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The Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis. It was founded by Shoshenq I.
Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt
|943 BC–716 BC|
|Common languages||Egyptian language|
|Religion||Ancient Egyptian Religion|
|Historical era||Classical antiquity|
The Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-fifth dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group designation of the Third Intermediate Period.
The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were a series of Meshwesh (ancient Libyan tribe) chieftains, who ruled from c. 943 BC until 716 BC. They had settled in Egypt since the Twentieth Dynasty and were known in Egypt as the 'Great Chiefs of the Ma' (Ma being a synonym of Meshwesh). Manetho states that this Egyptianized ancient Libyan dynasty first ruled over Bubastis, but its rulers almost certainly governed from Tanis, which was their capital and the city where their tombs have been excavated.
Another pharaoh who belongs to this group is Tutkheperre Shoshenq. His period of rule within this dynasty is currently uncertain, although he is now thought to have governed Egypt early in the 9th century BC for a short time between Osorkon I and Takelot I. The next ruler at Tanis after Shoshenq V was Osorkon IV. This pharaoh is sometimes not believed to be a member of the 22nd Dynasty since he only controlled a small portion of Lower Egypt together with Tefnakhte of Sais, whose authority was recognised at Memphis—and Iuput II of Leontopolis.
The known rulers during the Twenty-second Dynasty include:
|Pharaoh||Throne name||Image||Reign (BC)||Consort(s)||Comments|
|Shoshenq I||Hedjkheperre-Setepenre||943–922 BC||Patareshnes
|Possibly to be identified with the biblical Shishak|
|Osorkon I||Sekhemkheperre-Setepenre||922–887 BC||Maatkare B
|Shoshenq II||Heqakheperre-Setepenre||887–885 BC||Nesitanebetashru
|Enjoyed an independent reign of two years at Tanis according to Von Beckerath|
|Takelot I||Hedjkheperre-Setepenre||885–872 BC||Kapes|
|Osorkon II||Usermaatre-Setepenamun||872–837 BC||Isetemkheb G
|An ally of Israel who fought Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.|
|Shoshenq III||Usermaatre-Setepenre||837–798 BC||Tadibast II
|Shoshenq IV||Hedjkheperre-Setepenre||798–785 BC||Not to be confused with Shoshenq VI; the original Shoshenq IV in publications before 1993|
|Pami||Usermaatre-Setepenamun||785–778 BC||Buried two Apis bulls in his reign|
|Shoshenq V||Akheperre||767–730 BC||Tadibast III?||Successor of Shoshenq V was often stated as Osorkon IV;some say it is Pedubast II|
|Pedubast II||Sehetepibenre||743–733 BC||Tadibast III?||Not mentioned in all Pharaoh lists, placement disputed|
|Osorkon IV||Usermaatre||730–716 BC||Not always listed as a true member of the XXII Dynasty, but succeeded Shoshenq V at Tanis. Perhaps the biblical Pharaoh So (2 Kings 17:4).|
The so-called Twenty-Third Dynasty was an offshoot of this dynasty perhaps based in Upper Egypt, though there is much debate concerning this issue. All of its kings reigned in Middle and Upper Egypt including the Western Desert Oases.