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Seleucus I Nicator

The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Greek: Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.



Seleucus (ca. 358 – 281 BCE) served as an officer of Alexander the Great, commanding the élite infantry corps in the Macedonian army: the "Shield-bearers" (Hypaspistai), later known as the "Silvershields" (Ἀργυράσπιδες / Argyraspides). After the death of Alexander in 323 BCE, the Partition of Triparadisus assigned Seleucus as satrap of Babylon in 321 BCE. Antigonus, the satrap of much of Asia Minor, forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy, the Satrap of Egypt, Seleucus returned in 312 BCE. Seleucus' later conquests included Persia and Media. He formed an alliance with the Indian King Chandragupta Maurya (reigned 324-297 BCE). Seleucus defeated Antigonus in the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE and Lysimachus (King of Thrace, Macedon and Asia Minor) in the battle of Corupedium (near Sardis) in 281 BCE. Ptolemy Ceraunus assassinated Seleucus later in the same year. Seleucus' eldest son Antiochus I succeeded him as ruler of the Seleucid territories.

Seleucid rulersEdit

Seleucid Rulers
Portrait King Reign (BCE) Consort(s) Comments
  Seleucus I Nicator Satrap 320–315, 312–305 BCE
King 305–281 BCE
  Antiochus I Soter co-ruler from 291, ruled 281–261 BCE Stratonice of Syria Co-ruler with his father for 10 years
  Antiochus II Theos 261–246 BCE Laodice I
Berenice was a daughter of Ptolemy II of Egypt. Laodice I had her and her son murdered.
  Seleucus II Callinicus 246–225 BCE Laodice II
  Seleucus III Ceraunus (or Soter) 225–223 BCE Seleucus III was assassinated by members of his army.
  Antiochus III the Great 223–187 BCE Laodice III
Euboea of Chalcis
Antiochus III was a brother of Seleucus III
  Seleucus IV Philopator 187–175 BCE Laodice IV This was a brother-sister marriage.
  Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175–163 BCE Laodice IV This was a brother-sister marriage.
  Antiochus V Eupator 163–161 BCE
  Demetrius I Soter 161–150 BCE Apama ?
Laodice V?
Son of Seleucus IV Philopator and Laodice IV
  Alexander I Balas 150–145 BCE Cleopatra Thea Son of Antiochus IV and Laodice IV
  Demetrius II Nicator first reign, 145–138 BCE Cleopatra Thea Son of Demetrius I
  Antiochus VI Dionysus (or Epiphanes) 145–140 BCE? Son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea
  Diodotus Tryphon 140–138 BCE General who was a regent for Antiochus VI Dionysus. Took the throne after murdering his charge.
  Antiochus VII Sidetes (or Euergetes) 138–129 BCE Cleopatra Thea Son of Demetrius I
  Demetrius II Nicator second reign, 129–126 BCE Cleopatra Thea Demetrius was murdered at the instigation of his wife Cleopatra Thea.
  Alexander II Zabinas 129–123 BCE Counter-king who claimed to be an adoptive son of Antiochus VII Sidetes
  Cleopatra Thea 126–121 BCE Daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt. Married to three kings: Alexander Balas, Demetrius II Nicator, and Antiochus VII Sidetes. Mother of Antiochus VI, Seleucus V, Antiochus VIII Grypus, and Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. Coregent with her son Antiochus VIII Grypus. Gorgias (Greek General) and War against Jews
Seleucus V Philometor 126/125 BCE Murdered by his mother Cleopatra Thea
  Antiochus VIII Grypus 125–96 BCE Tryphaena of Egypt
Cleopatra Selene I of Egypt
  Antiochus IX Cyzicenus 114–96 BCE Cleopatra IV of Egypt
Cleopatra Selene I of Egypt
  Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator 96–95 BCE
  Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator 95–92 BC or 83 BCE Cleopatra Selene I
  Demetrius III Eucaerus (or Philopator) 95–87 BCE
  Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus 95–92 BCE
  Philip I Philadelphus 95–84/83 BCE
  Antiochus XII Dionysus 87–84 BCE
Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes or Philometor 83–69 BCE
  Antiochus XIII Asiaticus 69–64 BCE
Philip II Philoromaeus 65–63 BCE

Family treeEdit

Seleucus I Nicator
Kg. 305–281
Antiochus I Soter
Kg. 281–261
Antiochus II Theos
Kg. 261–246
Laodice I
Kg. 220–213
Laodice II
Seleucus II Callinicus
Kg. 246–226
Antiochus Hierax
Kg. 240–228
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Kg. 226–223
Antiochus III the Great
Kg. 223–187
Laodice III
Seleucus IV Philopator
Kg. 187–175
Laodice IV
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Kg. 175–163
Laodice V
Demetrius I Soter
Kg. 161–150
Antiochus V Eupator
Kg. 163–161
Alexander I Balas
Kg. 150–146
Cleopatra Thea
Qu. 125–121
Demetrius II Nicator
Kg. 145–125
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Kg. 138–129
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Kg. 144–142
Seleucus V Philometor
Kg. 126–125
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Kg. 125–96
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Kg. 116–96
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
Kg. 96–95
Antiochus XI Epiphanes
Kg. 95–92
Philip I Philadelphus
Kg. 95–83
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Kg. 95–88
Antiochus XII Dionysus
Kg. 87–84
Antiochus X Eusebes
Kg. 95–83
Philip II Philoromaeus
Kg. 69–63
Seleucus VII Philometer
Kg. 83–69
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Kg. 69–64

See alsoEdit


  • Glanville Downey (8 December 2015). History of Antioch. Princeton University Press. pp. 735–736. ISBN 978-1-4008-7773-7.
  • Mehrdad Kia (27 June 2016). The Persian Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 287–311. ISBN 978-1-61069-391-2.

External linksEdit