divine marriage of Zeus and Hera, whereas the other side did not refrain from profuse and obscene criticism. One of the most sarcastic commentators, a poet with a very sharp pen, had to flee Alexandria. The unfortunate poet was caught off the shore of Crete by the Ptolemaic navy, put in an iron basket, and drowned. This and similar actions seemingly slowed down vicious criticism."
  25. ^ For further information, see Fletcher 2008, pp. 92–93.
  26. ^ For further information, see Fletcher 2008, pp. 96–97 and Jones 2006, p. 39.
  27. ^ For further information, see Jones 2006, pp. 39–41.
  28. ^ a b For further information, see Fletcher 2008, p. 98 and Jones 2006, pp. 39–43, 53–55.
  29. ^ For further information, see Fletcher 2008, pp. 98–100 and Jones 2006, pp. 53–55.
  30. ^ For further information, see Burstein 2004, p. 18 and Fletcher 2008, pp. 101–103.
  31. ^ a b For further information, see Fletcher 2008, p. 113.
  32. ^ For further information, see Fletcher 2008, p. 118.
  33. ^ For further information, see Burstein 2004, pp. xxi, 19 and Fletcher 2008, pp. 118–120.
  34. ^ For further information, see Burstein 2004, p. 76.
  35. ^ For further information, see Fletcher 2008, pp. 119–120.
    As part of the siege of Alexandria, Burstein 2004, p. 19 states that Caesar's reinforcements came in January, but Roller 2010, p. 63 says that his reinforcements came in March.
  36. ^ For further information and validation, see Anderson 2003, p. 39 and Fletcher 2008, p. 120.
  37. ^ For further information and validation, see Fletcher 2008, p. 121 and Jones 2006, p. xiv.
    Roller 2010, pp. 64–65 states that at this point (47 BC) Ptolemy XIV was 12 years old, while Burstein 2004, p. 19 claims that he was still only 10 years of age.
  38. ^ For further information and validation, see Anderson 2003, p. 39 and Fletcher 2008, pp. 154, 161–162.
  39. ^ Roller 2010, p. 70 writes the following about Caesar and his parentage of Caesarion: "The matter of parentage became so tangled in the propaganda war between Antonius and Octavian in the late 30s B.C.–it was essential for one side to prove and the other to reject Caesar's role–that it is impossible today to determine Caesar's actual response. The extant information is almost contradictory: it was said that Caesar denied parentage in his will but acknowledged it privately and allowed use of the name Caesarion. Caesar's associate C. Oppius even wrote a pamphlet proving that Caesarion was not Caesar's child, and C. Helvius Cinna–the poet who was killed by rioters after Antonius's funeral oration–was prepared in 44 B.C. to introduce legislation to allow Caesar to marry as many wives as he wished for the purpose of having children. Although much of this talk was generated after Caesar's death, it seems that he himself wished to be as quiet as possible about the child but had to contend with Cleopatra's repeated assertions."
  40. ^ For further information and validation, see Jones 2006, pp. xiv, 78.
  41. ^ For further information, see Fletcher 2008, pp. 214–215
  42. ^ As explained by Burstein 2004, p. 23, Cleopatra presented herself as the Egyptian goddess Isis in the appearance of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, meeting her divine husband Osiris in the form of the Greek god Dionysus, whom the priests of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus had associated with Antony prior to this meeting with Cleopatra. Some surviving coins of Cleopatra also depict her as Venus–Aphrodite, as explained by Fletcher 2008, p. 205.
  43. ^ For further information about Publius Ventidius Bassus and his victory over Parthian forces at the Battle of Mount Gindarus, see Kennedy 1996, pp. 80–81.
  44. ^ a b c Ferroukhi 2001a, p. 219 provide a detailed discussion about this bust and its ambiguities, noting that it could represent Cleopatra VII, but that it is more likely her daughter Cleopatra Selene II. Kleiner 2005, pp. 155–156 argues in favor of it depicting Cleopatra VII rather than her daughter, while Varner 2004, p. 20 only mentions Cleopatra VII as a possible likeness. Roller 2003, p. 139 observes that it could be either Cleopatra VII or Cleopatra Selene II, while arguing the same ambiguity applies to the other sculpted head from Cherchel featuring a veil. In regards to the latter head, Ferroukhi 2001b, p. 242 indicate it as a possible portrait of Cleopatra VII from the early 1st century AD, not Cleoptra Selene II, while also arguing that its masculine features, earrings, and apparent toga (the veil being a component of it) could likely mean it was intended to depict a Numidian nobleman. Fletcher 2008, pp. image plates between 246–247 disagrees about the veiled head, arguing that it was commissioned by Cleopatra Selene II at Iol Caesarea Mauretaniae and was meant to depict her mother Cleopatra VII.
  45. ^ According to Roller 2010, pp. 91–92, these client state rulers installed by Antony included Herod, Amyntas of Galatia, Polemon I of Pontus, and Archelaus of Cappadocia.
  46. ^ Bringmann 2007, p. 301 claims that Octavia Minor provided Mark Antony with 1,200 troops, not 2,000 as stated in Roller 2010, pp. 97–98 and Burstein 2004, pp. 27–28
  47. ^ Roller 2010, p. 100 says that it is unclear if Antony and Cleopatra were ever truly married. Burstein 2004, pp. xxii, 29 says that the marriage publicly sealed Antony's alliance with Cleopatra and in defiance of Octavian he would divorce Octavia in 32 BC. Coins of Antony and Cleopatra depict them in the typical manner of a Hellenistic royal couple, as explained by Roller 2010, p. 100.
  48. ^ Jones 2006, p. xiv writes that "Octavian waged a propaganda war against Antony and Cleopatra, stressing Cleopatra's status as a woman and a foreigner who wished to share in Roman power."
  49. ^ Stanley M. Burstein, in Burstein 2004, p. 33 provides the name Quintus Cascellius as the recipient of the tax exemption, not the Publius Canidius Crassus provided by Duane W. Roller in Roller 2010, p. 134.
  50. ^ As explained by Jones 2006, p. 147: "politically, Octavian had to walk a fine line as he prepared to engage in open hostilities with Antony. He was careful to minimize associations with civil war, as the Roman people had already suffered through many years of civil conflict and Octavian could risk losing support if he declared war on a fellow citizen."
  51. ^ For the translated accounts of both Plutarch and Cassius Dio, Jones 2006, pp. 194–195 writes that the implement used to puncture Cleopatra's skin was a hairpin.
  52. ^ Jones 2006, p. 187, translating Plutarch, quotes Arius Didymus (i.e. "Areius the philosopher" in the text) as saying to Octavian that "it is not good to have too many Caesars", which was apparently enough to convince Octavian to have Caesarion killed.
  53. ^ Contrary to regular Roman provinces, Octavian established Egypt as territory under his personal control, barring the Roman Senate from intervening in any of its affairs and appointing his own equestrian governors of Egypt, the first of whom was Cornelius Gallus. For further information, see Southern 2014, p. 185 and Roller 2010, p. 151.
  54. ^ Walker 2001, p. 312 write the following about the raised relief on the gilded silver dish from the Boscoreale Treasure, dated to the early 1st century AD: "Conspicuously mounted on the cornucopia is a gilded crescent moon set on a pine cone. Around it are piled pomegranates and bunches of grapes. Engraved on the horn are images of Helios (the sun), in the form of a youth dressed in a short cloak, with the hairstyle of Alexander the Great, the head surrounded by rays... The symbols on the cornucopia can indeed be read as references to the Ptolemaic royal house and specifically to Cleopatra Selene, represented in the crescent moon, and to her twin brother, Alexander Helios, whose eventual fate after the conquest of Egypt is unknown. The viper seems to be linked with the pantheress and the intervening symbols of fecunditity rather than the suicide of Cleopatra VII. The elephant scalp could refer to Cleopatra Selene's status as ruler, with Juba II, of Mauretania. The visual correspondence with the veiled head from Cherchel encourages this identification, and many of the symbols used on the dish also appear on the coinage of Juba II."
  55. ^ Jones 2006, p. 60 offers speculation that the author of the De Bello Alexandrino, written in Latin prose sometime between 46–43 BC, was a certain Aulus Hirtius, a military officer serving under Julius Caesar.
  56. ^ Burstein 2004, p. 30 writes that Vergil, in his Aeneid, described the Battle of Actium against Cleopatra "as a clash of civilizations in which Octavian and the Roman gods preserved Italy from conquest by Cleopatra and the barbaric animal-headed gods of Egypt."
  57. ^ For further information and extracts of Strabo's account of Cleopatra, in his Geographica, see Jones 2006, pp. 28–30.
  58. ^ As explained by Chauveau 2000, pp. 2–3, this source material from Egypt dated to the reign of Cleopatra includes about fifty papyri documents in Ancient Greek, mostly from the city of Heracleopolis, and only a few papyri from Faiyum written in the Demotic Egyptian language. Overall this is a much smaller body of surviving native texts than those of any other period of Ptolemaic Egypt.
  59. ^ For the description of Cleopatra by Plutarch, who claimed that her beauty was not "completely incomparable" but that she had a "captivating" and "stimulating" personality, see Jones 2006, pp. 32–33.
  60. ^ Fletcher 2008, p. 205 writes the following: "Cleopatra was the only female Ptolemy to issue coins on her own behalf, some showing her as Venus-Aphrodite. Caesar now followed her example and, taking the same bold step, became the first living Roman to appear on coins, his rather haggard profile accompanied by the title 'Parens Patriae', 'Father of the Fatherland'."
  61. ^ For further information, see Raia & Sebesta 2017.
  62. ^ There is academic disagreement on whether the following portraits are considered "heads" or "busts". For instance, Raia & Sebesta 2017 exclusively use the former, while Grout 2017b prefers the latter.
  63. ^ For further information and validation, see Curtius 1933, pp. 182–192, Walker 2008, p. 348, Raia & Sebesta 2017 and Grout 2017b.
  64. ^ For further information and validation, see Grout 2017b and Roller 2010, pp. 174–175.
  65. ^ For further information, see Curtius 1933, pp. 182–192, Walker 2008, p. 348 and Raia & Sebesta 2017.
  66. ^ The observation that the left cheek of the Vatican Cleopatra once had a cupid's hand that was broken off was first suggested by Ludwig Curtius in 1933. Diana E. E. Kleiner concurs with this assessment. See Kleiner 2005, p. 153, as well as Walker 2008, p. 40 and Curtius 1933, pp. 182–192. While Kleiner 2005, p. 153 has suggested the lump on top of this marble head perhaps contained a broken-off uraeus, Curtius 1933, p. 187 offered the explanation that it once held a sculpted representation of a jewel.
  67. ^ Curtius 1933, p. 187 wrote that the damaged lump along the hairline and diadem of the Vatican Cleopatra likely contained a sculpted representation of a jewel, which Walker 2008, p. 40 directly compares to the painted red jewel in the diadem worn by Venus, most likely Cleopatra, in the fresco from Pompeii.
  68. ^ For further information about the painting in the House of Giuseppe II (i.e. Joseph II) at Pompeii and the possible identification of Cleopatra as one of the figures, see Pucci 2011, pp. 206–207, footnote 27
  69. ^ In Pratt & Fizel 1949, pp. 14–15, Frances Pratt and Becca Fizel rejected the idea proposed by some scholars in the 19th and early 20th centuries that the painting was perhaps done by an artist of the Italian Renaissance. Pratt and Fizel highlighted the Classical style of the painting as preserved in textual descriptions and the steel engraving. They argued that it was unlikely for a Renaissance period painter to have painted works with encaustic materials, conducted thorough research into Hellenistic period Egyptian clothing and jewelry as depicted in the painting, and then precariously placed it in the ruins of the Egyptian temple at Hadrian's Villa.
  70. ^ Walker & Higgs 2001, pp. 314–315 describe her hair as reddish brown, while Fletcher 2008, p. 87 describes her as a flame-haired redhead and, in Fletcher 2008, pp. image plates and captions between 246–247, likewise describes her as a red-haired woman.
  71. ^ Preston 2009, p. 305 comes to a similar conclusion about native Egyptian depictions of Cleopatra: "Apart from certain temple carvings, which are anyway in a highly stylised pharaonic style and give little clue to Cleopatra's real appearance, the only certain representations of Cleopatra are those on coins. The marble head in the Vatican is one of three sculptures generally, though not universally, accepted by scholars to be depictions of Cleopatra."
  72. ^ For further information on Cleopatra's Macedonian Greek lineage, see Pucci 2011, p. 201, Grant 1972, pp. 3–5, and Royster 2003, pp. 47–49.
  73. ^ For further information and validation of the foundation of Hellenistic Egypt by Alexander the Great and Cleopatra's ancestry stretching back to Ptolemy I Soter, see Grant 1972, pp. 7–8 and Jones 2006, p. 3.
  74. ^ For further information, see Grant 1972, pp. 3–4 and Burstein 2004, p. 11.
  75. ^ For further information, see Fletcher 2008, pp. 69, 74, 76.
  76. ^ For the Sogdian ancestry of Apama, wife of Seleucus I Nicator, see Holt 1989, pp. 64–65, footnote 63.
  77. ^ As explained by Burstein 2004, pp. 47–50, the main ethnic groups of Ptolemaic Egypt were Egyptians, Greeks, and Jews, each of whom were legally segregated, living in different residential quarters and forbidden to intermarry with one another in the multicultural cities of Alexandria, Naukratis, and Ptolemais Hermiou. However, as explained by Fletcher 2008, pp. 82, 88–93, the native Egyptian priesthood was strongly linked to their Ptolemaic royal patrons, to the point where Cleopatra is speculated to have had an Egyptian half-cousin, Pasherienptah III, the High Priest of Ptah at Memphis, Egypt.
  78. ^ Grant 1972, p. 5 argues that Cleopatra's grandmother, i.e. the mother of Ptolemy XII, might have been a Syrian (though conceding that "it is possible she was also partly Greek"), but almost certainly not an Egyptian, since there is only one known Egyptian mistress of a Ptolemaic ruler throughout their entire dynasty.
  79. ^ Schiff 2011, p. 42 further argues that, considering Cleopatra's ancestry, she was not dark skinned, though notes Cleopatra was not likely among the Ptolemies with fair features, and instead would have likely have been honey-skinned, claiming that her relatives were described as such and it "would have presumably applied to her as well." Goldsworthy 2010, pp. 127, 128 agrees to this, contending that Cleopatra, having Macedonian blood with a little Syrian, was probably not dark skinned (he also notes Roman propaganda never mentions it), contending "fairer skin is marginally more likely considering her ancestry," though notes because of her mixed ancestry she could have had a "darker more Mediterranean complexion." Grant 1972, pp. 5 agrees to Goldsworthy's latter speculation of her skin color, that though almost certainly not Egyptian, Cleopatra had a darker complexion due to being Greek mixed with Persian and possible Syrian ancestry. Preston 2009, pp. 77 agrees with Grant that, considering this ancestry, Cleopatra was "almost certainly dark-haired and olive-skinned."
  80. ^ For further information on the identity of Cleopatra's mother, see Burstein 2004, p. 11, Fletcher 2008, p. 73, and Grant 1972, pp. 4. Joann Fletcher finds this hypothesis of Cleopatra's mother possibly having been a half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman belonging to a priestly family of Ptah to be dubious and lacking evidence. Stanley M. Burstein claims that strong circumstantial evidence suggests Cleopatra's mother could have been a member of the priestly family of Ptah, but that historians generally assume her mother was Cleopatra V Tryphaena, wife of Ptolemy XII. Michael Grant contends Cleopatra V was most likely Cleopatra VII's mother, laying out his evidence on why it makes the most sense.
  81. ^ Schiff 2011, pp. 2 concurs with this, concluding that Cleopatra "upheld the family tradition." As noted by Dudley 1960, pp. 57, Cleopatra and her family were "the successor[s] to the native Pharaohs, exploiting through a highly organized bureaucracy the great natural resources of the Nile Valley."
  82. ^ Grant 1972, p. 4 argues that if Cleopatra had been illegitimate, her "numerous Roman enemies would have revealed this to the world."
  83. ^ This family tree and short discussions of the individuals can be found in Dodson & Hilton 2004, pp. 268–281. Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton refer to Cleopatra V as Cleopatra VI and Cleopatra Selene of Syria is called Cleopatra V Selene. Dotted lines in the chart below indicate possible but disputed parentage.

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Raia & Sebesta (2017).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Art Institute of Chicago.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Grout (2017b).
  4. ^ Burstein (2004), pp. xx–xxiii, 155.
  5. ^ a b c d Hölbl (2001), p. 231.
  6. ^ Roller (2010), p. 1.
  7. ^ Royster (2003), p. 48.
  8. ^ a b Muellner.
  9. ^ a b c Roller (2010), pp. 15–16.
  10. ^ Roller (2010), pp. 15–16, 39.
  11. ^ Fletcher (2008), pp. 55–57.
  12. ^ Burstein (2004), p. 15.
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Cleopatra
Born: 69 BC Died: 30 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ptolemy XII
Queen of Egypt
51–30 BC
with Ptolemy XII,
Ptolemy XIII,
Ptolemy XIV and
Ptolemy XV Caesarion
Office abolished
Egypt annexed by Roman Republic