List of pharaohs

The title "Pharaoh" is used for those rulers of Ancient Egypt who ruled after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer during the Early Dynastic Period, approximately 3100 BC. However, the specific title "Pharaoh" was not used to address the kings of Egypt by their contemporaries until the rule of Merneptah in the 19th Dynasty, c. 1200 BC. Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties.

Pharaoh of Egypt
Double crown.svg
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
StyleFive-name titulary
First monarchNarmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch
Formationc. 3100 BC
  • 343 BC
    (last native pharaoh)[1]
  • 30 BC
    (last Greek pharaohs)
  • 314 AD
    (last Roman Emperor to be called Pharaoh)[2]
ResidenceVaries by era
AppointerDivine right

Egypt was continually governed, at least in part, by native pharaohs for approximately 2500 years, until it was conquered by the Kingdom of Kush in the late 8th century BC, whose rulers adopted the traditional pharaonic titulature for themselves. Following the Kushite conquest, Egypt experienced another period of independent native rule before being conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also adopted the title of "Pharaoh". The last native pharaoh of Egypt was Nectanebo II, who was pharaoh before the Achaemenids conquered Egypt for a second time.

Achaemenid rule over Egypt came to an end through the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after which it was ruled by the Hellenic Pharaohs of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Their rule, and the independence of Egypt, came to an end when Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Augustus and subsequent Roman emperors were styled as Pharaoh when in Egypt until the reign of Maximinus Daia in 314 AD.

The dates given in this list of pharaohs are approximate. They are based primarily on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities[3] database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

Ancient Egyptian king listsEdit

Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records, including Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and historians alike call for caution in regard to the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.[4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.

The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)):[5]

  • Den seal impressions (1st Dynasty); found on a cylinder seal in Den's tomb. It lists all 1st Dynasty kings from Narmer to Den by their Horus names.
  • Palermo stone (5th Dynasty); carved on an olivine-basalt slab. Broken into pieces and thus today incomplete.
  • Giza King List (6th Dynasty); painted with red, green and black ink on gypsum and cedar wood. Very selective.
  • South Saqqara Stone (6th Dynasty); carved on a black basalt slab. Very selective.
  • Karnak King List (18th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very selective.
  • Abydos King List of Seti I (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting the First Intermediate Period.
  • Abydos King List of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very selective.
  • Saqqara King List (19th Dynasty), carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting most kings of the 1st Dynasty for unknown reasons.
  • Turin King List (19th Dynasty); written with red and black ink on papyrus. Likely the most complete king-list in history, today damaged.
  • Manetho's Aegyptiaca (Greek Period); possibly written on papyrus. The original writings are lost today and many anecdotes assigned to certain kings seem fictitious.

Predynastic periodEdit

Lower EgyptEdit

Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile delta. The following list may be incomplete:

Name Image Comments Reign
Hedju Hor
Only known from two clay jugs from Tura
Naqada II??
Only known from clay and stone vessels found in tombs near Tarchan, Tura, Tarjan, and Nagada
Naqada II??
King 01 (missing)
Only known from the Palermo stone[6]
Hsekiu / Seka
Only known from the Palermo stone[7]
Only known from the Palermo stone[8]
Tiu / Teyew
Only known from the Palermo stone[9]
Thesh / Tjesh
Only known from the Palermo stone[10]
Only known from the Palermo stone[11]
Only known from the Palermo stone[12]
Ruled around or earlier than 3180 BC
Around 3180 BC
Only known from the Palermo stone[13]
King 09 (destroyed)
Only known from the Palermo stone[13]
Double Falcon
May also have ruled in Upper Egypt
Naqada III
(32nd century BC)
Only known from the Narmer Palette[14] Around 3150 BC
Naqada III

Upper EgyptEdit

Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00.

Name Image Comments Reign
In 3250 BC.; most likely never existed.[15]
Naqada III
Finger Snail
The existence of this king is very doubtful.[15]
Naqada III
Only known from artifacts that bear his mark, around 3250–3220 BC. He most likely never existed.[15]
Naqada III
Around 3240–3220 BC; more than likely never existed
Naqada III
most likely never existed.[15]
Naqada III
most likely never existed.[15]
Naqada III
most likely never existed.[15]
Naqada III
most likely never existed.[15]
Naqada III
Scorpion I
First ruler of Upper Egypt, Around 3250–3200 BC.
Naqada III

Predynastic rulers: Dynasty 0Edit

The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0".

Name Image Comments Dates
Correct chronological position unclear.[21]
Around 3170 BC
Potentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.[22]
Around 3170 BC
Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.[23]
Around 3170 BC
Scorpion II
Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.[24]
Around 3170 BC

Early Dynastic PeriodEdit

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 3150 to 2686 BC.

First DynastyEdit

The First Dynasty ruled from around 3150 to 2890 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
Around 3150 BC
Son of Narmer
Greek form: Athotís.
Around 3125 BC
Son of Hor-Aha
Greek form: Uenéphes (after his Gold name In-nebw); His name and titulary appear on the Palermo Stone. His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris.
54 years[25]
Brother of Djer
Greek form: Usapháis.
10 years[26]
Son of Djet
Greek form: Kénkenes (after the ramesside diction of his birthname: Qenqen[27]). First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity-name.
42 years[26]
Grandson of Djet & nephew of Den
Greek form: Miebidós. Known for his ominous nebwy-title.[28]
10 years
Son of Anedjib or brother of him
Greek form: Semempsés. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone.
8½ years[26]
Son of Semerkhet
Greek form: Bienéches. Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs.
34 years
Unknown son of Qa’a?
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.
Around 2900 BC
Horus Bird
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.
Around 2900 BC

Second DynastyEdit

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Manetho names him Boëthos and claims that under this ruler an earthquake killed many people.
15 years
Greek form: Kaíechós (after the Ramesside cartouche name Kakaw). First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg.
14 years
Greek form: Binóthris. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.
43–45 years
Greek form: Ougotlas/Tlás. Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.
Around 2740 BC
Greek form: Sethenes. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.[34]
47 years (Supposedly)
Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt.[35]
Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[36]
Around 2720 BC
Neferkara I
Greek form: Néphercherés. Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.
25 years(according to Manetho)
Greek form: Sesóchris. Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting drought.[37]
8 years
Hudjefa I
Known only from Ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in Ramesside times.
11 years(According to the Turin Canon)
Greek form: Chenerés. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.
18 years

Old KingdomEdit

The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the point of Egypt which succeeded the Early Dynastic Egypt and precedes the troubled First Intermediate Period. The kingdom ruled from 2686 to 2181 BC.

Third DynastyEdit

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Hellenized names Sesorthos and Tosórthros. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.
19 or 28 years, possibly around 2650 BC[42]
Greek form: Tyréis (after the ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti). In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.[44]
2649–2643 BC
Likely to be identified with the throne name Nebka; Hellenized names Necherôchis and Necherôphes. May have reigned 6 years if identified with the penultimate king of the Dynasty on the Turin canon.
Around 2650 BC
Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni.
2643–2637 BC
Greek form: Áches. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru, not Huni.
2637–2613 BC

Fourth DynastyEdit

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Greek form: Sóris. Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferu's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.[46]
2613–2589 BC
Greek form: Cheops and Suphis. Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.
2589–2566 BC
Greek form: Rátoises. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer extant; it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.
2566–2558 BC
Greek form: Chéphren and Suphis II. His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.
2558–2532 BC
Greek form: Bikheris. Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan.
Around 2570 BC
Greek form: Menchéres. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.
2532–2503 BC
Greek form: Seberchéres. Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un.
2503–2498 BC
According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.
Around 2500 BC

Fifth DynastyEdit

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
2498–2491 BC
Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid.
2490–2477 BC
Neferirkare Kakai
Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer
2477–2467 BC
Son of Neferirkare
2460–2458 BC
Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.[47]
A few months
Nyuserre Ini
Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis.
2445–2422 BC
Menkauhor Kaiu
Last pharaoh to build a sun temple
2422–2414 BC
Djedkare Isesi
Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.
2414–2375 BC
The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts
2375–2345 BC

Sixth DynastyEdit

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
According to Manetho, he was murdered.
2345–2333 BC
Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
2333–2332 BC
Meryre Pepi I
Faced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty
2332–2283 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
2283–2278 BC
Neferkare Pepi II
Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years.
2278–2184 BC
Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
2200–2199 BC
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[48]
Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II.
1 year and 1 month c. 2184 BC
Neitiqerty Siptah
Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[49] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 2184–2181 BC

First Intermediate PeriodEdit

The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)Edit

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years (possibly 2181 to 2160 BC). They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[50] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[51]

Name Image Comments Dates
Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[52][53][54]
Probably short, Around 2181 BC
Neferkare II
Neferkare (III) Neby
Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Djedkare Shemai
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal.
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Attested by a cylinder seal.
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
Unknown to 2171 BC
Neferkamin Anu
Around 2170 BC
Qakare Ibi
Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts
2169–2167 BC
Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos.
2167–2163 BC
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi
Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay.
2163–2161 BC
Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min.
2161–2160 BC

Ninth DynastyEdit

The Ninth Dynasty[55] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[55]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I)
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty.
2160 BC–unknown
Neferkare VII
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II)
Senenh— or Setut

Tenth DynastyEdit

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
2130 BC–unknown
Neferkare VIII
Between 2130 and 2040 BCE
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III)
Unknown–2040 BC

Eleventh DynastyEdit

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty.

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Name Image Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently.
Unknown–2134 BC
Sehertawy Intef I
First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
2134–2117 BC
Wahankh Intef II
Conquered Abydos and its nome.
2117–2069 BC
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[56]
2069–2060 BC

Middle KingdomEdit

The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.

Eleventh Dynasty continuedEdit

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II[57]
Gained all Egypt c. 2015 BC, Middle Kingdom begins, becomes first pharaoh of Middle Kingdom.
2060–2010 BC
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[58]
Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom
2010–1998 BC
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[59]
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I.
1997–1991 BC

Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower NubiaEdit

Name Image Comments Dates
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 20th century BC
Qakare Ini[60]
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 20th century BC
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 20th century BC

Twelfth DynastyEdit

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[61][62]
Possibly overthrew Mentuhotep IV. Assassinated by his own guards.
1991–1962 BC
Kheperkare Senusret I[63] (Sesostris I)
Built the White Chapel
1971–1926 BC
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[64]
Ruled for at least 35 years.
1929–1895 BC
Khakheperre Senusret II[65] (Sesostris II)
1897–1878 BC
Khakaure Senusret III[66] (Sesostris III)
Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.
1878–1860 BC
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[67]
1860–1815 BC
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[68]
Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos.
1815–1807 BC
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[69]
The first known archeologically attested female Pharaoh.
1807–1802 BC

The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is uncertain. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty.

Second Intermediate PeriodEdit

The Second Intermediate Period (1802–1550 BC) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Sometime around 1650 BC the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth DynastyEdit

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1802 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies
1802–1800 BC[70]
Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[70]
1800–1796 BC[70]
Attested on a Nile record from Semna.[71]
1796 BC
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
Ruled for 3 to 4 years[70]
1796–1793 BC[70]
Ameny Qemau
Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur
1795–1792 BC
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef
Also called Sehotepibre
1792–1790 BC
Only attested on the Turin canon
Very short reign, possibly c. 1790 – 1788 BC[70]
Seankhibre Amenemhet VI
Attested on the Turin Canon.[72]
1788–1785 BC
Semenkare Nebnuni
Attested on the Turin Canon[73]
1785–1783 BC[70] or 1739 BC[74]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy
Attested on the Turin Canon[75]
1783–1781 BC[70]
Known only from the Turin canon 1781 BCE
Known only from the Turin canon
7 months, 1780 BC[70] or 1736 BC[74]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep
Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies
Reigned c. 3 years, 1780–1777 BC[70]
4 months
1777 BC[70]
Awybre Hor I
Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue
Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 1777–1775 BC[70]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre
Estimated reign 3 years, 1775–1772 BC[70]
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer
Estimated reign 2 years, 1772–1770 BC[70]
Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[70]
A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents.
5 to 7 years or 3 years, 1769–1766 BC[70]
Khutawyre Wegaf
Founder of the dynasty in old studies
Around 1767 BC
Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara
Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 1765 BC
Attested by two colossal statues
Reigned less than 10 years, starting 1759 BC[70] or 1711 BC.[76]
Sehetepkare Intef IV
Less than 10 years
Seth Meribre
Reign ended 1749 BCE
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
4 years and 2 months
1755–1751 BC
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I
11 years
1751–1740 BC
Menwadjre Sihathor
Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently.
1739 BC[70]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV
10 or 11 years
1740–1730 BC
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
1730 BC
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI
4 years 8 months and 29 days
Around 1725 BC
Wahibre Ibiau
10 years and 8 months
1725–1714 BC or 1712–1701 BC[70]
Merneferre Ay I
Longest reigning king of the dynasty
23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 1701–1677 BC[70] or 1714–1691 BC
Merhotepre Ini
Possibly a son of his predecessor
2 Years 3 or 4 Months and 9 days, 1677–1675 BC[70] or 1691–1689 BC
Sankhenre Sewadjtu
Attested only on the Turin canon
3 years and 2–4 months, 1675–1672 BC[70]
Mersekhemre Ined
May be the same person as Neferhotep II
3 years, 1672–1669 BC[70]
Sewadjkare Hori
5 years
5 years
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII
2 years and 6 months[70]
1664–1663 BC[70]
Seven kings
Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon[70]
1663 BC –?[70]
Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC[70]
Attested only on the Turin canon
Some time between 1663 BC and 1649 BC[70]
Name lost
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
Around 1655 BC[70]
Ibi [...]maatre
Hor[...] [...]webenre
Seheqenre Sankhptahi
May be the son of his predecessor
Between 1663-1649 BC
Unknown–1649 BC[70]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Dedumose I
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty
Around 1654
Dedumose II
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty
Sewahenre Senebmiu
Late 13th dynasty.
After 1660 BC.[70]
Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty
Mershepsesre Ini II
Late 13th dynasty.

Fourteenth DynastyEdit

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[77] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin. It is here given as per Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.

Name Image Comments Dates
Yakbim Sekhaenre
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[77]
1805–1780 BC
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[77]
1780–1770 BC
Qareh Khawoserre[77]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[77]
1770–1760 BC
'Ammu Ahotepre[77]
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[77]
1760–1745 BC
Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.[77] Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos.
1745–1705 BC
Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi[77]
Around 1705
Around 1704 BC
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[70]
Around 1704 to 1699 BC
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[70]
Around 1699 BC
Sewadjkare III
1694 BC
Around 1690 BC
Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen
At least 5 months of reign, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Attested by a single scarab seal
2 months, some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Anati Djedkare[77]
Only known from the Turin canon
Only known from the Turin canon
Some time between 1690 BC and 1649 BC
Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals
c. 1650 BC

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Attested by a scarab-seal
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Around 1700 BC ?
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Attested by a scarab-seal
May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. Possibly the Pharaoh that was mentioned in Genesis 41.
17th–16th centuries BC

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth DynastyEdit

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Chronological position uncertain.
1649 BC – Unknown
Chronological position uncertain.
Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign
30–40 years
40 years or more
1555–1544 BC

Abydos DynastyEdit

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC.[79][80][81] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[82]
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[82]
Menkhaure Snaaib
May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.[83][84][85]
Woseribre Senebkay
Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon.
Around 1650 BC

Sixteenth DynastyEdit

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty c. 1650 BC and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 1580 BC. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only.

Name Image Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered
Sekhemresementawy Djehuti
3 years
Sekhemreseusertawy Sobekhotep VIII
16 years
Sekhemresankhtawy Neferhotep III
1 year
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi
May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[84]
1 year
Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I
26 years
Neferkare(?) Nebiryraw II
Around 1600 BC
Around 1600 BC
Seuserenre Bebiankh
12 years
Djedhotepre Dedumose I
May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[84]
Around 1588-1582 BC
Djedneferre Dedumose II
Around 1588-1582 BC
Djedankhre Montemsaf
Around 1590 BC
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
Short reign, around 1585 BC
Seneferibre Senusret IV
Sekhemre Shedwast
May be the same as Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[86] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain.[83][84]

Seventeenth DynastyEdit

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep
Around 1620 BC
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I
At least 7 years
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II
His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramesses IX.
Unknown to around 1573 BC
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V
Possibly around 1573-1571 BC
Nubkheperre Intef VI
Reigned more than 3 years
Around 1571 to the mid-1560s BC
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII
Late 1560s BC
Senakhtenre Ahmose
Around 1558 BC
Seqenenre Tao
Died in battle against the Hyksos.
1558–1554 BC
Wadjkheperre Kamose
1554–1549 BC

The early 17th Dynasty may also have included the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[70]

New KingdomEdit

The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses II who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth DynastyEdit

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I
Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos.
Around 1550–1525 BC; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC[87]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
Son of Ahmose I.
1541–1520 BC
Aakheperkare Thutmose I
Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Expanded Egypt's territorial extent during his reign.
1520–1492 BC
Aakheperenre Thutmose II
Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret.
1492–1479 BC
Maatkare Hatshepsut
The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign. Famous for her expedition to Punt documented on her famous Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari. Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's power. Was the daughter of Thutmose I and the Great Wife of her brother Thutmose II.
1479–1458 BC
Menkheperre Thutmose III
Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into the Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Before the end of his reign, he obliterated Hatshepsut's name and image from temples and monuments.
1458–1425 BC
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II
Son of Thutmose III. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
1425–1400 BC
Menkheperure Thutmose IV
Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
1400–1390 BC
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King
Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose IV.
1390–1352 BC
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change.
1352–1336 BC
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare
Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in his own right. Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun; others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten.
1335–1334 BC
Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/Neferneferuaten A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as Smenkhkare. Archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period. It is likely she was Nefertiti.
1334-1332 BC
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun
Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, most likely reinstated the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the monolatristic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity. He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King." Tutankhamun was a weak ruler suffering from multiple health issues. However, he became famous for being buried in a decorative tomb intended for someone else called KV62.
1332–1324 BC
Kheperkheperure Ay (II)
Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Possibly the brother of Tiye, Great Wife of Amenhotep III, and also possibly father of Nefertiti, Great Wife of Akhenaten. Believed to have been born into nobility, but not royalty. Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir.
1324–1320 BC
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb
Born a Commoner. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them. Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir.
1320–1292 BC

Nineteenth DynastyEdit

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great.

Name Image Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[88]
Of non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir.
1292–1290 BC
Menmaatre Seti I
Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten.
1290–1279 BC
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great
Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which the famous Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. Had one of the longest Egyptian reigns.
1279–1213 BC
Banenre Merenptah[89]
Thirteenth son of Ramesses II.
1213–1203 BC
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse
Most likely a usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah.
1203–1200 BC
Userkheperure Seti II[90]
Son of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne.
1203–1197 BC
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[91]
Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age.
1197–1191 BC
Satre-merenamun Tausret
Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret.
1191–1190 BC

Twentieth DynastyEdit

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1190 to 1077 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakhte
Not related to Seti II, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt.
1190–1186 BC
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III
Son of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. Possibly assassinated (Harem conspiracy).
1186–1155 BC
Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV
Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline.
1155–1149 BC
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V
Son of Ramesses IV
1149–1145 BC
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI
Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V.
1145–1137 BC
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII
Son of Ramesses VI.
1137–1130 BC
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII
An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI. Uncle of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found.
1130–1129 BC
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX
Probably grandson of Ramesses III through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII.
1129–1111 BC
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[92]
A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain.
1111–1107 BC
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[93]
Possibly the son of Ramesses X. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes.
1107–1077 BC

Third Intermediate PeriodEdit

The Third Intermediate Period (1077–664 BC) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First DynastyEdit

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I (Smendes I)[94]
Married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses XI.
1077–1051 BC
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu
Obscure four-year reign.
1051–1047 BC
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)
Son of Pinedjem I, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty.
1047–1001 BC
Usermaatre Amenemope
Son of Psusennes I.
1001–992 BC
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)
Son of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor.
992–986 BC
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun
Unknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty.
986–967 BC
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)
Son of Pinedjem II, a High Priest of Amun.
967–943 BC

Theban High Priests of AmunEdit

Though not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.

Name Image Comments Dates
First High Priest of Amun to claim to be pharaoh. He ruled in the south in Thebes, while Ramesses XI ruled from the north in Pi-Ramesses. Some sources suggest he may have reigned after Piankh.
1080–1074 BC
Some sources suggest he may have reigned before Herihor.
1074–1070 BC
Pinedjem I
Son of Piankh. Father of Psusennes I.
1070–1032 BC
Son of Pinedjem I.
1054–1045 BC
Son of Pinedjem I.
1046–1045 BC
Son of Pinedjem I.
1045–992 BC
Nesbanebdjed II (Smendes II)
Son of Menkheperre.
992–990 BC
Pinedjem II
Son of Menkheperre, Father of Psusennes II.
990–976 BC
Pasebakhaennuit III (Psusennes III)
Possibly the same person as Psusennes II. Either he or Pinedjem II is generally considered to be the last High Priest of Amun to consider himself as a pharaoh-like figure.
976–943 BC

Twenty-Second DynastyEdit

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 943 to 728 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I
Son of Nimlot A, a brother of Osorkon the Elder and a Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Possibly the biblical Shishaq.
943–922 BC
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I
Son of Shoshenq I.
922–887 BC
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II
Obscure pharaoh, possibly a usurper.
887–885 BC
Tutkheperre Shoshenq IIb
Obscure pharaoh, placement uncertain.
880s BC
Hedjkheperre Harsiese
An obscure rebel, at Thebes.
880–860 BC
Takelot I
Son of Osorkon I.
885–872 BC
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II
Son of Takelot I.
872–837 BC
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III
837–798 BC
Shoshenq IV
798–785 BC
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami
785–778 BC
Aakheperre Shoshenq V
778–740 BC
Usermaatre Osorkon IV
740–720 BC

Twenty-Third DynastyEdit

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 837 to c. 735 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II
Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd.
837–813 BC
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast
A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II.
826–801 BC
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I
Co-regent with Pedubast.
812–811 BC
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI
Successor to Pedubast.
801–795 BC
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III
Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king.
795–767 BC
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III
Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign.
773–765 BC
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun
Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III.
765–762 BC

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Ini
Reigned at Thebes only.
762–Unknown BC

Twenty-Fourth DynastyEdit

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two pharaohs ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte
732–725 BC
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)
725–720 BC

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (Nubian/Kushite Period)Edit

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Image Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye
King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in his 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years
744–714 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[95]
Djedkaure Shebitku
Believed to be Shabaka's successor until the 2010s
714–705 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[95]
Neferkare Shabaka
Believed to be Shebitku's predecessor until the 2010s
705–690 BC, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[95]
Khuinefertemre Taharqa
Died in 664 BC
690–664 BC
Bakare Tantamani
Lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year.
664–653 BC

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656–590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC – AD 500).

Late PeriodEdit

The Late Period runs from around 664 to 332 BC, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians.

Twenty-Sixth DynastyEdit

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 664 to 525 BC.[96]

Name Image Comments Dates
Tefnakht II
Manetho's Stephinates. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. The father of Necho I.
685–678 BC
Manetho's Nechepsos. His existence has been questioned.
678–672 BC
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)
Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 664 BC under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik I.
672–664 BC

The son and successor of Necho I, Psamtik I, managed to reunify Egypt and is generally regarded as the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of Necho II.
664–610 BC
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)
Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible and the death of Josiah. Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II.
610–595 BC
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
Son of Necho II and father of Apries.
595–589 BC
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)
Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II.
589–570 BC
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II)
He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III.
570–526 BC
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
Son of Amasis II. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed for attempting to revolt.
526–525 BC

Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (First Persian Period)Edit

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and constituted a satrapy as part of this empire until 404 BC. The Achaemenid Shahanshahs were acknowledged as Pharaohs in this era, forming the 27th Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Cambyses (Cambyses II)
Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 525 BC.
525–521 BC
Smerdis (Bardiya)
Son of Cyrus the Great.
522–521 BC
Petubastis III[97]
A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta.
522/21–520 BC
Darius I the Great
Ascended throne by overthrowing Gaumata[98]
521–486 BC
Psammetichus IV[97]
A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain.
Possibly in the 480s BC
Xerxes I the Great
Assassinated by Artabanus of Persia.
486–465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian
465–464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand
Died in 424 BC
464–424 BC
Xerxes II
A claimant.
424–423 BC
A claimant.
424–423 BC
Darius II
Died in 404 BC
424–404 BC

Twenty-Eighth DynastyEdit

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one pharaoh:

Name Image Comments Dates
Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians.
404–398 BC

Twenty-Ninth DynastyEdit

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I
Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed.
399–393 BC
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)
Son of Nefaarud I.
Around 392–around 391 BC
Possibly dethroned Hakor for a year.
Around 391 BC
Hakor (restored)
Retook the throne from Psammuthes.
Around 390–around 379 BC
Nefaarud II
Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor.
Around 379 BC

Thirtieth DynastyEdit

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos.
379–361 BC
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)
Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta.
361–359 BC
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)
Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[99] to be recognized by Manetho.
359–342 BC

Thirty-First Dynasty (Second Persian Period)Edit

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III
Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time.
343-338 BC
Artaxerxes IV Arses
Only reigned in Lower Egypt.
338-336 BC
Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia.
338-335 BC
Darius III
Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC. The Persian Empire was conquered by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.
336-332 BC

Hellenistic periodEdit

Argead DynastyEdit

The Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great)
Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt.
332-323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander the Great.
323-317 BC
Haaibre Alexander IV
Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana.
317-309 BC

Ptolemaic DynastyEdit

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, in modern times known simply as Cleopatra, who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and, after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, having children with both of them.

Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome, but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans.[citation needed]

Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, and he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 47 BC. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.[citation needed]

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy I Soter
Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC
305–285 BC
Berenice I
Wife of Ptolemy I
Unknown–285 BC
Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos
Reigned for 39 years[100]
288–246 BC
Arsinoe I
Wife of Ptolemy II
284/281–around 274 BC
Arsinoe II
Wife of Ptolemy II
277–270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I
Reigned for 24 years[101]
246–222 BC
Berenice II
Wife of Ptolemy III. Was Murdered.
244/243–222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator
Died in unclear circumstances, possibly by fire in the palace or murder.
222–204 BC
Arsinoe III
Wife of Ptolemy IV. Was Murdered.
220–204 BC
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
205–199 BC
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
199–185 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC
204–180 BC
Cleopatra I
Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority
193–176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Died 145 BC
180–164 BC
Cleopatra II
Wife of Ptolemy VI
175–164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC
171–163 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC
163–145 BC
Cleopatra II
Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt.
163–127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
Proclaimed co-ruler by his father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II
145–144 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
145–131 BC
Cleopatra III
Second wife of Ptolemy VIII. Was murdered by her own son Ptolemy X.
142–131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis
Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII
131 BC
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
131–130 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
127–116 BC
Cleopatra III
Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X.
127–107 BC
Cleopatra II
Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116.
124–116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II
Died 80 BC
116–110 BC
Cleopatra IV
Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. Later murdered.
116–115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I
Died 88 BC
110–109 BC
Berenice III
Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later
81–80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II
Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III
80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes)
Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC
80–58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena
Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV
79–68 BC
Cleopatra VI
Daughter of Ptolemy XII
58–57 BC
Berenice IV
Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC.
58–55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos
Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death
55–51 BC
Cleopatra VII
Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; in modern usage, the stand-alone use of Cleopatra with no ordinal number usually refers to Cleopatra VII. Committed suicide.
51–30 BC
Ptolemy XIII
Brother of Cleopatra VII
51–47 BC
Arsinoe IV
In opposition to Cleopatra VII
48–47 BC
Ptolemy XIV
Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII
47–44 BC
Ptolemy XV
Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over.
44–30 BC


Egyptian relief depicting the Roman Emperor Trajan (right, reigned 98–117 AD) in full pharaonic style.

Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman dictator Julius Caesar and Roman general Mark Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Mark Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus Caesar) that Egypt became a province of the Roman Republic in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman emperors were accorded the title of pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt.

The last Roman emperor to be conferred the title of pharaoh was Maximinus Daia (reigned 311–313 AD).[2][102]

See alsoEdit


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Further readingEdit

  • J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
  • J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380–1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08691-4
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3.
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
  • Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992)
  • Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
  • Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
  • Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127
  • Shaw, Garry. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012.
  • Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
  • Verner, Miroslav,The Pyramids – Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8
  • Egypt, History & Civilisation By Dr. R Ventura. Published by Osiris, PO Box 107 Cairo.

External linksEdit