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Seleucus I Nicator

The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Greek: Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Seleucus (ca. 358 – 281 BC) served as an officer of Alexander the Great, commanding the élite infantry corps in the Macedonian army: the "Shield-bearers" (Hypaspistai), later known as the "Silvershields" (Ἀργυράσπιδες / Argyraspides). After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, the Partition of Triparadisus assigned Seleucus as satrap of Babylon in 321 BC. Antigonus, the satrap of much of Asia Minor, forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy, the Satrap of Egypt, Seleucus returned in 312 BC. Seleucus' later conquests included Persia and Media. He formed an alliance with the Indian King Chandragupta Maurya (reigned 324-297 BC). Seleucus defeated Antigonus in the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and Lysimachus (King of Thrace, Macedon and Asia Minor) in the battle of Corupedium (near Sardis) in 281 BC. Ptolemy Ceraunus assassinated Seleucus later in the same year. Seleucus' eldest son Antiochus I succeeded him as ruler of the Seleucid territories.

Seleucid rulersEdit

Seleucid Rulers
Portrait King Reign (BC) Consort(s) Comments
  Seleucus I Nicator Satrap 320–315, 312–305 BC
King 305–281 BC
Apama
  Antiochus I Soter co-ruler from 291, ruled 281–261 BC Stratonice of Syria Co-ruler with his father for 10 years
  Antiochus II Theos 261–246 BC Laodice I
Berenice
Berenice was a daughter of Ptolemy II of Egypt. Laodice I had her and her son murdered.
  Seleucus II Callinicus 246–225 BC Laodice II
  Seleucus III Ceraunus (or Soter) 225–223 BC Seleucus III was assassinated by members of his army.
  Antiochus III the Great 223–187 BC Laodice III
Euboea of Chalcis
Antiochus III was a brother of Seleucus III
  Seleucus IV Philopator 187–175 BC Laodice IV This was a brother-sister marriage.
  Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175–163 BC Laodice IV This was a brother-sister marriage.
  Antiochus V Eupator 163–161 BC
  Demetrius I Soter 161–150 BC Apama ?
Laodice V?
Son of Seleucus IV Philopator and Laodice IV
  Alexander I Balas 150–145 BC Cleopatra Thea Son of Antiochus IV and Laodice IV
  Demetrius II Nicator first reign, 145–138 BC Cleopatra Thea Son of Demetrius I
  Antiochus VI Dionysus (or Epiphanes) 145–140 BC? Son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea
  Diodotus Tryphon 140–138 BC General who was a regent for Antiochus VI Dionysus. Took the throne after murdering his charge.
  Antiochus VII Sidetes (or Euergetes) 138–129 BC Cleopatra Thea Son of Demetrius I
  Demetrius II Nicator second reign, 129–126 BC Cleopatra Thea Demetrius was murdered at the instigation of his wife Cleopatra Thea.
  Alexander II Zabinas 129–123 BC Counter-king who claimed to be an adoptive son of Antiochus VII Sidetes
  Cleopatra Thea 126–121 BC Daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt. Married to three kings: Alexander Balas, Demetrius II Nicator, and Antiochus VII Sidetes. Mother of Antiochus VI, Seleucus V, Antiochus VIII Grypus, and Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. Coregent with her son Antiochus VIII Grypus. Gorgias (Greek General) and War against Jews
Seleucus V Philometor 126/125 BC Murdered by his mother Cleopatra Thea
  Antiochus VIII Grypus 125–96 BC Tryphaena of Egypt
Cleopatra Selene I of Egypt
  Antiochus IX Cyzicenus 114–96 BC Cleopatra IV of Egypt
Cleopatra Selene I of Egypt
  Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator 96–95 BC
  Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator 95–92 BC or 83 BC Cleopatra Selene I
  Demetrius III Eucaerus (or Philopator) 95–87 BC
  Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus 95–92 BCE
  Philip I Philadelphus 95–84/83 BC
  Antiochus XII Dionysus 87–84 BC
Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes or Philometor 83–69 BC
  Antiochus XIII Asiaticus 69–64 BC
Philip II Philoromaeus 65–63 BC

Family treeEdit

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antiochus
 
Laodice
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Seleucus I Nicator
Kg. 305–281
 
Apama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Achaeus
 
 
Stratonice
 
Antiochus I Soter
Kg. 281–261
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Andromachus
 
 
 
 
Antiochus II Theos
Kg. 261–246
 
Laodice I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Achaeus
Kg. 220–213
 
 
Laodice II
 
Seleucus II Callinicus
Kg. 246–226
 
Antiochus Hierax
Kg. 240–228
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Kg. 226–223
 
Antiochus III the Great
Kg. 223–187
 
Laodice III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Seleucus IV Philopator
Kg. 187–175
 
Laodice IV
 
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Kg. 175–163
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Laodice V
 
Demetrius I Soter
Kg. 161–150
 
Antiochus V Eupator
Kg. 163–161
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alexander I Balas
Kg. 150–146
 
Cleopatra Thea
Qu. 125–121
 
Demetrius II Nicator
Kg. 145–125
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Kg. 138–129
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Kg. 144–142
 
Seleucus V Philometor
Kg. 126–125
 
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Kg. 125–96
 
Tryphaena
 
 
 
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Kg. 116–96
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
Kg. 96–95
 
Antiochus XI Epiphanes
Kg. 95–92
 
Philip I Philadelphus
Kg. 95–83
 
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Kg. 95–88
 
Antiochus XII Dionysus
Kg. 87–84
 
Antiochus X Eusebes
Kg. 95–83
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Philip II Philoromaeus
Kg. 69–63
 
 
 
 
 
Seleucus VII Philometer
Kg. 83–69
 
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Kg. 69–64

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Glanville Downey (8 December 2015). History of Antioch. Princeton University Press. pp. 735–736. ISBN 978-1-4008-7773-7.
  • Mehrdad Kia (27 June 2016). The Persian Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 287–311. ISBN 978-1-61069-391-2.

External linksEdit