Achaemenid dynasty

The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian: 𐏃𐎧𐎠𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁𐎡𐎹, romanized: Haxāmanišyaʰ; Persian: دودمان هخامنشی; Ancient Greek: Ᾰ̓χαιμενῐ́δαι, romanizedAkhaimenídai)[1] was an ancient Persian royal dynasty that ruled the Achaemenid Empire, an Iranian empire that stretched from Egypt and Southeastern Europe in the west to the Indus Valley in the east.[2][3][4]

House of Achaemenes
𐏃𐎧𐎠𐎶𐎴𐎡𐏁𐎡𐎹
Achaemenid Falcon.svg
Place of originPersis
Founded730 BCE
FounderAchaemenes (traditional)
Final rulerDarius III
TitlesShah of PersiaKing of BabylonPharaoh of Egypt
Estate(s)Achaemenid Persian Empire
Dissolution330 BCE
Cadet branches

OriginsEdit

The history of the Achaemenid dynasty is mainly known through Greek historians such as Herodotus, Ctesias, and Xenophon; the Hebrew Bible and other Jewish religious texts; and native Iranian sources. According to Herodotus, the Achaemenids were a clan from the tribe of the Pasargadae and probably settled surrounding the site of Pasargadae. They possibly ruled over other Persian tribes in the 9th century BCE.

Darius traced his genealogy to Achaemenes, an unknown lineage named after Haxāmaniš. However, there is no evidence for a king called Achaemenes.[5]

DynastyEdit

Kingship was hereditary within the Achaemenid dynasty. The last element of the King of King's title was always "an Achaemenid".[citation needed] Succession was designated by the King of Kings, and was usually the first-born son. From Darius I to Artaxerxes II, it was usually a synarchy between the father and the son.[5]

Achaemenid rulers
King Reign Notes
Achaemenes 730–650 BCE Founder of the Achaemenid dynasty
Teispes 650–625 BCE
Cyrus I 625–580 BCE
Cambyses I 580–559 BCE
Cyrus II 559–530 BCE Cyrus the Great; founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire
Cambyses II 530–522 BCE Egypt is conquered at the Battle of Pelusium, thus adding Pharaoh of Egypt to the royal Persian titles
Bardiya 522 BCE Might have been an impostor named Gaumāta during his short reign
Darius I 522–486 BCE Achaemenid Empire reaches its greatest extent; initial foray into Greece
Xerxes I 486–465 BCE Launched failed invasion of Greece
Artaxerxes I 465–424 BCE
Xerxes II 424 BCE
Sogdianus 424–423 BCE Illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I
Darius II 423–404 BCE
Artaxerxes II 404–358 BCE Persia loses Egypt
Artaxerxes III 358–338 BCE Persia regains Egypt
Artaxerxes IV 338–336 BCE
Darius III 336–330 BCE Defeated by Alexander of Macedon; Greeks conquer Achaemenid Persia; dynasty falls
Artaxerxes V 330–329 BCE Attempted to lead resistance against Alexander; captured and executed

Family treeEdit

Achaemenes
King of Persia[*]
705–675
Teispes
King of Persia
675–640
Ariaramnes
Prince[*]
Cyrus I
King of Persia
640–600
Arsames
Prince[*]
Cambyses I
King of Persia
600–559
Hystaspes
Prince[*]
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II)
King of Persia
559–530/28
Darius the Great (Darius I)
King of Persia
522–486
Atossa
Princess
Cambyses II
King of Persia
530–522
Smerdis (Bardiya)
Prince (imposter Gaumata ruled as Smerdis[*])
522
Artystone
Princess
Xerxes the Great (Xerxes I)
King of Persia
485–465
Artaxerxes I
King of Persia
465–424
Xerxes II
King of Persia
424
Sogdianus
King of Persia
424–423
Darius II
King of Persia
423–404
Arsites
Prince
Parysatis
Princess
Bagapaios
Prince
Artaxerxes II
King of Persia
404–358
Amestris
Princess
Cyrus the Younger
Prince
Cyrus (IV)
Prince
Ostanes
Prince
Artaxerxes III
King of Persia
358–338
Ocha
Prince
Rodrogune
Princess
Apama
Princess
Sisygambis
Princess
Arsames (II)
Prince
Artaxerxes IV
King of Persia
338–336
Parysatis (II)
Princess
Darius III
King of Persia
336–330
Oxathres
Prince
Artaxerxes V
King of Persia
330–329
Stateira II
Princess
Alexander the Great (Alexander III)
King of Macedon and Persia
329–323

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kuhrt & Sancisi-Weerdenburg 2006.
  2. ^ "ACHAEMENID DYNASTY". www.iranicaonline.org. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  3. ^ Bresciani, Edda (1998). "EGYPT i. Persians in Egypt in the Achaemenid period". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol VIII, Fasc. 3. pp. 247–249.
  4. ^ Eusebius. Chronicle. p. 149.
  5. ^ a b "ACHAEMENID DYNASTY – Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 13 November 2020.

SourcesEdit

  • Kuhrt, Amélie; Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (2006). "Achaemenids". In Salazar, Christine F.; Landfester, Manfred; Gentry, Francis G. (eds.). Brill’s New Pauly. Brill Online.