List of pharaohs

The title "Pharaoh" is used for those rulers of Ancient Egypt who ruled after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer during the Early Dynastic Period, approximately 3100 BC. However, the specific title "Pharaoh" was not used to address the kings of Egypt by their contemporaries until the rule of Merneptah in the 19th Dynasty, c. 1200 BC. Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties.

Pharaoh of Egypt
Double crown.svg
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.
Pharaoh.svg
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
Details
StyleFive-name titulary
First monarchNarmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch
[2]
Formationc. 3100 BC
Abolition
  • 343 BC
    (last native pharaoh)[1]
  • 30 BC
    (last Greek pharaohs)
  • 313 AD
    (last Roman Emperor to be called Pharaoh)[2]
ResidenceVaries by era
AppointerDivine right

Egypt was continually governed, at least in part, by native pharaohs for approximately 2500 years, until it was conquered by the Kingdom of Kush in the late 8th century BC, whose rulers adopted the traditional pharaonic titulature for themselves. Following the Kushite conquest, Egypt experienced another period of independent native rule before being conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also adopted the title of "Pharaoh". The last native pharaoh of Egypt was Nectanebo II, who was pharaoh before the Achaemenids conquered Egypt for a second time.

Achaemenid rule over Egypt came to an end through the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after which it was ruled by the Hellenic Pharaohs of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Their rule, and the independence of Egypt, came to an end when Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Augustus and subsequent Roman emperors were styled as Pharaoh when in Egypt until the reign of Maximinus Daza in 314 AD.

The dates given in this list of pharaohs are approximate. They are based primarily on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities[3] database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

Ancient Egyptian king lists

Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records and, including Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and historians alike call for caution in regard to the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.[4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.

The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)):[5]

Predynastic Period

The Predynastic Period ends around 3100 BC when Egypt was first unified as a single kingdom.

Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt geographically consists of the northern Nile and the Nile delta.

The following list may be incomplete:

Image Name Comments Reign
  [...]pu[7] Only known from the Palermo stone[8] Unknown
  Hsekiu / Seka Only known from the Palermo stone[8] Unknown
  Khayu Only known from the Palermo stone[9] Unknown
  Tiu / Teyew Only known from the Palermo stone[10] Unknown
  Thesh / Tjesh Only known from the Palermo stone[11] Unknown
  Neheb Only known from the Palermo stone[12] Unknown
  Wazner Only known from the Palermo stone[13] Ruled around or earlier than 3300 BC
  Mekh Only known from the Palermo stone[14] Unknown
  [...]a[15] Only known from the Palermo stone[14] Ruled around or earlier than 3330 BC
  Hedju Hor Only known from two clay jugs from Tura Naqada II??
  Ny-Hor Only known from clay and stone vessels found in tombs near Tarchan, Tura, Tarjan, and Nagada. Some scholars believe that this serekh is simply a crude attempt at writing the name "Narmer".[16] Naqada II??
  Hat-Hor Some scholars believe that this serekh is simply a crude attempt at writing the name "Narmer".[17] Around 3200 BC
  [Double Falcon] May also have ruled in Upper Egypt Naqada III
(32nd century BC)
Wash Only known from the Narmer Palette[18] Around 3150 BC Naqada III

Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt refers to the region up-river to the south of Lower Egypt.

Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00:

Image Name Comments Reign
A (?) Only known from a graffito discovered in the western desert in 2004.[19] This ruler is otherwise unattested. Naqada III
[Finger Snail] The existence of this king is very doubtful.[20] Naqada III
[Fish[21]] Only known from artifacts that bear his mark, around 3300–3250 BC. He most likely never existed.[20] Naqada III
  [Elephant[22]] Around 3300 – 3250 BC; more than likely never existed Naqada III
[Stork[23][24]] Most likely never existed.[20] Naqada III
[Bull] Most likely never existed.[20] Naqada III
[Scorpion I] First ruler of Upper Egypt, around 3300 – 3250 BC. Naqada III

Predynastic rulers: Dynasty 0

Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0".

The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete:

Image Name Comments Dates
  [Crocodile] Potentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.[25]
Around 3170 BC
  Iry-Hor Correct chronological position unclear.[26]
Around 3170 BC
  Ka Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.[27]
Around 3170 BC
  [Scorpion II] Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.[28]
Around 3170 BC

Early Dynastic Period

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 3100 to 2686 BC.[29]

First Dynasty

The First Dynasty ruled from around 3100 to 2890 BC.[30]

Image Name Comments Dates
  Narmer / Menes Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt. Around 3150 BC[30]
  Hor-Aha (Athotís)[31] Greek form: Athotís. Around 3125 BC
  Djer (Kénkenes)[32] His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris. 54 years[33]
  Djet (Ouenephes)[34] 10 years[35]
  Den (Ousaphaidos)[36] First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity-name. 42 years[35]
  Anedjib (Miebidós)[37] Greek form: Miebidós.

Known for his ominous nebwy-title.[38]

10 years
  Semerkhet (Semempsés)[39] Greek form: Semempsés.

First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo Stone.

8+12 years[35]
  Qa'a (Bienékhes)[40] Greek form: Bienékhes.

Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs.

34 years
  Sneferka Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. Around 2900 BC
  [Horus Bird] Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown. Around 2900 BC

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.[30]

Image Name Comments Dates
  Hotepsekhemwy[41] (Boëthos ) Manetho names him Boëthos and claims that under this ruler an earthquake killed many people. 15 years
  Nebra[42] (Kaíechós ) Greek form: Kaíechós (after the Ramesside cartouche name Kakaw).

First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg.

14 years
  Nynetjer[43] (Binóthris) Greek form: Binóthris.

May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.

43–45 years
  Weneg-Nebty[44] (Ougotlas / Tlás) Greek form: Ougotlas / Tlás.

Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.

Around 2740 BC
  Senedj[45] (Sethenes) Greek form: Sethenes.

Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.[46]

47 years (supposedly)
  Seth-Peribsen Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt.[47] Unknown
  Sekhemib-Perenmaat Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[48] Around 2720 BC
  Neferkara I (Néphercherés) Greek form: Néphercherés.

Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.

25 years (according to Manetho)
  Neferkasokar (Sesóchris) Greek form: Sesóchris.

Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long-lasting drought.[49]

8 years
  Hudjefa I Known only from Ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in Ramesside times. 11 years (according to the Turin Canon)
  Khasekhemwy[50][51] (Chenerés) Greek form: Chenerés.

May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble; his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.

18 years

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the long period of stability and growth following the Early Dynastic Period and preceding the troubled First Intermediate Period. The kingdom spanned from 2686 to 2181 BC.

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.[30]

Image Name Comments Dates
  Djoser[52][53] (Sesorthos / Tosórthros) Hellenized names Sesorthos and Tosórthros.

Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.

19 or 28 years, possibly around 2650 BC[54]
  Sekhemkhet[55] (Tyréis) Greek form: Tyréis (after the ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti).

In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.[56]

2649–2643 BC
  Sanakht (Necherôchis / Necherôphes) Likely to be identified with the throne name Nebka; Hellenized names Necherôchis and Necherôphes. May have reigned 6 years if identified with the penultimate king of the Dynasty on the Turin canon. Around 2650 BC
  Khaba Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni. .2643–2637BC
  Huni[57] (Áches) Greek form: Áches.

Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru, not Huni.

2637–2613 BC

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2496 BC.[30]

Image Name Comments Dates
  Sneferu (Sóris) Greek form: Sóris.

Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferu's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.[58]

2613–2589 BC[30]
  Khufu (Cheops / Suphis I) Greek form: Cheops and Suphis.

Built the Great Pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors; Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist in the Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.

2589–2566 BC
  Djedefre (Rátoises) Greek form: Rátoises.

Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer extant; it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.

2566–2558 BC
  Khafre (Chéphren / Suphis II) Greek form: Chéphren and Suphis II.

His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra.

Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.

2558–2532 BC
  Baka / Bauefrê (Bikheris) Greek form: Bikheris.

Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan. Possibly fictional.

Around 2570 BC
  Menkaure (Menchéres) Greek form: Menchéres.

His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in the shape of a cow.

2532–2503 BC
  Shepseskaf (Seberchéres) Greek form: Seberchéres.

Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un.

2503–2498 BC
(Thamphthis) According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional. Around 2500 BC

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2496 to 2345 BC.[30]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Userkaf Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir. 2496–2491 BC
  Sahure Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid. 2490–2477 BC
  Neferirkare Kakai Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer 2477–2467 BC
  Neferefre Son of Neferirkare 2460–2458 BC
  Shepseskare Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.[59] A few months
  Nyuserre Ini Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis. 2445–2422 BC
  Menkauhor Kaiu Last pharaoh to build a sun temple 2422–2414 BC
  Djedkare Isesi Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne. 2414–2375 BC
  Unas The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts 2375–2345 BC

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Teti According to Manetho, he was murdered. 2345–2333 BC
  Userkare Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti 2333–2332 BC
  Meryre Pepi I Faced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty 2332–2283 BC
  Merenre Nemtyemsaf I 2283–2278 BC
  Neferkare Pepi II Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years. 2278–2183 BC
Neferka Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler. Possibly writing mistake for "Neferkare" 2200–2199 BC
  Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[60] Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II. 1 year and 1 month c. 2183 BC
  Neitiqerty (Nitocris) Siptah I Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[61] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2182–2179 BC

First Intermediate Period

The First Intermediate Period (2183–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years. They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[62] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[63]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Menkare Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[64][65][66] Probably short, around 2181 BC
  Neferkare II Unknown
  Neferkare III Neby Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara. Unknown
  Djedkare Shemai Unknown
  Neferkare IV Khendu Unknown
  Merenhor Unknown
  Sneferka Neferkamin I Unknown
  Nikare Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal. Unknown
  Neferkare V Tereru Unknown
  Neferkahor Attested by a cylinder seal. Unknown
  Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Unknown to 2171 BC
  Neferkamin Anu Around 2170 BC
  Qakare Ibi Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts 2175–2171 BC
  Neferkaure Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos. 2167–2163 BC
  Neferkauhor Khuwihapi Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay. 2163–2161 BC
  Neferirkare Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. 2161–2160 BC

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty[67] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.[30]

The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[67]

Image Name Comments Dates
  Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I) Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. 2160 BC–unknown[30]
Unknown
Neferkare VII Unknown
n  Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II) Unknown
Senenh— or Setut Unknown
Unknown
Mery— Unknown
Shed— Unknown
H— Unknown

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt and ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.[30]

Image Name Comments Dates
  Meryhathor 2130 BC–unknown
Neferkare VIII Between 2130 and 2040 BCE
  Wahkare Khety III (Acthoes III) Unknown
  Merykare Unknown–2040 BC

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty originated from a group of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Image Name Comments Dates
  Intef the Elder Theban nomarch (Iry-pat) serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty. Unknown

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Mentuhotep I Nominally a Theban nomarch (Tepy-a) but may have ruled independently. Unknown – 2133 BC
  Sehertawy Intef I First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name. 2133–2117 BC[30]
  Wahankh Intef II Conquered Abydos and its nome. 2117–2068 BC[30]
  Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[68] 2068–2060 BC[30]

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom.

The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.

Eleventh Dynasty cont.

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is usually considered to be the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II[69] Gained all Egypt c. 2015 BC, Middle Kingdom begins, becomes first pharaoh of Middle Kingdom.
  • 2060–2040 BC[30]
    (King of Upper Egypt only)
  • 2040–2009 BC[30]
    (King of Upper and Lower Egypt)
  Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[70] Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom 2009–1997 BC[30]
  Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[71] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I. 1997–1991 BC[30]

Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Segerseni[72] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC
  Qakare Ini[72] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC
  Iyibkhentre[72] Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty. Early 20th century BC

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[73][74] (Ammanemes I)[75] Possibly overthrew Mentuhotep IV. Assassinated by his own guards. 1991–1962 BC[30]
  Kheperkare Senusret I[76] (Sesonchosis)[77] Built the White Chapel 1971–1926 BC
  Nubkaure Amenemhat II[78] (Ammenemes II)[79] Ruled for at least 35 years. 1929–1895 BC[30]
  Khakheperre Senusret II[80]
(No name given by Manetho)[81]
1897–1878 BC[30]
  Khakaure Senusret III[82] (Sesostris)[83] Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. 1878–1860 BC
  Nimaatre Amenemhat III[84] (Lamares)[85] 1860–1815 BC
  Maakherure Amenemhat IV[86] (Ammenemes)[87] Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos. 1815–1807 BC
  Sobekkare Sobekneferu[88] (Skemiophris)[89] The first known archeologically attested female Pharaoh. 1807–1802 BC

The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is uncertain. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty.

Second Intermediate Period

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Sometime around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho.

This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies 1802–1800 BC[90]
  Mehibtawy Sekhemkare Amenemhat Sonbef Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[90] 1800–1796 BC[90]
  Nerikare Attested on a Nile record from Semna.[91] 1796 BC
  Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Ruled for 3 to 4 years[90] 1796–1793 BC[90]
  Ameny Qemau Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur 1795–1792 BC
  Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef Also called Sehotepibre 1792–1790 BC
Iufni Only attested on the Turin canon Very short reign, possibly c. 1790–1788 BC[90]
  Seankhibre Amenemhat VI Attested on the Turin Canon.[92] 1788–1785 BC
  Semenkare Nebnuni Attested on the Turin Canon[93] 1785–1783 BC[90] or 1739 BC[94]
  Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy Attested on the Turin Canon.[95] 1783–1781 BC[90]
Sewadjkare I Known only from the Turin canon 1781 BCE
Nedjemibre Known only from the Turin canon 7 months, 1780 BC[90] or 1736 BC[94]
  Khaankhre Sobekhotep Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC[90]
Renseneb 4 months 1777 BC[90]
  Awybre Hor Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC[90]
  Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Khabaw Possibly a son of Hor Awibre Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC[90]
  Djedkheperew Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC[90]
  Sebkay Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[90]
  Sedjefakare A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. 5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC[90]
  Khutawyre Wegaf Founder of the dynasty in old studies Around 1767 BC
  Userkare Khendjer Possibly the first Semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
  Smenkhkare Imyremeshaw Attested by two colossal statues Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC[90] or 1711 BC.[96]
  Sehetepkare Intef IV Less than 10 years
  Seth Meribre Reign ended 1749 BCE
  Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III 4 years and 2 months 1755–1751 BC
  Khasekhemre Neferhotep I 11 years 1751–1740 BC
  Menwadjre Sihathor Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently. 1739 BC[90]
  Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV 10 or 11 years 1740–1730 BC
  Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
1730 BC
  Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI 4 years 8 months and 29 days Around 1725 BC
  Wahibre Ibiau 10 years and 8 months 1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC[90]
  Merneferre Ay I Longest reigning king of the dynasty 23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC[90] or 1714–1691 BC
  Merhotepre Ini Possibly a son of his predecessor 2 years, 3 or 4 months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC[90] or 1691–1689 BC
—< Sankhenre Sewadjtu Attested only on the Turin canon 3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC[90]
  Mersekhemre Ined May be the same person as Neferhotep II 3 years, 1672–1669 BC[90]
Sewadjkare II Hori Reigned 5 years 5 years
  Merkawre Sobekhotep VII Reigned 2 years and 6 months[90] 1664–1663 BC[90]
Seven kings Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon[90] 1663 BC –?[90]
Mer[...]re Unknown
  Merkheperre Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC[90]
Merkare Attested only on the Turin canon Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC[90]
Name lost Unknown
  Sewadjare Mentuhotep V Around 1655 BC[90]
[...]mosre Unknown
Ibi [...]maatre Unknown
Hor[...] [...]webenre Unknown
Se...kare Unknown Unknown
  Seheqenre Sankhptahi May be the son of his predecessor Between 1663 and 1649 BC
...re Unknown Unknown
Se...enre Unknown Unknown – 1649 BC[90]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Djedhotepre Dedumose I Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty Around 1654 BC
  Djedneferre Dedumose II Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty Unknown
  Sewahenre Senebmiu Late 13th dynasty. After 1660 BC.[90]
  Mershepsesre Ini II Late 13th dynasty. Unknown
  Menkhaure Snaaib Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty Unknown

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[97] that ruled from either 1805 BC or around 1710 BC until around 1650 BC.

The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin. It is here given according to Ryholt; however, this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Sekhaenre Yakbim Chronological position uncertain, here given according to Ryholt[97] 1805–1780 BC
  Nubwoserre Ya'ammu Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[97] 1780–1770 BC
  Khawoserre[97] Qareh Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[97] 1770–1760 BC
  Ahotepre[97] 'Ammu Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt[97] 1760–1745 BC
  Maaibre Sheshi[98] Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given according to Ryholt.[97] Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos. 1745–1705 BC
  Aasehre Nehesy Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi[97] Around 1705
Khakherewre Unknown
Nebefawre Around 1704 BC
Sehebre Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[90] Around 1704 to 1699 BC
  Merdjefare Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[90] Around 1699 BC
Sewadjkare III Unknown
Nebdjefare 1694 BC
Webenre Unknown
Name lost Unknown
[...]djefare Unknown
[...]webenre Around 1690 BC
Awibre II Unknown
Heribre Unknown
  Nebsenre[97] Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen At least 5 months of reign, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Name lost Unknown
[...]re Unknown
  Sekheperenre[97] Attested by a single scarab seal 2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BX
Djedkherewre Unknown
Sankhibre II Unknown
Nefertum[...]re Unknown
Sekhem[...]re Unknown
Kakemure Unknown
Neferibre Unknown
I[...]re Unknown
Khakare Unknown
Akare[99] Only known from the Turin canon Unknown
Hapu[...] Semenenre Unknown
Djedkare[97] Anati Only known from the Turin canon Unknown
Bebnum[97] Only known from the Turin canon Some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Name lost Eight lines lost in the Turin canon Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Senefer[...]re Unknown
Men[...]re Unknown
Djed[...]re Unknown
Name lost Three lines lost in the Turin canon Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Ink[...] Unknown
'A[...][100] Only known from the Turin canon. Name may be read as "Ineb" according to Alan Gardiner.[100] Unknown
'Apepi[97] Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals c. 1650 BC
Name lost Five lines lost in the Turin canon Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown
Name lost Unknown

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Khamure[90] Unknown
  Nuya[90] Attested by a scarab-seal Unknown
  Sheneh[90] May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare Unknown
  Shenshek[90] Attested by a scarab-seal Unknown
  Wazad[90] May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare Around 1700 BC ?
  Yakareb[90] Unknown
  Yaqub-Har[98] May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. 17th–16th centuries BC

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Image Name Comments Dates
Salitis Ruled Lower Egypt and founded the 15th Dynasty around 1650 BCE
  Semqen Chronological position uncertain. 1649 BC – Unknown
  'Aper-'Anat Chronological position uncertain. Unknown
Sakir-Har Unknown
  Khyan Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign likely 30–35 years
  Apepi 1590 BC?
  Khamudi 1555–1544 BC

Abydos Dynasty

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from around 1650 BC until 1600 BC.[101][102][103]

Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Image Prenomen Nomen Comments Dates
  Woseribre Senebkay Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon. Around 1650 BC
  Menkhaure Snaaib May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.[104][105][106] Uncertain
  Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[107] Uncertain
  Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[107] Uncertain
[...]hebre Only known from the Turin Canon. Believed by Kim Ryholt to have been part of the Abydos dynasty.[108] Uncertain

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty around 1650 BC. They were finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty around 1580 BC.

The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered Unknown
  Sekhemresementawy Djehuti 3 years
  Sekhemreseusertawy Sobekhotep VIII 16 years
  Sekhemresankhtawy Neferhotep III 1 year
  Seankhenre Mentuhotepi May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[105] <l1 year
  Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I 26 years
  Neferkare (?) Nebiryraw II Around 1600 BC
  Semenre Around 1600 BC
  Seuserenre Bebiankh 12 years
  Djedhotepre Dedumose I May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[105] Around 1588–1582 BC
  Djedneferre Dedumose II Around 1588–1582 BC
  Djedankhre Montemsaf Around 1590 BC
  Merankhre Mentuhotep VI Short reign, around 1585 BC
  Seneferibre Senusret IV Unknown
Sekhemre Shedwast May be the same as Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II Unknown

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[109] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain.[104][105]

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep Around 1620 BC
  Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I At least 7 years
  Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramesses IX. Unknown to around 1573 BC
  Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V Possibly around 1573-1571 BC
  Nubkheperre Intef VI Reigned more than 3 years Around 1571 to the mid-1560s BC
  Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII Late 1560s BC
  Senakhtenre Ahmose Around 1558 BC
  Seqenenre Tao Died in battle against the Hyksos. 1558–1554 BC
  Wadjkheperre Kamose 1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have included the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[90]

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses II who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I (Ahmosis I) Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos.
Around 1550–1525 BC; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC[110]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I Son of Ahmose I.
1541–1520 BC
Aakheperkare Thutmose I Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Expanded Egypt's territorial extent during his reign.
1520–1492 BC
Aakheperenre Thutmose II Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret.
1492–1479 BC
Maatkare Hatshepsut The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign. Famous for her expedition to Punt documented on her famous Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari. Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's power. Was the daughter of Thutmose I and the Great Wife of her brother Thutmose II.
1479–1458 BC
Menkheperre Thutmose III Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into the Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Before the end of his reign, he obliterated Hatshepsut's name and image from temples and monuments.
1458–1425 BC
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II Son of Thutmose III. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
1425–1400 BC
Menkheperure Thutmose IV Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
1400–1390 BC
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose IV.
1390–1352 BC
Neferkheperure Waenre Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten (Achencheres) Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change.
1352–1336 BC
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in his own right.

Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun; others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten.

1335–1334 BC
Ankhkheperure mery Neferkheperure Neferneferuaten A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as Smenkhkare. Archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period. It is likely she was Nefertiti.
1334-1332 BC
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten / Tutankhamun Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, most likely reinstated the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the monolatristic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity. He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King." Tutankhamun was a weak ruler suffering from multiple health issues. However, he became famous for being buried in a decorative tomb intended for someone else called KV62.
1332–1324 BC
Kheperkheperure Ay II Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Possibly the brother of Tiye, Great Wife of Amenhotep III, and also possibly father of Nefertiti, Great Wife of Akhenaten. Believed to have been born into nobility, but not royalty. Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir.
1324–1320 BC
Djeserkheperure Setpenre Horemheb Born a Commoner. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them. Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir.
1320–1292 BC

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[111] Of non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir.
1292–1290 BC
Menmaatre Seti I Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten.
1290–1279 BC
Usermaatre Setpenre (Ozymandias) Ramesses II the Great Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the famous Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. Had one of the longest Egyptian reigns.
1279–1213 BC
Banenre Merneptah[112] Thirteenth son of Ramesses II.
1213–1203 BC
Menmire Setpenre Amenmesse Most likely a usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah.
1203–1200 BC
Userkheperure Seti II[113] Son of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne.
1203–1197 BC
Sekhaenre / Akhenre (Merenptah) Siptah[114] Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age.
1197–1191 BC
Satre Merenamun Tausret Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret.
1191–1190 BC

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakhte Not related to Seti II, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt.
1190–1186 BC
Usermaatre Meryamun Ramesses III Son of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. Possibly assassinated (Harem conspiracy).
1186–1155 BC
Usermaatre / Heqamaatre Setpenamun Ramesses IV Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline.
1155–1149 BC
Usermaatre Sekheperenre Ramesses V Son of Ramesses IV
1149–1145 BC
Nebmaatre Meryamun Ramesses VI Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V.
1145–1137 BC
Usermaatre Setpenre Meryamun Ramesses VII Son of Ramesses VI.
1137–1130 BC
Usermaatre Akhenamun Ramesses VIII An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI. Uncle of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found.
1130–1129 BC
Neferkare Setpenre Ramesses IX Probably grandson of Ramesses III through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII.
1129–1111 BC
Khepermaatre Setpenptah Ramesses X[115] A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain.
1111–1107 BC
Menmaatre Setpenptah Ramesses XI[116] Possibly the son of Ramesses X. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes.
1107–1077 BC

Third Intermediate Period

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–664 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire at the end of the Bronze Age. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Hedjkheperre-Setpenre Nesbanebdjed I[117] (Smendes I) Married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses XI. 1077–1051 BC
  Neferkare Amenemnisu Obscure four-year reign. 1051–1047 BC
  Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I) Son of Pinedjem I, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty. 1047–1001 BC
  Usermaatre Amenemope Son of Psusennes I. 1001–992 BC
  Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon the Elder Son of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor. 992–986 BC
  Netjerikheperre-Setpenamun Siamun Unknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty. 986–967 BC
  Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II) Son of Pinedjem II, a High Priest of Amun. 967–943 BC

Theban High Priests of Amun

Though not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.

Image Name Comments Dates
Herihor First High Priest of Amun to claim to be pharaoh. He ruled in the south in Thebes, while Ramesses XI ruled from the north in Pi-Ramesses. Some sources suggest he may have reigned after Piankh. 1080–1074 BC
Piankh Some sources suggest he may have reigned before Herihor. 1074–1070 BC
Pinedjem I Son of Piankh. Father of Psusennes I. 1070–1032 BC
Masaharta Son of Pinedjem I. 1054–1045 BC
Djedkhonsuefankh Son of Pinedjem I. 1046–1045 BC
Menkheperre Son of Pinedjem I. 1045–992 BC
Nesbanebdjed II (Smendes II) Son of Menkheperre. 992–990 BC
Pinedjem II Son of Menkheperre, Father of Psusennes II. 990–976 BC
Pasebakhaennuit III (Psusennes III) Possibly the same person as Psusennes II. Either he or Pinedjem II is generally considered to be the last High Priest of Amun to consider himself as a pharaoh-like figure. 976–943 BC

Twenty-Second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Hedjkheperre Setpenre Shoshenq I Son of Nimlot A, a brother of Osorkon the Elder and a Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libyans). Possibly the biblical Shishaq 943–922 BC
  Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I Son of Shoshenq I. 922–887 BC
  Heqakheperre Shoshenq II Obscure pharaoh, possibly a usurper. 887–885 BC
Tutkheperre Shoshenq IIb Obscure pharaoh, placement uncertain. 880s BC
  Hedjkheperre Harsiese An obscure rebel, at Thebes. 880–860 BC
  Takelot I Son of Osorkon I. 885–872 BC
  Usermaatre Setpenamun Osorkon II Son of Takelot I. 872–837 BC
  Usermaatre Setpenre Shoshenq III 837–798 BC
  Shoshenq IV 798–785 BC
  Usermaatre Setpenre Pami 785–778 BC
  Aakheperre Shoshenq V 778–740 BC
  Usermaatre Osorkon IV 740–720 BC

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Hedjkheperre Setpenre Takelot II Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd. 837–813 BC
  Usermaatre Setpenamun Pedubast A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II. 826–801 BC
Usermaatre Setepenamun Iuput I Co-regent with Pedubast. 812–811 BC
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast. 801–795 BC
  Usermaatre Setpenamun Osorkon III Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king. 795–767 BC
  Usermaatre-Setpenamun Takelot III Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign. 773–765 BC
  Usermaatre-Setpenamun Rudamun Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. 765–762 BC
Hedjkheperre-Setepenre Shoshenq VII A poorly attested king.

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Menkheperre Ini Reigned at Thebes only. 762–Unknown BC

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two pharaohs ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Shepsesre Tefnakhte 732–725 BC
  Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) 725–720 BC

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Usermaatre Piye King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in his 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 744–714 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[118]
  Djedkaure Shebitku Believed to be Shabaka's successor until the 2010s 714–705 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[118]
  Neferkare Shabaka Believed to be Shebitku's predecessor until the 2010s 705–690 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[118]
  Khuinefertemre Taharqa Died in 664 BC 690–664 BC[119]
  Bakare Tantamani Lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664–653 BC

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – AD 500).

Late Period

The Late Period runs from around 664 to 332 BC, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians.

Twenty-Sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 664 to 525 BC.[120]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Tefnakht II (Stephinates) Manetho's Stephinates. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. The father of Necho I. 685–678 BC
Nekauba (Nechepsos) Manetho's Nechepsos. His existence has been questioned. 678–672 BC
  Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I) Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik I. 672–664 BC

The son and successor of Nekau I, Psamtik I, managed to reunify Egypt and is generally regarded as the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I) Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of Necho II. 664–610 BC[121]
  Wehemibre Nekau II (Necho II) Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible and the death of Josiah. Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II. 610–595 BC[121]
  Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II) Son of Necho II and father of Apries. 595–589 BC[121]
  Haaibre Wahibre (Apries) Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II. 589–570 BC[121]
  Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II) He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III. 570–526 BC[121]
  Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III) Son of Amasis II. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed for attempting to revolt. 526–525 BC[121]

Twenty-Seventh Dynasty

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and constituted a satrapy as part of this empire until 404 BC. The Achaemenid Shahanshahs were acknowledged as Pharaohs in this era, forming the 27th Dynasty:

Image Name Comments Dates
  Cambyses Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC. 525–1 July 522 BC[121]
Bardiya (Smerdis) / Gaumata Son of Cyrus the Great. 522 BC[121]
  Darius I the Great Ascended throne by overthrowing Gaumata[122] 522–November 486 BC[121]
  Xerxes I the Great Assassinated by Artabanus of Persia. November 486–December 465 BC[121]
Artabanus the Hyrcanian 465-464 BC
  Artaxerxes I Longhand Died in 424 BC 464–424 BC
Xerxes II A claimant. 424–423 BC[121]
Sogdianus A claimant. 423–July 423 BC[121]
  Darius II Died in 404 BC July 423–March 404 BC[121]

Several native rebellions took place during the 27th dynasty:

Image Name Comments Dates
  Petubastis III[123] A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta. 522/21–520 BC
Psammetichus IV[123] A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain. Possibly in the 480s BC

Twenty-Eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one pharaoh:

Image Name Comments Dates
  Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. 404–398 BC

Twenty-Ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Baenre Nefaarud I (Nepherites I) Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed. 398–393 BC
  Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris) Son of Nefaarud I. Around 392–around 391 BC
  Psammuthes Possibly dethroned Hakor for a year. Around 391 BC
  Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris) Retook the throne from Psammuthes. Around 390–around 379 BC
Nefaarud II (Nepherites II) Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor. Around 379 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:[121]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I) Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos. 379–361 BC
  Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos) Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta. 361–359 BC
  Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II) Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[124] to be recognized by Manetho. 359–342 BC

Thirty-First Dynasty

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Image Name Comments Dates
  Artaxerxes III Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time. 343–September 338 BC[121]
  Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt. 338–336 BC
  Darius III Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC. The Persian Empire was conquered by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. 336–332 BC

Native rebellions again took place during the 31st dynasty:

Image Name Comments Dates
  Khababash Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia. 338–335 BC[121]

Hellenistic period

Argead Dynasty

The Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Setpenre Meryamun Alexander the Great Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt. 332–13 June 323 BC[121]
  Philip Arrhidaeus Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander the Great. 323–317 BC
  Haaibre Alexander Aegus Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana. 317–309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, in modern times known simply as Cleopatra, who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and, after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, having children with both of them.

Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome, but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans.[citation needed]

Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, and he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.[citation needed]

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
  Setpenre Meryamun Ptolemy I Soter Abdicated in 285 BC[citation needed] 7 November 305 – January 282 BC[121]
  Weserkare Meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos 28 March 284 – 28 January 246 BC
  Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II c. 277 – July 270 BC[121]
  Ptolemy III Euergetes 28 January 246 – November/December 222 BC
  Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III. Murdered. 244/243 – 222 BC
  Ptolemy IV Philopator Died in unclear circumstances, possibly by fire in the palace or murder. November/December 222 – July/August 204 BC
  Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV. Murdered. 220–204 BC
  Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC July/August 204 – September 180 BC
  Cleopatra I Syra Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority c. February 193 – 176 BC[121]
  Ptolemy VI Philometor Lived under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; restored 163 BC Died 145 BC c. May 180 – October 164 BC[121]and

163 – c. July 145 BC[121]

  Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI. Married Ptolemy VIII around 145 BC; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. Later reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII until 116 BC. 175 – October 164 BC

and

163–127 BC

and

124–116 BC

  Ptolemy VIII Physcon Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Restored 145–131 BC and again in 127 BC. Died 116 BC 171–163 BC

and

144–131 BC

and

127–116 BC

  Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by his father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145–144 BC
  Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII. Restored with Ptolemy VIII in 127 BC; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. Murdered by her own son Ptolemy X. 142–131 BC

and

127–107 BC

Ptolemy Memphites Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
  Ptolemy IX Soter Died 80 BC 28 June 116–October 110 BC[121]
  Cleopatra IV Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. Later murdered. 28 June 116–115 BC[121]
  Ptolemy X Alexander Died 88 BC October 110–February 109 BC[121]
  Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81–80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC[121]
  Ptolemy XII Auletes Son of Ptolemy IX; deposed in 58 BC Reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death in 51 BC 80–58 BC[121]

and

55–51 BC[121]

  Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV 79–68 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII, but theorised by some Egyptologists to actually be the same person as Cleopatra V.[125] 58–57 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC. 58–55 BC[121]
  Cleopatra VII Ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV. In modern usage, the stand-alone use of "Cleopatra" with no ordinal number usually refers to Cleopatra VII. Committed suicide. 31 May 52[126] – 12 August 30 BC[121]
  Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator Brother of Cleopatra VII 51–13 January 47 BC
  Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII December 48 – January 47 BC
  Ptolemy XIV Philopator Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 13 January 47–26 July 44 BC
  Ptolemy XV Caesar Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over. 2 September 44 – August 30 BC

Native rebellions also took place under Greek rule:

Image Throne name Personal name Comments Dates
Hugronaphor Revolutionary pharaoh in the South 205–199 BC
Ankhmakis Revolutionary pharaoh in the South 199–185 BC
Harsiesi Revolutionary pharaoh in the South 131–130 BC

Rome

 
Egyptian relief depicting the Roman Emperor Trajan (right, reigned 98–117 AD) in full pharaonic style.

Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman dictator Julius Caesar and Roman general Mark Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Mark Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus Caesar) that Egypt became a province of the Roman Republic in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman emperors were accorded the title of pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt.

The last Roman emperor to be conferred the title of pharaoh was Maximinus Daza (reigned 311–313 AD).[2][127]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Clayton 1995, p. 217. "Although paying lip-service to the old ideas and religion, in varying degrees, pharaonic Egypt had in effect died with the last native pharaoh, Nectanebo II in 343 BC"
  2. ^ a b c von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Verlag Philipp von Zabern. pp. 266–267. ISBN 978-3422008328.
  3. ^ "Digital Egypt for Universities". www.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-02-12.
  4. ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 2012, ISBN 1-136-60247-X, p. 50.
  5. ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 2012, ISBN 1-136-60247-X, p. 61.
  6. ^ Cervello-Autuori, Josep (2003). "Narmer, Menes and the Seals from Abydos". In Hawass, Zahi (ed.). Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, 2000. 2. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. pp. 168–75. ISBN 9789774247149.
  7. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 298. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  8. ^ a b Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 259.
  9. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 139.
  10. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 199.
  11. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 138.
  12. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 181.
  13. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 311.
  14. ^ a b Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 137.
  15. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  16. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  17. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  18. ^ Felde, Rolf: Gottheiten, Pharaonen und Beamte im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, S. 125.
  19. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  20. ^ a b c d Barry Kemp (a1), Andrew Boyce and James Harrell, The Colossi from the Early Shrine at Coptos in Egypt, in: Cambridge Archaeological Journal Volume 10, Issue 2April 2000, 233
  21. ^ zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Band 37
  22. ^ Ludwig David Morenz: Bild-Buchstaben und symbolische Zeichen. Die Herausbildung der Schrift der hohen Kultur Altägyptens (= Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205). Fribourg 2004, ISBN 3-7278-1486-1, p. 91.
  23. ^ "Aufstand gegen den Tod". Der Spiegel. 24 December 1995.
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ Günter Dreyer: Horus Krokodil, ein Gegenkönig der Dynastie 0. In: Renee Friedman and Barbara Adams (Hrsg.): The Followers of Horus, Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, 1949–1990 (= Egyptian Studies Association Publication, vol. 2). Oxbow Publications, Bloomington (IN) 1992, ISBN 0-946897-44-1, p. 259–263.
  26. ^ P. Tallet, D. Laisnay: Iry-Hor et Narmer au Sud-Sinaï (Ouadi 'Ameyra), un complément à la chronologie des expéditios minière égyptiene. In: Bulletin de L'Institute Français D'Archéologie Orientale (BIFAO) 112. Ausgabe 2012, S. 381–395.
  27. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol. 49. von Zabern, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6, p. 36–37.
  28. ^ Toby Wilkinson: Early Dynastic Egypt: Strategy, Society and Security. Routeledge, London 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1, p. 38, 56 & 57.
  29. ^ Stewart, John (2006). African States and Rulers (Third ed.). London: McFarland. p. 77. ISBN 0-7864-2562-8.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Stewart, John (2006). African States and Rulers (Third ed.). London: McFarland. p. 81. ISBN 0-7864-2562-8.
  31. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  32. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  33. ^ Wolfgang Helck: Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit (= Ägyptologische Abhandlungen (ÄA), Vol. 45). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1987, ISBN 3-447-02677-4, p. 124.
  34. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  35. ^ a b c Wolfgang Helck: Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit (Agyptologische Abhandlungen), ISBN 3-447-02677-4, O. Harrassowitz (1987), p. 124
  36. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  37. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  38. ^ Nicolas-Christophe Grimal: A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell, Oxford UK / Cambridge USA 1992, ISBN 978-0-631-19396-8, p. 53.
  39. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 376. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  40. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 299. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  41. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp. 83–84
  42. ^ Dietrich Wildung: Die Rolle ägyptischer Könige im Bewußtsein ihrer Nachwelt. Teil I. Posthume Quellen über die Könige der ersten vier Dynastien. In: Münchener Ägyptologische Studien, vol. 17. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich/Berlin 1969, p. 31–33.
  43. ^ Wilkinson (1999) p. 79
  44. ^ Wilkinson (1999) pp. 87–88
  45. ^ Pascal Vernus, Jean Yoyotte, The Book of the Pharaohs, Cornell University Press 2003, p. 27
  46. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich/Berlin 1984, ISBN 3-422-00832-2, p. 171.
  47. ^ Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, London/New York 2002, ISBN 1-134-66420-6, p. 75–76.
  48. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2. verbesserte und erweiterte Auflage. von Zabern, Mainz 1999, S. 44–45.
  49. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, page 175.
  50. ^ [2] King Khasekhem
  51. ^ [3] King Khasekhemwy
  52. ^ Wilkinson, Toby (1999). Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge. pp. 83 & 95. ISBN 0-415-18633-1.
  53. ^ Wilkinson, Toby. Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt. pp. 79 & 258.
  54. ^ "Pharaohs - Timeline Index". www.timelineindex.com. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  55. ^ Clayton (1994) p.32
  56. ^ Lehner, Mark (1997). Geheimnis der Pyramiden (in German). Düsseldorf: Econ. pp. 94–96. ISBN 3-572-01039-X.
  57. ^ Clayton (1994) p.42
  58. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, pp. 278–279.
  59. ^ Miroslav Verner (2000): "Who was Shepseskara, and when did he reign?", in: Miroslav Bárta, Jaromír Krejčí (editors): Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute, Prague, ISBN 80-85425-39-4, p. 581–602, available online Archived 2011-02-01 at the Wayback Machine.
  60. ^ Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.73
  61. ^ Ryholt & Bardrum (2000) pp.87–100.
  62. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : P. von Zabern, 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6, available online Archived 2015-12-22 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ Kim Ryholt: "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris", Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 127, 2000, p. 99
  64. ^ Gustave Jéquier, Maṣlaḥat al-Āthār (1993): Les pyramides des reines Neit et Apouit (in French), Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, OCLC 195690029, see plate 5.
  65. ^ Percy Newberry (1943): "Queen Nitocris of the Sixth Dynasty", in: The Journal of Egyptian Archeology, vol. 29, pp=51–54
  66. ^ Gae Callender: "Queen Neit-ikrety/Nitokris", in: Miroslav Barta, Filip Coppens, Jaromic Krecji (editors): Abusir and Saqqara in the year 2010/1, Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, 2011, ISBN 978-80-7308-384-7, see pp. 249–250
  67. ^ a b Turin Kinglist, Columns IV,18 to V,10, Ancient Egypt dot org. Accessed 10 February 2010.
  68. ^ Margaret Bunson: Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4381-0997-8, available online, see p. 181
  69. ^ Labib Habachi: King Nebhepetre Menthuhotep: his monuments, place in history, deification and unusual representations in form of gods, in: Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 19 (1963), pp. 16–52
  70. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 23–25
  71. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 25–26
  72. ^ a b c Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 27–28
  73. ^ [4] Amenemhat I
  74. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 28–35
  75. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  76. ^ Murnane (1977) p.2
  77. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 391. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  78. ^ Murnane (1977) p.7
  79. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  80. ^ Murnane (1977) p.9
  81. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 395. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  82. ^ Josef Wegner, The Nature and Chronology of the Senwosret III–Amenemhat III Regnal Succession: Some Considerations based on new evidence from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Abydos, JNES 55, Vol.4, (1996), pp.251
  83. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 398. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  84. ^ Wolfram Grajetzki (2006) pp. 56–61
  85. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  86. ^ "Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BC)". Digital Egypt for Universities.
  87. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  88. ^ Grajetzki (2006) pp. 61–63
  89. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 456. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  90. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao K. S. B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  91. ^ "Nerikare", Wikipedia, 2018-11-02, retrieved 2019-10-06
  92. ^ "Amenemhet VI", Wikipedia, 2019-09-21, retrieved 2019-10-06
  93. ^ "Semenkare Nebnuni", Wikipedia, 2019-08-14, retrieved 2019-10-06
  94. ^ a b Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3
  95. ^ "Sehetepibre", Wikipedia, 2018-11-02, retrieved 2019-10-06
  96. ^ Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros, 2002
  97. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  98. ^ a b Kings of the 2nd Intermediate Period
  99. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  100. ^ a b Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  101. ^ Detlef Franke: "Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altägyptens", In Orientalia 57 (1988), p. 259
  102. ^ Ryholt, K. S. B. (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt During the Second Intermediate Period, C. 1800–1550 B.C. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-87-7289-421-8.
  103. ^ "Giant Sarcophagus Leads Penn Museum Team in Egypt To the Tomb of a Previously Unknown Pharaoh". Penn Museum. January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  104. ^ a b Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  105. ^ a b c d Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  106. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien 49, Mainz 1999.
  107. ^ a b Marcel Marée: A sculpture workshop at Abydos from the late Sixteenth or early Seventeenth Dynasty, in: Marcel Marée (editor): The Second Intermediate period (Thirteenth-Seventeenth Dynasties), Current Research, Future Prospects, Leuven, Paris, Walpole, Massachusetts. 2010 ISBN 978-90-429-2228-0. p. 247, 268
  108. ^ Baker, Darrell D. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs Volume 1: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC. Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-977-416-221-3.
  109. ^ Wolfgang Helck, Eberhard Otto, Wolfhart Westendorf, Stele – Zypresse: Volume 6 of Lexikon der Ägyptologie, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1986, Page 1383
  110. ^ Christopher Bronk Ramsey et al., Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Science 18 June 2010: Vol. 328. no. 5985, pp. 1554–1557.
  111. ^ "Ramesses I Menpehtire". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  112. ^ "King Merenptah". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  113. ^ "Sety II". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  114. ^ "Siptah Sekhaenre/Akhenre". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  115. ^ Grimal (1992) p.291
  116. ^ "Ramesses XI Menmaatre-setpenptah". Retrieved 2007-10-28.
  117. ^ Cerny p.645
  118. ^ a b c F. Payraudeau, Retour sur la succession Shabaqo-Shabataqo, Nehet 1, 2014, p. 115-127
  119. ^ Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. p. 88. ISBN 0-89950-390-X.
  120. ^ "Late Period Kings". Retrieved 2007-10-27.
  121. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Stewart, John (2006). African States and Rulers (Third ed.). London: McFarland. p. 83. ISBN 0-7864-2562-8.
  122. ^ "Darius the Great", Wikipedia, 2019-09-25, retrieved 2019-10-06
  123. ^ a b Placed in this dynasty only for chronological reasons, as he was not related to the Achaemenids.
  124. ^ "Nakhthorhebyt". Digital Egypt for Universities. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  125. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006), Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt, p. 200, ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  126. ^ Roller, Duane W. (2010). Cleopatra: a Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-195-36553-5.
  127. ^ Vernus, Pascal; Yoyotte, Jean (2003). The Book of the Pharaohs. Cornell University Press. pp. 238–256. ISBN 9780801440502. maximinus pharaoh.

Further reading

  • Breasted, J. H., History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
  • Cerny, J. 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in: The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380–1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, 1975 ISBN 0-521-08691-4
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3.
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  • Gardiner, Sir Alan, Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
  • Grimal, Nicolas, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books: 1992
  • Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
  • Rice, Michael, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
  • Ryholt, Kim & Bardrum, Steven, The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris. Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127. 2000.
  • Shaw, Garry. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012.
  • Wilkinson, Toby A. H., Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
  • Ventura Dr. R., Egypt, History & Civilisation Published by Osiris, PO Box 107 Cairo.
  • Verner, Miroslav, The Pyramids – Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8

External links