Open main menu

Sahure (also Sahura, meaning "He who is close to Re", in Greek as Sephrês, Σϵϕρής) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh and second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty. He reigned for about 12 years in the early 25th century BC during the Old Kingdom Period. Sahure's reign is considered to mark the political and cultural high point of the Fifth Dynasty.[23] He was probably the son of his predecessor Userkaf with queen Neferhetepes II, and was in turn succeeded by his son Neferirkare Kakai.

During Sahure's time on the throne, Egypt had important trade relations with the Levantine coast. Sahure launched several naval expeditions to modern day Lebanon to procure cedar trees, people (possibly slaves) and exotic items. He also ordered the earliest attested expedition to the land of Punt, which brought back large quantities of myrrh, malachite and electrum. Sahure is shown celebrating the success of this venture in a relief from his mortuary temple which shows him tending a myrrh tree in the garden of his palace named "Sahure's splendor soars up to heaven". This relief is the only one in Egyptian art depicting a king gardening. Sahure sent further expeditions to the turquoise and copper mines in Sinai. He also possibly ordered military campaigns against Libyan chieftains in the Western Desert, bringing back livestock to Egypt.

Sahure had a pyramid built for himself in Abusir, thereby abandoning the royal necropolises of Saqqara and Giza, where his predecessors had built their pyramids. This decision was possibly motivated by the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf in Abusir, the first such temple of the Fifth Dynasty. The Pyramid of Sahure is much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding 4th Dynasty but the decoration of his mortuary temple is more elaborate. The valley temple, causeway and mortuary temple of his pyramid complex were once adorned by over 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of exquisite reliefs, representing the highest form reached by this art during the Old Kingdom period. The Ancient Egyptians recognised this particular artistic achievement and tried to emulate the reliefs in the tombs of subsequent kings and queens. The architects of Sahure's pyramid complex introduced the use of palmiform columns (that is columns whose capital has the form of palm leaves), which would soon become a hallmark of ancient Egyptian architecture. Sahure is also known to have constructed a sun temple called "The Field of Ra", and although it is yet to be located it is presumably in Abusir as well.



The Westcar Papyrus, dating to the 17th Dynasty but probably first written during the 12th Dynasty, tells the myth of the origins of the Fifth Dynasty.

Excavations at the pyramid of Sahure in Abusir under the direction of Miroslav Verner and Tarek El-Awady in the early 2000s provide a picture of the royal family of the early Fifth Dynasty. In particular, reliefs from the causeway linking the valley and mortuary temples of the pyramid complex reveal that Sahure's mother was queen Neferhetepes II.[24] She was the wife of pharaoh Userkaf, as indicated by the location of her pyramid immediately adjacent to that of Userkaf,[25] and bore the title of "king's mother".[note 2][26] This makes Userkaf the father of Sahure in all likelihood. This is further reinforced by the discovery of Sahure's cartouche in the mortuary temple of Userkaf at Saqqara, indicating that Sahure finished the structure started most probably by his father.[25]

This contradicts older, alternative theories according to which Sahure was the son of queen Khentkaus I,[27] believed to be the wife of the last pharaoh of the preceding 4th Dynasty, Shepseskaf and a brother to either Userkaf or Neferirkare.[note 3][30]


Sahure's figure towering next to those of his sons including Netjerirenre, Khakare and Neferirkare Kakai on a relief from his mortuary temple.[31]

Sahure is known to have been succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai,[note 4] who was believed to be his brother[32] until 2005. In that year, a relief originally adorning the causeway of Sahure's pyramid and showing Sahure seated in front of two of his sons, Ranefer and Netjerirenre,[33] was discovered by the Egyptologists Miroslav Verner and Tarek El-Awady.[34] Next to Ranefer's name the text "Neferirkare Kakai king of Upper and Lower Egypt" had been added, indicating that Ranefer was Sahure's son and had assumed the throne under the name "Neferirkare Kakai" at the death of his father.[24] Since both Ranefer and Netjerirenre are given the titles of "king's eldest son", Verner and El-Awady speculate that they may have been twins with Ranefer born first. They propose that Netjerirenre may have later seized the throne for a brief reign under the name "Shepseskare", although this remains conjectural.[35] The same relief further depicts queen Meretnebty,[36] who was thus most likely Sahure's consort and the mother of Ranefer and Netjerirenre.[34] Three more sons, Khakare,[37] Horemsaf,[38] and Nebankhre[39] are shown on reliefs from Sahure's mortuary temple, but the identity of their mother(s) is unknown.[19]

Netjerirenre bore several religious titles corresponding to high ranking positions in the court and which suggest that he may have acted as a vizier for his father.[40] This is debated however, as Michel Baud points out that at the time of Sahure, the eviction of royal princes from the vizierate was ongoing if not already complete.[41]



Relief from Sahure's mortuary temple showing the Egyptian fleet returning from Syria.

The relative chronology of Sahure's reign is well established by historical records and contemporary artefacts, showing that he succeeded Userkaf and was in turn succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai.[42] The Turin canon, a king list written during the 19th Dynasty in the early Ramesside era (1292—1189 BC), credits him with a reign of twelve years five months and twelve days. In contrast, the near contemporary annal of the Fifth Dynasty known as the Palermo Stone preserves his second, third, fifth and sixth years on the throne as well as his final year of reign and even records the day of his death as the 28th of Shemu II (corresponding to the end of the ninth month).[43][44] The document notes six or seven cattle counts, which would indicate a reign of at least twelve full years if the Old Kingdom cattle count was held biennially (i.e. every two years) as this annal document implies for the early Fifth Dynasty.[45] If this assumption is correct and Sahure's highest attested date was the year after the sixth count rather than his 7th count as Wilkinson believes,[46] then this date would mean that Sahure died in his 13th year on the throne and should be given a reign of 13 years 5 months and 12 days. This number would be only one year more than the Turin Canon's twelve-year figure for Sahure. It is also closer to the 13 years figure given in Manetho's Aegyptiaca, a history of ancient Egypt written in the Third century BC.[47][46]

Sahure appears in two further historical records: on the third entry of the Karnak king list, which was made during the reign of Thutmose III (1479—1425 BC) and on the 26th entry of the Saqqara Tablet dating to the reign of Ramses II (1279—1213 BC).[11] Neither of these sources give his reign length. The absolute dates of Sahure's reign are uncertain but most scholars date it to the first half of the 25th century BC, see note 1 for details.[11]

Foreign activitiesEdit

Trade and tribute
Relief of Sahure from the Wadi Maghareh.[48][49]

Historical records and surviving artefacts suggest that contacts with foreign lands were numerous during Sahure's reign. Furthermore, these contacts seem to have been mostly economic rather than military in nature. Reliefs from his pyramid complex show that he possessed a navy comprising 100-cubits long boats (c. 50 m, 160 ft), some of which are shown coming back from Lebanon laden with the trunks of precious cedar trees.[22] Other ships are represented loaded with "Asiatics",[note 5] both adults and children, who were possibly slaves.[8][11][50] A unique relief depicts several Syrian brown bears, presumably brought back from the Levantine coast by a naval expedition as well. These bears appear in association with 12 red-painted one-handled jars from Syria and are thus likely to constitute a tribute.[51][52]

Trade contacts with Byblos certainly took place during Sahure's reign and indeed excavations of the temple of Baalat-Gebal yielded an alabaster bowl inscribed with Sahure's name.[53] There is further corroborating evidence for trade with the wider Levant during the Fifth Dynasty, with a number of stone vessels inscribed with cartouches of pharaohs of this dynasty discovered in Lebanon. Finally, a piece of thin gold stamped to a wooden throne and bearing Sahure's cartouches has been purportedly found during illegal excavations in Turkey among a wider assemblage known as the "Dorak Treasure".[54][55][5] The existence of the treasure is now widely doubted however.[56]

In his last year on the throne, Sahure sent the first documented[57] expedition to the fabled land of Punt,[58] probably along the Somalian coast.[59] The expedition, reported by the Palermo Stone,[5] is said to have come back with 80,000 measures of myrrh, along with malachite and electrum.[53] Because of this, Sahure is often credited with establishing an Egyptian navy. However, it is known today that preceding Egyptian kings had a high seas navy too, in particular Khufu during whose reign the oldest known harbor, Wadi al-Jarf, on the Red Sea was operating.[60] Nonetheless, the reliefs from Sahure's pyramid complex remain the "first definite depictions of seagoing ships in Egypt" (Shelley Wachsmann).[61]

In his last year of reign Sahure sent another expedition abroad, this time to the copper and turquoise mines of Wadi Maghareh[48][4][62] and Wadi Kharit in Sinai,[note 6][64] which had been active since at least the beginning of the Third Dynasty.[65] This expedition, also mentioned by the Palermo stone,[5] brought back over 6000 units of copper to Egypt and also produced two reliefs in Sinai, one of which shows Sahure in the traditional act of smiting Asiatics[53] and boasting "The Great God smites the Asiatics of all countries".[66]

In parallel with thesea activities, diorite quarries near Abu Simbel were exploited throughout Sahure's reign.[59]

Military campaigns
Silver cylinder seal of king Sahure, Walters Art Museum.[6]

Sahure's military career is known primarily from reliefs from his mortuary complex. It apparently consisted of campaigns against the Libyans Tjemehu in the Western desert.[5] These campaigns are said to have yielded livestock and Sahure is shown smiting local chieftains, but their historical vericity remains in doubt as such representations are part of the standard iconography meant to exalt the king.[5] The same scene of the Libyan attack was used two hundred years later in the mortuary temple of Pepi II (2284–2184 BC) and in the temple of Taharqa at Kawa, built some 1800 years after Sahure's lifetime. In particular, the same names are quoted for the local chieftains. Therefore, it is possible that Sahure too was copying an even earlier representation of this scene.[67][68]

Activities in EgyptEdit

The majority of Sahure's activities in Egypt recorded in the Palermo stone are religious in nature. During the fifth year of his reign alone the stone mentions the making of a divine barge, possibly in Heliopolis, the exact quantity of daily offerings of bread and beer to Ra, Hathor, Nekhbet and Wadjet fixed by the king and the gift of land to various temples.[66]

Sahure also reorganised the cult of his mother Nepherhetepes II, whose mortuary complex had been built by Userkaf in Saqqara.[69] He notably added an entrance portico with four columns to her temple, so that the entrance was not facing Userkaf's pyramid anymore.[69][70]

Archeological evidence suggests that Sahure's further building activities were concentrated in Abusir, where he constructed his pyramid, and its immediate vicinity which probably housed his sun temple.[71] This temple, the second sun temple of the Fifth Dynasty and yet to be located, is known to have existed thanks an inscription on the Palermo stone where it is called Sekhet Re, meaning "The Field of Ra".[66] New analyses of the verso of the Palermo stone performed in 2018 by the Czech Institute of Archeology enabled the reading of further inscriptions mentioning precisely the architecture of the temple as well as lists of donations it received, establishing firmly that it was a distinct entity from the earlier sun temple of Userkaf, the Nekhenre.[72]

A few limestone blocks bearing reliefs which once adorned the temple have been found embedded in the walls of the mortuary complex of Nyuserre Ini, Sahure's fourth successor.[71] This suggests either that these blocks were leftovers from the construction of the temple, or that Nyuserre used Sahure's temple as a quarry for construction materials as it was unfinished.[71]

The palace of Sahure, called Uetjes Neferu Sahure, "Sahure's splendour soars up to heaven", is known from an inscription on tallow containers discovered in February 2011 in Neferefre's mortuary temple.[73] The palace was likely located on the shores of the Abusir lake.[74] The fragment of a statue with the name of the king was discovered in 2015, in Elkab.[75]

South of Egypt, a stele bearing Sahure's name was discovered in the diorite quarries located in the desert north-west of Abu Simbel in Lower Nubia.[76] Even further south, Sahure's cartouche has been found in a graffiti in Tumas and on seal impressions from Buhen at the second cataract of the Nile.[77][78][79]

Court LifeEdit

Known OfficialsEdit

A number of high officials serving Sahure during his lifetime are known from their tombs as well as from the decoration of the mortuary temple of the king. Niankhsekhmet, the chief physician of Sahure, reports that he asked the king that a false door be made for his tomb, to which the king agreed.[80] Sahure had the false door made of fine Tura limestone, carved and painted blue in his presence.[9][81] The king wished a long life to his physician, telling him:

Other officials include Pehenewkai, priest of the cult of Userkaf during the reigns of Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai, then vizier for the latter;[83] Persen, a mortuary priest in the funerary cult of Sahure's mother Nepherhetepes;[note 7] and Washptah, a priest of Sahure, then vizier of Neferirkare Kakai.[87] The high-official Ptahshepses, probably born during the reign of Menkaure, was high priest of Ptah and royal manicure under Sahure, later promoted to vizier by Nyuserre Ini.[88]

Two viziers of Sahure are known: Sekhemkare, royal prince, son of Khafre and vizier under Userkaf and Sahure;[89] and Werbauba, vizier during Sahure's reign, attested in the mortuary temple of the king.[90][91][92]

Evolution of the high officesEdit

Sahure pursued Userkaf's policy of appointing non-royal people to high offices.[90][93] This is best exemplified by the office of vizier, which was exclusively held by princes of royal blood with the title of "King's son" since the mid-Fourth Dynasty and up until the early Fifth Dynasty.[94] Toward the end of this period princes were progressively excluded from the highest office, an evolution undoubtedly correlated with changes in the nature of kingship.[95] This process, possibly initiated by Menkaure because of dynastic disputes,[96] seems to have been completed by Sahure's time as from then onwards no royal prince was promoted to vizier. Those already in post were allowed to keep their status[97] and so in the early part of Sahure's reign vizier Sekhemkare was a "King's son" while his successor, Werbauba, seems to have been non-royal. In response to this change, the state administration began its expansion.[98]

Concurrently with these evolutions, a number of architectural and artistic innovations concerning the tombs of private individuals can be dated to Sahure's reign. These including torus moulding and cornices for false doors, first found in Persen's tomb.[99] This feature would subsequently become common and here demonstrates the particularly high esteem in which Persen must have been held by the king.[100] Another innovation is the depiction of small unusual offerings such as that of seven sacred oils on false doors, first found in Niankhsekhmet's tomb.[101] The canonical list of offerings was also developed during or shortly before Sahure's time in the tombs of the royal family, only to spread to those of non-royal high-officials[102] the first of whom was Seshemnefer I under Sahure.[103]

Pyramid complexEdit

The ruined pyramid of Sahure as seen from the pyramid's causeway

Sahure built a pyramid complex for his tomb and funerary cult, named Khaba Sahura (Ḫˁ-bʒ Sʒḥw Rˁ),[104] which is variously translated as "The Rising of the Ba Spirit of Sahure",[105][106] "The Ba of Sahure appears",[5] "Sahure's pyramid where the royal soul rises in splendour",[107] or "In glory comes forth the soul of Sahure".[108]

In terms of size and volume, the main pyramid of the complex exemplifies the decline of pyramid building. At the same time, the quality and variety of the stones employed increased,[109] and the accompanying mortuary temple is considered to be the most sophisticated one built up to that time.[53] With its many architectural innovations, such as the use of palmiform columns, the overall layout of Sahure's complex would serve as the template for all mortuary complexes constructed from Sahure's reign until the end of the Sixth Dynasty, some 300 years later.[110][111] The highly varied coloured reliefs decorating the walls of the entire funerary complex display a quality of workmanship and a richeness of conception that reach their highest level of the entire Old Kingdom period.[109]


Sahure chose to construct his pyramid complex in Abusir, thereby abandoning both Saqqara and Giza, which had been the royal necropolises up to that time. A possible motivation for Sahure's decision was the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf.[112] Following Sahure's choice, Abusir became the main necropolis of the early Fifth Dynasty, as pharaohs Neferirkare Kakai, Neferefre, Nyuserre Ini and possibly Shepseskare built their pyramids there. In their wake, many smaller tombs belonging to members of the royal family were built in Abusir, with the notable exceptions of those of the highest ranking members, many of whom chose to be buried in Giza or Saqqarah.[113]

Mortuary templeEdit

Sahure's mortuary temple was extensively decorated with an estimated 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of fine reliefs.[114] Many surviving fragments of the reliefs which decorated the temple walls are of very high quality and much more elaborate than those from preceding mortuary temples.[54][115] The high artistic achievement represented by the decoration of Sahure's complex was recognised by the Ancient Egyptians, as subsequent generations of artists and craftsmen used Sahure's reliefs as models for the tombs of later kings and queens.[116]

Several reliefs from the temple and causeway are unique in Egyptian art. These include a relief showing Sahure tending a myrrh tree in his palace in front of his family.[117] There is also a relief depicting Syrian brown bears and another showing the bringing of the pyramidion to the main pyramid and the ceremonies following the completion of the complex. The many reliefs of the mortuary and valley temples also depict, among other things, a counting of foreigners by or in front of the goddess Seshat and the return of an Egyptian fleet from Asia, perhaps Byblos. Some of the low relief-cuttings in red granite are still in place at the site.[23] Decorated reliefs from the upper part of the causeway represent the procession of over 150 personified funerary domains created for the cult of Sahure, demonstrating the existence of a sophisticated economic system associated to the king's funerary cult.[118] The extensive decoration of the mortuary temple seems to have been completed within Sahure's lifetime.[119]

The mortuary temple featured the first palmiform columns of any Egyptian temple,[110] massive granite architraves inscribed with Sahure's titulary overlaid with copper, black basalt flooring and granite dados.[110]


A massive pink granite architrave inscribed with Sahure's titulary, from the courtyard of his mortuary temple.

The pyramid of Sahure reached 47 m (154 ft) at the time of its construction, much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding 4th Dynasty. Its inner core is made of roughly hewn stones organized in steps and held together in many sections with a thick mortar of mud. This construction technique, much cheaper and faster to execute than the stone-based techniques of the 4th Dynasty, fared much worse over time. Owing to this, Sahure's pyramid is now largely ruined and amounts to little more than a pile of rubble showing the crude filling of debris and mortar constituting the core, which became exposed after the casing stones were stolen in antiquity.[110]

While the core was under construction, a corridor was left open leading into the shaft where the grave chamber was built separately and later covered by leftover stone blocks and debris. This construction strategy is clearly visible in later unfinished pyramids, in particular the Pyramid of Neferefre.[110] This technique also reflects the older style from the Third Dynasty seemingly coming back into fashion after being temporarily abandoned by the builders of the five great pyramids at Dahshur and Giza during the 4th Dynasty.[110]

The entrance at the north side is a short descending corridor lined with red granite followed by a passageway ending at the burial chamber with its gabled roof comprising large limestone beams. Today these beams are damaged, which weakens the pyramid structure. Fragments of the sarcophagus were found here in the burial chamber, when it was first entered by John Shae Perring in the mid 19th century.[110] The colossal roof blocks of Sahure's temple weighed up to about 220 tons based on estimates by Perring. He estimated the size of the largest blocks at 35 feet by 9 feet by 12 feet. One end of these blocks was tapered so the estimated volume is 95 cubic meters or 2.4 tons.[120] The mortuary complex immediately around the pyramid also includes a second, much smaller, pyramid, likely built for the Ka of the king.[110]


Old KingdomEdit

Sahure's most immediate legacy is his funerary cult, which continued until the end of the Old Kingdom, some 300 years after his death. At least 22 agricultural estates were established to produce the goods necessary for this cult.[90] Several priests serving this cult or in Sahure's sun temple during the later Fifth and Sixth Dynasties are known thanks to inscriptions and artefacts from their tombs in Saqqara and Abusir.[121]

These include Tjy, overseer of the sun temples of Sahure, Neferirkare, Neferefre and Nyuserre;[122] Atjema, priest of the sun temple of Sahure during the 6th Dynasty;[123] Khuyemsnewy, who served as priest of the mortuary cult of Sahure during the reigns of Neferirkare and Nyuserre;[note 8] Nikare, priest of the cult of Sahure and overseer of the scribes of the granary during the Fifth Dynasty.[125] Further priests are known, such as Senewankh, serving in the cults of Userkaf and Sahure and buried in a mastaba in Saqqara;[126] Sedaug, a priest of the cult of Sahure, priest of Ra in the sun-temple of Userkaf and holder of the title of royal acquaintance;[127] Tepemankh, priest of the cults of kings of the Fourth to early Fifth Dynasty including Userkaf and Sahure, buried in a mastaba at Abusir.[128][129][130] Another legacy of Sahure is his pyramid complex. Its layout became the template for all subsequent pyramid complexes of the Old Kingdom and some of its architectural elements, such as its palmiform columns, became hallmarks of Egyptian architecture.[110][131][note 9]

Middle KingdomEdit

Statue of Sahure enthroned commissioned by Senusret I.


No priest serving in the cult of funerary Sahure is known from the Middle Kingdom period. Evidence from this period rather come from works undertaken in the Karnak temple by 12th Dynasty pharaoh Senusret I, who dedicated a number of statues of Old Kingdom kings[133] including one of Sahure.[134][note 10] The statue and the accompanying group of portraits of deceased kings indicates the existence of a generic cult of royal ancestor figures, a "limited version of the cult of the divine" as Jaromir Málek writes.[136] The statue of Sahure, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (catalog number CG 42004), is made of black granite and is 50 cm (20 in) tall. Sahure is shown enthroned, wearing a pleated skirt and a round curly wig. Both sides of the throne bear inscriptions identifying the work as a portrait of Sahure made on the orders of Senusret I.[137]


Sahure is mentioned in a story of the Westcar Papyrus, probably written during the 12th Dynasty. The papyrus tells the mythical story of the origins of the Fifth Dynasty, presenting kings Userkaf, Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai as three brothers, sons of Ra and a woman named Rededjet destined to supplant Khufu's line.[138]

Architectural legacyEdit

Sahure's mortuary complex continued to be used as a model during the Middle Kingdom. Reliefs from Senusret I's own temple were copied from Sahure's and the innovative layout of Sahure's complex was followed once again. This represent an abrupt change from the burial customs of the 11th Dynasty pharaohs, possibly spurred by the return of the capital to Itjtawy, close to Memphis and the then already ancient pyramids of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties.[139]

New Kingdom and later timesEdit

As a deceased king, Sahure continued to receive religious offerings during the New Kingdom as part of the standard cult of the royal ancestors. For example, Sahure is present on the "Karnak king list", a list of kings inscribed on the walls of the Akhmenu, the Karnak temple of Thutmose III. Unlike other ancient Egyptian king lists, the kings there are not listed in chronological order. Rather, the purpose of the list was purely religious, its aim being to name the deceased kings to be honored in the Karnak temple.[134]

During the 19th Dynasty, prince Khaemwaset, a son of Ramesses II, undertook restoration works throughout Egypt on pyramids and temples which had fallen into ruin. Inscriptions on the stone cladding of the pyramid of Sahure show that it was restored at this time.[121][140] In the second part of the 18th Dynasty and during the 19th Dynasty numerous visitors left inscriptions,[141] stelae and statues in the temple. These activities may be related to an unusual cult then taking place in the mortuary temple of Sahure, which had become dedicated to the king in a form associated with the goddess Sekhmet.[142][143][144]

During the 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC) of the Late Period, a statue of Sahure was among a group of statues of Old Kingdom kings hidden in a cachette of the Karnak temple, testifying to a continued cult at the time.[145] Graffiti dating to the Late Period up until the Ptolemaic period (332–30 BC) have been found in Sahure's mortuary complex, showing that it was at least visited if not used until the Roman times.[121][146]


  1. ^ Proposed dates for the reign of Sahure: 2506—2492 BC,[4][5] 2496—2483 BC,[6][7] 2491—2477 BC,[8] 2487—2475 BC,[9][10][11][12] 2471—2458 BC,[13] 2458—2446 BC,[1][14] 2446–2433BC,[7] 2428—2417 BC,[15] 2428—2416 BC.[16]
  2. ^ Ancient Egyptian Mwt-Nswt.[26]
  3. ^ In a version of this theory, Khentkaus possibly remarried Userkaf after the death of her first husband[28] and became the mother of Sahure and his successor on the throne, Neferirkare Kakai.[9] This theory is based on the fact that Khentkaus is known to have borne the title of mwt nswt bity nswt bity, which could be translated as "mother of two kings". Additionally, a story from the Westcar Papyrus tells of a magician foretelling to Khufu that the future demise of his lineage will come from three brothers, born of the god Ra and a woman named Rededjet, who will reign successively as the first three kings of the Fifth Dynasty.[29] Some egyptologists have therefore proposed that Khentkaus was the mother of Sahure and the historical figure on which Rededjet is based. Following the discoveries of Verner and El-Awady in Abusir, this theory has been abandoned[24] and the real role of Khentkaus remains difficult to ascertain. This is in part because the translation of her title is problematic and because the details of the transition from the Fourth to the Fifth Dynasty are not yet clear. In particular, an ephemeral pharaoh Djedefptah may have ruled between Shepseskaf and Userkaf.[28]
  4. ^ The first pharaoh to have a throne name, called the prenomen, different from his birth name, called the nomen
  5. ^ In the context of Egyptology, the term "Asiatics" is used to refer to people from the Levant, including Canaan, modern day Lebanon and the southern coast of modern day Turkey.
  6. ^ The expedition to the copper mine of Wadi Kharit left an inscription reading: "Horus Lord-of-Risings, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sahure, granted life eternally. Thot lord-of-terror who smashes Asia".[63]
  7. ^ His mastaba tomb is located close to Nepherhetepes's pyramid in Saqqara.[84][85][86]
  8. ^ Khuyemsnewy was also priest of Ra and Hathor in Neferirkare's sun temple, priest of Neferirkare, priest in Nyuserre Ini's and Neferirkare Kakai's pyramid complexes and Overseer of the Two Granaries.[124]
  9. ^ The standard work on Sahure's pyramid complex is Borchardt's excavation report, available online in its entirety.[132]
  10. ^ Another statue from this group is that of Intef the Elder.[135]


  1. ^ a b MET 2015.
  2. ^ Allen et al. 1999, pp. 329–330.
  3. ^ Online archive 2014.
  4. ^ a b Verner 2001b, p. 588.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Altenmüller 2001, p. 598.
  6. ^ a b Walters Art Museum website 2015.
  7. ^ a b von Beckerath 1997, p. 188.
  8. ^ a b Clayton 1994, pp. 60–63.
  9. ^ a b c Rice 1999, p. 173.
  10. ^ Málek 2000, pp. 83–85.
  11. ^ a b c d Baker 2008, pp. 343–345.
  12. ^ Sowada 2009, p. 3.
  13. ^ von Beckerath 1999, p. 283.
  14. ^ Allen et al. 1999, p. XX.
  15. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 3.
  16. ^ Hornung 2012, p. 491.
  17. ^ Allen et al. 1999, p. 337.
  18. ^ a b Leprohon 2013, p. 38.
  19. ^ a b Dodson & Hilton 2004, pp. 62–69.
  20. ^ El Awady 2006a, pp. 214–216.
  21. ^ Borchardt 1910, p. Plate (Blatt) 32, 33 & 34.
  22. ^ a b Lehner 2008, pp. 142–144.
  23. ^ a b Brinkmann 2010, Book abstract, English translation available online.
  24. ^ a b c El Awady 2006a, pp. 192–198.
  25. ^ a b Labrousse & Lauer 2000.
  26. ^ a b Baud 1999b, p. 494.
  27. ^ Clayton 1994, p. 46.
  28. ^ a b Hayes 1978, pp. 66–68 & p. 71.
  29. ^ Lichteim 2000, pp. 215–220.
  30. ^ Baud 1999b, pp. 547—548 & 550.
  31. ^ Borchardt 1910, Pl. 32, 33 & 34.
  32. ^ Verner 2002, p. 268.
  33. ^ Baud 1999b, pp. 509—510.
  34. ^ a b El Awady 2006a, pp. 208–213.
  35. ^ El Awady 2006a, pp. 213–214.
  36. ^ El Awady 2006a, pp. 198–203.
  37. ^ Baud 1999b, p. 535.
  38. ^ Baud 1999b, p. 521.
  39. ^ Baud 1999b, p. 487.
  40. ^ Mac Farlane 1991, p. 80.
  41. ^ Baud 1999a, p. 297.
  42. ^ von Beckerath 1999, pp. 56–57, king number 2.
  43. ^ Wilkinson 2000, p. 259.
  44. ^ Breasted 1906, p. 70.
  45. ^ Verner 2001a, p. 391.
  46. ^ a b Wilkinson 2000, p. 168.
  47. ^ Waddell 1971, p. 51.
  48. ^ a b Gardiner, Peet & Černý 1955, p. 15.
  49. ^ Sethe 1903, p. 32.
  50. ^ Hayes 1978, pp. 66–67.
  51. ^ Sowada 2009, p. 160 and Fig. 39.
  52. ^ Smith 1971, p. 233.
  53. ^ a b c d Baker 2008, pp. 343–345.
  54. ^ a b Clayton 1994, pp. 60–63.
  55. ^ Smith 1965, p. 110.
  56. ^ Mazur 2005.
  57. ^ Sowada 2009, p. 198.
  58. ^ Hawass 2003, pp. 260–263.
  59. ^ a b Verner 2001b, p. 589.
  60. ^ Tallet 2012.
  61. ^ Wachsmann 1998, p. 12.
  62. ^ Strudwick 2005, p. 135, text number 57.
  63. ^ Giveon 1977, p. 61.
  64. ^ Giveon 1977, pp. 61–63.
  65. ^ Mumford 1999, pp. 875–876.
  66. ^ a b c Breasted 1906, pp. 108–110.
  67. ^ Baines 2011, pp. 65–66.
  68. ^ Kuiper 2010, p. 48.
  69. ^ a b Baud 1999a, p. 336.
  70. ^ Labrousse 1997, p. 265.
  71. ^ a b c Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 110.
  72. ^ Czech Institute of Egyptology website 2018.
  73. ^ Verner 2012, pp. 16–19.
  74. ^ Verner 2003, p. 150.
  75. ^ Past Preserves News Dirk Huyge: King Sahure in Elkab, in Egyptian Archaeology, 50, Spring 2017, pp. 41-43
  76. ^ Smith 1971, p. 167.
  77. ^ Petrie Museum, online catalog, seal UC 21997 2015.
  78. ^ Petrie Museum, online catalog, seal UC 11769 2015.
  79. ^ List of attestations of Sahure 2000.
  80. ^ a b Breasted 1906, pp. 108–109.
  81. ^ Ghaliounghui 1983, p. 69.
  82. ^ Sethe 1903, p. 38.
  83. ^ Sethe 1903, p. 48.
  84. ^ El Awady 2006a, pp. 192–198.
  85. ^ Breasted 1906, pp. 109–110.
  86. ^ Lauer & Flandrin 1992, p. 122.
  87. ^ Sethe 1903, p. 40.
  88. ^ Online catalog of the British Museum.
  89. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 136.
  90. ^ a b c Schneider 2002, pp. 243–244.
  91. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 80.
  92. ^ List of viziers 2000.
  93. ^ Dorman 2014.
  94. ^ Schmitz 1976, p. 84.
  95. ^ Schmitz 1976, p. 166.
  96. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 339.
  97. ^ Strudwick 1985, pp. 312–313.
  98. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 338.
  99. ^ Strudwick 1985, pp. 10, 15 & footnote 3 p. 10.
  100. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 15.
  101. ^ Strudwick 1985, pp. 26–27.
  102. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 41.
  103. ^ Strudwick 1985, pp. 39–40.
  104. ^ Brugsch 2015, p. 88.
  105. ^ Lehner 2008, p. 143.
  106. ^ Hellum 2007, p. 100.
  107. ^ Bennett 1966, p. 175.
  108. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 71.
  109. ^ a b Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 68.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lehner 2008, pp. 142–144.
  111. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 69.
  112. ^ Krecji 2003, p. 281.
  113. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 53.
  114. ^ El-Shahawy & Atiya 2005, p. 33.
  115. ^ Borchardt 1910, p. Plate (Blatt) 9.
  116. ^ Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 60.
  117. ^ El Awady 2006b, p. 37.
  118. ^ Khaled 2013.
  119. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 64.
  120. ^ Edwards 1972, pp. 175–176, 180–181 & 275.
  121. ^ a b c Wildung 2010, pp. 275–276.
  122. ^ Strudwick 1985, p. 159.
  123. ^ Allen et al. 1999, pp. 456–457.
  124. ^ Hayes 1978, p. 106.
  125. ^ Allen et al. 1999, p. 370.
  126. ^ Sethe 1903, p. 36.
  127. ^ Junker 1950, pp. 107–118.
  128. ^ Allen et al. 1999, p. 404.
  129. ^ Strudwick 2005, p. 248, text number 173.
  130. ^ Sethe 1903, p. 33.
  131. ^ Hayes 1978, p. 68.
  132. ^ Borchardt 1910.
  133. ^ Grimal 1992, p. 180.
  134. ^ a b Wildung 1969, pp. 60–63.
  135. ^ Legrain 1906, pp. 4–5 & pl. III.
  136. ^ Malek 2000b, p. 257.
  137. ^ Legrain 1906, pp. 3–4.
  138. ^ Lichteim 2000, pp. 215–220.
  139. ^ Lansing 1926, p. 34.
  140. ^ Wildung 1969, p. 170.
  141. ^ Borchardt 1910, p. 101.
  142. ^ Morales 2006, p. 313.
  143. ^ Horváth 2003, pp. 63–70.
  144. ^ Verner 2001a, p. 393.
  145. ^ Morales 2006, pp. 320–321.
  146. ^ Wildung 1969, p. 198.


Allen, James; Allen, Susan; Anderson, Julie; Arnold, Arnold; Arnold, Dorothea; Cherpion, Nadine; David, Élisabeth; Grimal, Nicolas; Grzymski, Krzysztof; Hawass, Zahi; Hill, Marsha; Jánosi, Peter; Labée-Toutée, Sophie; Labrousse, Audran; Lauer, Jean-Phillippe; Leclant, Jean; Der Manuelian, Peter; Millet, N. B.; Oppenheim, Adela; Craig Patch, Diana; Pischikova, Elena; Rigault, Patricia; Roehrig, Catharine H.; Wildung, Dietrich; Ziegler, Christiane (1999). Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. OCLC 41431623.
Altenmüller, Hartwig (2001). "Old Kingdom: Fifth Dynasty". In Redford, Donald B. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 597–601. ISBN 978-0-19-510234-5.
Baines, John (2011). "Ancient Egypt". In Feldherr, Andrew; Hardy, Grant (eds.). The Oxford History of Historical Writing, Volume 1: Beginnings to AD 600. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 53–75. ISBN 978-0-19-103678-1.
Baker, Darrell (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC. Stacey International. ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9.
Baud, Michel (1999a). Famille Royale et pouvoir sous l'Ancien Empire égyptien. Tome 1 (PDF). Bibliothèque d'étude 126/1 (in French). Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. ISBN 978-2-7247-0250-7.
Baud, Michel (1999b). Famille Royale et pouvoir sous l'Ancien Empire égyptien. Tome 2 (PDF). Bibliothèque d'étude 126/2 (in French). Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. ISBN 978-2-7247-0250-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-02.
Bennett, John (1966). "Pyramid Names". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Sage Publications, Ltd. 52: 174–176. JSTOR 3855832.
Borchardt, Ludwig (1910). Das Grabdenkmal des Königs S'aḥu-Re (Band 1): Der Bau: Blatt 1–15 (in German). Leipzig: Hinrichs. ISBN 978-3-535-00577-1.
Breasted, James Henry (1906). Ancient records of Egypt historical documents from earliest times to the Persian conquest, collected edited and translated with commentary, vol. I The First to the Seventeenth Dynasties. The University of Chicago Press. OCLC 491147601.
Brinkmann, Vinzenz, ed. (2010). Sahure: Tod und Leben eines grossen Pharao (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Liebieghaus. ISBN 978-3-7774-2861-1.
Brugsch, Heinrich Karl (2015) [1879]. Smith, Philip (ed.). A History of Egypt under the Pharaohs, Derived Entirely from the Monuments : To which is added a memoir on the exodus of the Israelites and the Egyptian Monuments. 1. Translated by Seymour, Henry Danby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-08472-7.
"Clay impression of a seal of Sahure UC 11769". Online catalog of the Petrie Museum. 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
Clayton, Peter (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3.
Czech Institute of Egyptology website (2018-10-01). "New research and insights into the Palermo Stone". Archived from the original on 2018-10-01. Retrieved 2019-04-21.
"Dates of Sahure's reign". Website of the Walters Art Museum. 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05128-3.
Dorman, Peter (2014). "The 5th dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 BC)". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Edwards, I. E. S. (1972). The Pyramids of Egypt. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 978-0-67-058361-4.
El Awady, Tarek (2006). "The royal family of Sahure. New evidence". In Bárta, Miroslav; Krejčí, Jaromír (eds.). Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2005 (PDF). Prague: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute. pp. 31–45. ISBN 978-80-7308-116-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02-01.
El Awady, Tarek (2006). "King Sahure with the Precious Trees from Punt in a Unique Scene!". In Bárta, Miroslav (ed.). The Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology, Proceedings of the conference held in Prague, May 31 – June 4, 2004. Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology, Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. pp. 37–44. ISBN 978-8-02-001465-8.
El-Shahawy, Abeer; Atiya, Farid S. (2005). The Egyptian Museum in Cairo. A walk through the alleys of ancient Egypt. Cairo: Farid Atiya Press. ISBN 978-9-77-171983-0.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson; Peet, Thomas Eric; Černý, Jaroslav (1955). The Inscriptions of Sinai, edited and completed by Jaroslav Cerný. London: Egypt Exploration Society. OCLC 559072028.
Ghaliounghui, Paul (1983). The Physicians of Pharaonic Egypt. Cairo: A.R.E.: Al-Ahram Center for Scientific Translations. ISBN 978-3-8053-0600-3.
Giveon, Raphael (1977). "Inscriptions of Sahurēʿ and Sesostris I from Wadi Khariǧ (Sinai)". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 226: 61–63. JSTOR 1356577.
Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Translated by Ian Shaw. Oxford: Blackwell publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-19396-8.
Hawass, Zahi (2003). Accomazzo, Laura; Manferto de Fabianis, Valeria (eds.). The Treasure of the Pyramids. Vercelli Italy: White Star publishers. ISBN 978-88-8095-233-6.
Hayes, William (1978). The Scepter of Egypt: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the End of the Middle Kingdom. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. OCLC 7427345.
Hellum, Jennifer (2007). The Pyramids. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32580-9.
Hornung, Erik; Krauss, Rolf; Warburton, David, eds. (2012). Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Leiden, Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11385-5. ISSN 0169-9423.
Horváth, Z. (2003). Popielska-Grzybowska, J. (ed.). "Sahurâ and his Cult-Complex in the Light of Tradition". Proceedings of the Second Central European Conference of Young Egyptologists. Egypt 2001: Perspectives of Research, Warsaw 5–7 March 2001. Warsaw: 63–70.
Junker, Hermann (1950). Giza. 9, Das Mittelfeld des Westfriedhofs (PDF). Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Philosophisch-historische Klasse, 73.2 (in German). Wien: Rudolf M. Rohrer. OCLC 886197144.
Khaled, Mohamed Ismail (2013). "The Economic Aspects of the Old Kingdom Royal Funerary Domains". Etudes et Travaux. XXVI: 366–372.
"King Sahure and a Nome God". Online catalog of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
Krecji, Jaromir (2003). "Appearance of the Abusir Pyramid Necropolis during the Old Kingdom". In Hawass, Zahi; Pinch Brock, Lyla (eds.). Egyptology at the dawn of the Twenty-first Century: proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, 2000. Cairo, New York: American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-9-77-424674-6.
Kuiper, Kathleen (2010). Ancient Egypt: From Prehistory to the Islamic Conquest. Britannica Guide to Ancient Civilizations. Chicago: Britannica Educational Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61530-572-8.
Labrousse, Audran (1997). "Un bloc décoré du temple funéraire de la mère royale Néferhétephès". In Berger, Catherine; Mathieu, Bernard (eds.). Etudes sur l'Ancien Empire et la nécropole de Saqqâra : dédiées à Jean-Philippe Lauer. Orientalia monspeliensia (in French). 9. Montpellier: Université Paul Valéry. pp. 263–270. ISBN 978-2-84-269047-2.
Labrousse, Audran; Lauer, Jean-Philippe (2000). Les Complexes Funéraires d'Ouserkaf et de Néferhétepès. Bibliothèque d'étude, Vol. 130 (in French). Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale. ISBN 978-2-7247-0261-3.
Lansing, Ambrose (1926). "The Museum's Excavations at Lisht". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 21 (3, Part 2: The Egyptian Expedition 1924-1925): 33–40. JSTOR 3254818.
Lauer, Jean-Phillipe; Flandrin, Philippe (1992). Saqqarah, une vie: entretiens avec Philippe Flandrin. Petite bibliotheque Payot, 107 (in French). Paris: Payot. ISBN 978-2-22-888557-7.
Legrain, Georges (1906). Statues et statuettes de rois et de particuliers (PDF). Catalogue Général des Antiquités Egyptiennes du Musée du Caire (in French). Cairo: Imprimerie de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale. OCLC 975589.
Lehner, Mark (2008). The Complete Pyramids. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN 978-0-500-05084-2.
Leprohon, Ronald J. (2013). The great name: ancient Egyptian royal titulary. Writings from the ancient world, no. 33. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1-58-983736-2.
Lichteim, Miriam (2000). Ancient Egyptian Literature: a Book of Readings. The Old and Middle Kingdoms, Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02899-9.
"Limestone false door of Ptahshepses". Online catalog of the British Museum. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
"List of Ancient Egyptian viziers". Digital Egypt for Universities. 2000. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
Mac Farlane, Ann (1991). "Titles of sm3 + God and ḫt + God. Dynasties 2 to 10". Göttinger Miszellen. Göttingen: Seminar für Ägyptologie und Koptologie an der Universität Göttingen. 121: 77–100. ISSN 0344-385X.
Málek, Jaromir (2000). "The Old Kingdom (c.2160-2055 BC)". In Shaw, Ian (ed.). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. pp. 83–107. ISBN 978-0-19-815034-3.
Mazur, Suzan (4 October 2005). "Dorak Diggers Weigh In On Anna & Royal Treasure". Scoop. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
Morales, Antonio J. (2006). "Traces of official and popular veneration to Nyuserra Iny at Abusir. Late Fifth Dynasty to the Middle Kingdom". In Bárta, Miroslav; Coppens, Filip; Krejčí, Jaromír (eds.). Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2005, Proceedings of the Conference held in Prague (June 27–July 5, 2005). Prague: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute. pp. 311–341. ISBN 978-80-7308-116-4.
Mumford, G. D. (1999). "Wadi Maghara". In Bard, Kathryn A.; Blake Shubert, Steven (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Archeology of Ancient Egypt. New York: Routledge. pp. 1071–1075. ISBN 978-0-203-98283-9.
Rice, Michael (1999). Who is who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge London & New York. ISBN 978-0-203-44328-6.
Schneider, Thomas (2002). Lexikon der Pharaonen (in German). Düsseldorf: Patmos Albatros Verlag. ISBN 978-3-49-196053-4.
"Sahure and the god of the region of Coptos". February 28, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
Schmitz, Bettina (1976). Untersuchungen zum Titel s3-njśwt "Königssohn". Habelts Dissertationsdrucke: Reihe Ägyptologie (in German). 2. Bonn: Habelt. ISBN 978-3-7749-1370-7.
"Seal impression bearing Sahure's cartouche from Buhen". Online catalog of the Petrie Museum. 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
Sethe, Kurt Heinrich (1903). Urkunden des Alten Reichs (in German). wikipedia entry: Urkunden des Alten Reichs. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. OCLC 846318602.
"Short list of attestations of Sahure". Digital Egypt for Universities. 2000. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
Smith, William Stevenson (1965). Interconnections in the Ancient Near-East: A Study of the Relationships Between the Arts of Egypt, the Aegean, and Western Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press. OCLC 510516.
Smith, William Stevenson (1971). "The Old Kingdom of Egypt and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period". In Edwards, I. E. S.; Gadd, C. J.; Hammond, N. G. L. (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 1, Part 2. Early History of the Middle East (3rd ed.). London, New york: Cambridge University Press. pp. 145–207. OCLC 33234410.
Sowada, Karin N. (2009). Egypt in the Eastern Mediterranean During the Old Kingdom: An Archaeological Perspective. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis. 237. Fribourg, Switzerland: Academic Press Fribourg, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Göttingen. ISBN 978-3-7278-1649-9.
Strudwick, Nigel (1985). The Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom: The Highest Titles and Their Holders (PDF). Studies in Egyptology. London; Boston: Kegan Paul International. ISBN 978-0-7103-0107-9.
Strudwick, Nigel C. (2005). Texts from the Pyramid Age. Writings from the Ancient World (book 16). Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN 978-1-58983-680-8.
Tallet, Pierre (2012). "Ayn Sukhna and Wadi el-Jarf: Two newly discovered pharaonic harbors on the Suez Gulf" (PDF). British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan. 18: 147–168.
Verner, Miroslav; Zemina, Milan (1994). Forgotten pharaohs, lost pyramids: Abusir (PDF). Praha: Academia Škodaexport. ISBN 978-80-200-0022-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02-01.
Verner, Miroslav (2001a). "Archaeological Remarks on the 4th and 5th Dynasty Chronology" (PDF). Archiv Orientální. 69 (3): 363–418.
Verner, Miroslav (2001b). "Old Kingdom: An Overview". In Redford, Donald B. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 585–591. ISBN 978-0-19-510234-5.
Verner, Miroslav (2002). The Pyramids. The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments. Translated by Steven Rendall. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-3935-1.
Verner, Miroslav (2003). Abusir: The Realm of Osiris. The American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-424-723-1.
Verner, Miroslav (2012). "Betrachtungen zu den königlichen Palästen des Alten Reiches". Sokar (in German). 24: 12–19.
von Beckerath, Jürgen (1997). Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägypten : die Zeitbestimmung der ägyptischen Geschichte von der Vorzeit bis 332 v. Chr. Münchner ägyptologische Studien (in German). 46. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern. ISBN 978-3-8053-2310-9.
von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (in German). Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : Philip von Zabern. ISBN 978-3-8053-2591-2.
Wachsmann, Shelley (1998). Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. College Station: Texas A & M University Press. ISBN 978-0-89096-709-6.
Waddell, William Gillan (1971). Manetho. Loeb classical library, 350. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London: Harvard University Press; W. Heinemann. OCLC 6246102.
Wildung, Dietrich (1969). Die Rolle ägyptischer Könige im Bewusstsein ihrer Nachwelt. Münchner ägyptologische Studien, 17 (in German). Berlin: B. Hessling. OCLC 5628021.
Wildung, Dietrich (2010). "Das Nachleben des Sahure". In Brinkmann, Vinzenz (ed.). Sahure: Tod und Leben eines grossen Pharao (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Liebieghaus. ISBN 978-3-7774-2861-1.
Wilkinson, Toby (2000). Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-7103-0667-8.
Preceded by
Pharaoh of Egypt
Fifth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Neferirkare Kakai