Sahure (also Sahura, meaning "He who is close to Re", in Greek as Sephrês, Σϵϕρής) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh and second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty. He reigned for about 12 years in the early 25th century BC during the Old Kingdom Period. Sahure's reign is considered to mark the political and cultural high point of the Fifth Dynasty. He was probably the son of his predecessor Userkaf with queen Neferhetepes II, and was in turn succeeded by his son Neferirkare Kakai.
|Sahura, Sephrês, Σϵϕρής|
|Reign||Duration: 13 years, 5 months and 12 days, in the early 25th century BC.[note 1] (Fifth Dynasty)|
|Children||Ranefer ♂ (ascended the throne as Neferirkare Kakai), Netjerirenre ♂ (possibly the same person as Shepseskare), Horemsaf ♂, Raemsaf ♂, Khakare ♂ and Nebankhre ♂|
|Burial||Pyramid of Sahure|
|Monuments||Pyramid of Sahure "The Rising of the Ba Spirit of Sahure"|
Sun temple "The Field of Ra"
Palace "Sahure's splendor soars up to heaven"
During Sahure's time on the throne, Egypt had important trade relations with the Levantine coast. Sahure launched several naval expeditions to modern day Lebanon to procure cedar trees, people (possibly slaves) and exotic items. He also ordered the earliest attested expedition to the land of Punt, which brought back large quantities of myrrh, malachite and electrum. Sahure is shown celebrating the success of this venture in a relief from his mortuary temple which shows him tending a myrrh tree in the garden of his palace named "Sahure's splendor soars up to heaven". This relief is the only one in Egyptian art depicting a king gardening. Sahure sent further expeditions to the turquoise and copper mines in Sinai. He also possibly ordered military campaigns against Libyan chieftains in the Western Desert, bringing back livestock to Egypt.
Sahure had a pyramid built for himself in Abusir, thereby abandoning the royal necropolises of Saqqara and Giza, where his predecessors had built their pyramids. This decision was possibly motivated by the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf in Abusir, the first such temple of the Fifth Dynasty. The Pyramid of Sahure is much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding 4th Dynasty but the decoration of his mortuary temple is more elaborate. The valley temple, causeway and mortuary temple of his pyramid complex were once adorned by over 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of exquisite reliefs, representing the highest form reached by this art during the Old Kingdom period. The Ancient Egyptians recognised this particular artistic achievement and tried to emulate the reliefs in the tombs of subsequent kings and queens. The architects of Sahure's pyramid complex introduced the use of palmiform columns (that is columns whose capital has the form of palm leaves), which would soon become a hallmark of ancient Egyptian architecture. Sahure is also known to have constructed a sun temple called "The Field of Ra", and although it is yet to be located it is presumably in Abusir as well.
- 1 Family
- 2 Reign
- 3 Pyramid complex
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
Excavations at the pyramid of Sahure in Abusir under the direction of Miroslav Verner and Tarek El-Awady in the early 2000s provide a picture of the royal family of the early Fifth Dynasty. In particular, reliefs from the causeway linking the valley and mortuary temples of the pyramid complex reveal that Sahure's mother was queen Neferhetepes II. She was the wife of pharaoh Userkaf, as indicated by the location of her pyramid immediately adjacent to that of Userkaf, and bore the title of "king's mother".[note 2] This makes Userkaf the father of Sahure in all likelihood. This is further reinforced by the discovery of Sahure's cartouche in the mortuary temple of Userkaf at Saqqara, indicating that Sahure finished the structure started most probably by his father.
This contradicts older, alternative theories according to which Sahure was the son of queen Khentkaus I, believed to be the wife of the last pharaoh of the preceding 4th Dynasty, Shepseskaf and a brother to either Userkaf or Neferirkare.[note 3]
Sahure is known to have been succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai,[note 4] who was believed to be his brother until 2005. In that year, a relief originally adorning the causeway of Sahure's pyramid and showing Sahure seated in front of two of his sons, Ranefer and Netjerirenre, was discovered by the Egyptologists Miroslav Verner and Tarek El-Awady. Next to Ranefer's name the text "Neferirkare Kakai king of Upper and Lower Egypt" had been added, indicating that Ranefer was Sahure's son and had assumed the throne under the name "Neferirkare Kakai" at the death of his father. Since both Ranefer and Netjerirenre are given the titles of "king's eldest son", Verner and El-Awady speculate that they may have been twins with Ranefer born first. They propose that Netjerirenre may have later seized the throne for a brief reign under the name "Shepseskare", although this remains conjectural. The same relief further depicts queen Meretnebty, who was thus most likely Sahure's consort and the mother of Ranefer and Netjerirenre. Three more sons, Khakare, Horemsaf, and Nebankhre are shown on reliefs from Sahure's mortuary temple, but the identity of their mother(s) is unknown.
Netjerirenre bore several religious titles corresponding to high ranking positions in the court and which suggest that he may have acted as a vizier for his father. This is debated however, as Michel Baud points out that at the time of Sahure, the eviction of royal princes from the vizierate was ongoing if not already complete.
The relative chronology of Sahure's reign is well established by historical records and contemporary artefacts, showing that he succeeded Userkaf and was in turn succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai. The Turin canon, a king list written during the 19th Dynasty in the early Ramesside era (1292—1189 BC), credits him with a reign of twelve years five months and twelve days. In contrast, the near contemporary annal of the Fifth Dynasty known as the Palermo Stone preserves his second, third, fifth and sixth years on the throne as well as his final year of reign and even records the day of his death as the 28th of Shemu II (corresponding to the end of the ninth month). The document notes six or seven cattle counts, which would indicate a reign of at least twelve full years if the Old Kingdom cattle count was held biennially (i.e. every two years) as this annal document implies for the early Fifth Dynasty. If this assumption is correct and Sahure's highest attested date was the year after the sixth count rather than his 7th count as Wilkinson believes, then this date would mean that Sahure died in his 13th year on the throne and should be given a reign of 13 years 5 months and 12 days. This number would be only one year more than the Turin Canon's twelve-year figure for Sahure. It is also closer to the 13 years figure given in Manetho's Aegyptiaca, a history of ancient Egypt written in the Third century BC.
Sahure appears in two further historical records: on the third entry of the Karnak king list, which was made during the reign of Thutmose III (1479—1425 BC) and on the 26th entry of the Saqqara Tablet dating to the reign of Ramses II (1279—1213 BC). Neither of these sources give his reign length. The absolute dates of Sahure's reign are uncertain but most scholars date it to the first half of the 25th century BC, see note 1 for details.
- Trade and tribute
Historical records and surviving artefacts suggest that contacts with foreign lands were numerous during Sahure's reign. Furthermore, these contacts seem to have been mostly economic rather than military in nature. Reliefs from his pyramid complex show that he possessed a navy comprising 100-cubits long boats (c. 50 m, 160 ft), some of which are shown coming back from Lebanon laden with the trunks of precious cedar trees. Other ships are represented loaded with "Asiatics",[note 5] both adults and children, who were possibly slaves. A unique relief depicts several Syrian brown bears, presumably brought back from the Levantine coast by a naval expedition as well. These bears appear in association with 12 red-painted one-handled jars from Syria and are thus likely to constitute a tribute.
Trade contacts with Byblos certainly took place during Sahure's reign and indeed excavations of the temple of Baalat-Gebal yielded an alabaster bowl inscribed with Sahure's name. There is further corroborating evidence for trade with the wider Levant during the Fifth Dynasty, with a number of stone vessels inscribed with cartouches of pharaohs of this dynasty discovered in Lebanon. Finally, a piece of thin gold stamped to a wooden throne and bearing Sahure's cartouches has been purportedly found during illegal excavations in Turkey among a wider assemblage known as the "Dorak Treasure". The existence of the treasure is now widely doubted however.
In his last year on the throne, Sahure sent the first documented expedition to the fabled land of Punt, probably along the Somalian coast. The expedition, reported by the Palermo Stone, is said to have come back with 80,000 measures of myrrh, along with malachite and electrum. Because of this, Sahure is often credited with establishing an Egyptian navy. However, it is known today that preceding Egyptian kings had a high seas navy too, in particular Khufu during whose reign the oldest known harbor, Wadi al-Jarf, on the Red Sea was operating. Nonetheless, the reliefs from Sahure's pyramid complex remain the "first definite depictions of seagoing ships in Egypt" (Shelley Wachsmann).
In his last year of reign Sahure sent another expedition abroad, this time to the copper and turquoise mines of Wadi Maghareh and Wadi Kharit in Sinai,[note 6] which had been active since at least the beginning of the Third Dynasty. This expedition, also mentioned by the Palermo stone, brought back over 6000 units of copper to Egypt and also produced two reliefs in Sinai, one of which shows Sahure in the traditional act of smiting Asiatics and boasting "The Great God smites the Asiatics of all countries".
- Military campaigns
Sahure's military career is known primarily from reliefs from his mortuary complex. It apparently consisted of campaigns against the Libyans Tjemehu in the Western desert. These campaigns are said to have yielded livestock and Sahure is shown smiting local chieftains, but their historical vericity remains in doubt as such representations are part of the standard iconography meant to exalt the king. The same scene of the Libyan attack was used two hundred years later in the mortuary temple of Pepi II (2284–2184 BC) and in the temple of Taharqa at Kawa, built some 1800 years after Sahure's lifetime. In particular, the same names are quoted for the local chieftains. Therefore, it is possible that Sahure too was copying an even earlier representation of this scene.
Activities in EgyptEdit
The majority of Sahure's activities in Egypt recorded in the Palermo stone are religious in nature. During the fifth year of his reign alone the stone mentions the making of a divine barge, possibly in Heliopolis, the exact quantity of daily offerings of bread and beer to Ra, Hathor, Nekhbet and Wadjet fixed by the king and the gift of land to various temples.
Sahure also reorganised the cult of his mother Nepherhetepes II, whose mortuary complex had been built by Userkaf in Saqqara. He notably added an entrance portico with four columns to her temple, so that the entrance was not facing Userkaf's pyramid anymore.
Archeological evidence suggests that Sahure's further building activities were concentrated in Abusir, where he constructed his pyramid, and its immediate vicinity which probably housed his sun temple. This temple, the second sun temple of the Fifth Dynasty and yet to be located, is known to have existed thanks an inscription on the Palermo stone where it is called Sekhet Re, meaning "The Field of Ra". New analyses of the verso of the Palermo stone performed in 2018 by the Czech Institute of Archeology enabled the reading of further inscriptions mentioning precisely the architecture of the temple as well as lists of donations it received, establishing firmly that it was a distinct entity from the earlier sun temple of Userkaf, the Nekhenre.
A few limestone blocks bearing reliefs which once adorned the temple have been found embedded in the walls of the mortuary complex of Nyuserre Ini, Sahure's fourth successor. This suggests either that these blocks were leftovers from the construction of the temple, or that Nyuserre used Sahure's temple as a quarry for construction materials as it was unfinished.
The palace of Sahure, called Uetjes Neferu Sahure, "Sahure's splendour soars up to heaven", is known from an inscription on tallow containers discovered in February 2011 in Neferefre's mortuary temple. The palace was likely located on the shores of the Abusir lake. The fragment of a statue with the name of the king was discovered in 2015, in Elkab.
South of Egypt, a stele bearing Sahure's name was discovered in the diorite quarries located in the desert north-west of Abu Simbel in Lower Nubia. Even further south, Sahure's cartouche has been found in a graffiti in Tumas and on seal impressions from Buhen at the second cataract of the Nile.
A number of high officials serving Sahure during his lifetime are known from their tombs as well as from the decoration of the mortuary temple of the king. Niankhsekhmet, the chief physician of Sahure, reports that he asked the king that a false door be made for his tomb, to which the king agreed. Sahure had the false door made of fine Tura limestone, carved and painted blue in his presence. The king wished a long life to his physician, telling him:
|“||As my nostrils enjoy health, as the gods love me, may you depart into the cemetery at an advanced old age as one revered.||”|
Other officials include Pehenewkai, priest of the cult of Userkaf during the reigns of Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai, then vizier for the latter; Persen, a mortuary priest in the funerary cult of Sahure's mother Nepherhetepes;[note 7] and Washptah, a priest of Sahure, then vizier of Neferirkare Kakai. The high-official Ptahshepses, probably born during the reign of Menkaure, was high priest of Ptah and royal manicure under Sahure, later promoted to vizier by Nyuserre Ini.
Two viziers of Sahure are known: Sekhemkare, royal prince, son of Khafre and vizier under Userkaf and Sahure; and Werbauba, vizier during Sahure's reign, attested in the mortuary temple of the king.
Evolution of the high officesEdit
Sahure pursued Userkaf's policy of appointing non-royal people to high offices. This is best exemplified by the office of vizier, which was exclusively held by princes of royal blood with the title of "King's son" since the mid-Fourth Dynasty and up until the early Fifth Dynasty. Toward the end of this period princes were progressively excluded from the highest office, an evolution undoubtedly correlated with changes in the nature of kingship. This process, possibly initiated by Menkaure because of dynastic disputes, seems to have been completed by Sahure's time as from then onwards no royal prince was promoted to vizier. Those already in post were allowed to keep their status and so in the early part of Sahure's reign vizier Sekhemkare was a "King's son" while his successor, Werbauba, seems to have been non-royal. In response to this change, the state administration began its expansion.
Concurrently with these evolutions, a number of architectural and artistic innovations concerning the tombs of private individuals can be dated to Sahure's reign. These including torus moulding and cornices for false doors, first found in Persen's tomb. This feature would subsequently become common and here demonstrates the particularly high esteem in which Persen must have been held by the king. Another innovation is the depiction of small unusual offerings such as that of seven sacred oils on false doors, first found in Niankhsekhmet's tomb. The canonical list of offerings was also developed during or shortly before Sahure's time in the tombs of the royal family, only to spread to those of non-royal high-officials the first of whom was Seshemnefer I under Sahure.
Sahure built a pyramid complex for his tomb and funerary cult, named Khaba Sahura (Ḫˁ-bʒ Sʒḥw Rˁ), which is variously translated as "The Rising of the Ba Spirit of Sahure", "The Ba of Sahure appears", "Sahure's pyramid where the royal soul rises in splendour", or "In glory comes forth the soul of Sahure".
In terms of size and volume, the main pyramid of the complex exemplifies the decline of pyramid building. At the same time, the quality and variety of the stones employed increased, and the accompanying mortuary temple is considered to be the most sophisticated one built up to that time. With its many architectural innovations, such as the use of palmiform columns, the overall layout of Sahure's complex would serve as the template for all mortuary complexes constructed from Sahure's reign until the end of the Sixth Dynasty, some 300 years later. The highly varied coloured reliefs decorating the walls of the entire funerary complex display a quality of workmanship and a richeness of conception that reach their highest level of the entire Old Kingdom period.
Sahure chose to construct his pyramid complex in Abusir, thereby abandoning both Saqqara and Giza, which had been the royal necropolises up to that time. A possible motivation for Sahure's decision was the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf. Following Sahure's choice, Abusir became the main necropolis of the early Fifth Dynasty, as pharaohs Neferirkare Kakai, Neferefre, Nyuserre Ini and possibly Shepseskare built their pyramids there. In their wake, many smaller tombs belonging to members of the royal family were built in Abusir, with the notable exceptions of those of the highest ranking members, many of whom chose to be buried in Giza or Saqqarah.
Sahure's mortuary temple was extensively decorated with an estimated 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of fine reliefs. Many surviving fragments of the reliefs which decorated the temple walls are of very high quality and much more elaborate than those from preceding mortuary temples. The high artistic achievement represented by the decoration of Sahure's complex was recognised by the Ancient Egyptians, as subsequent generations of artists and craftsmen used Sahure's reliefs as models for the tombs of later kings and queens.
Several reliefs from the temple and causeway are unique in Egyptian art. These include a relief showing Sahure tending a myrrh tree in his palace in front of his family. There is also a relief depicting Syrian brown bears and another showing the bringing of the pyramidion to the main pyramid and the ceremonies following the completion of the complex. The many reliefs of the mortuary and valley temples also depict, among other things, a counting of foreigners by or in front of the goddess Seshat and the return of an Egyptian fleet from Asia, perhaps Byblos. Some of the low relief-cuttings in red granite are still in place at the site. Decorated reliefs from the upper part of the causeway represent the procession of over 150 personified funerary domains created for the cult of Sahure, demonstrating the existence of a sophisticated economic system associated to the king's funerary cult. The extensive decoration of the mortuary temple seems to have been completed within Sahure's lifetime.
The mortuary temple featured the first palmiform columns of any Egyptian temple, massive granite architraves inscribed with Sahure's titulary overlaid with copper, black basalt flooring and granite dados.
The pyramid of Sahure reached 47 m (154 ft) at the time of its construction, much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding 4th Dynasty. Its inner core is made of roughly hewn stones organized in steps and held together in many sections with a thick mortar of mud. This construction technique, much cheaper and faster to execute than the stone-based techniques of the 4th Dynasty, fared much worse over time. Owing to this, Sahure's pyramid is now largely ruined and amounts to little more than a pile of rubble showing the crude filling of debris and mortar constituting the core, which became exposed after the casing stones were stolen in antiquity.
While the core was under construction, a corridor was left open leading into the shaft where the grave chamber was built separately and later covered by leftover stone blocks and debris. This construction strategy is clearly visible in later unfinished pyramids, in particular the Pyramid of Neferefre. This technique also reflects the older style from the Third Dynasty seemingly coming back into fashion after being temporarily abandoned by the builders of the five great pyramids at Dahshur and Giza during the 4th Dynasty.
The entrance at the north side is a short descending corridor lined with red granite followed by a passageway ending at the burial chamber with its gabled roof comprising large limestone beams. Today these beams are damaged, which weakens the pyramid structure. Fragments of the sarcophagus were found here in the burial chamber, when it was first entered by John Shae Perring in the mid 19th century. The colossal roof blocks of Sahure's temple weighed up to about 220 tons based on estimates by Perring. He estimated the size of the largest blocks at 35 feet by 9 feet by 12 feet. One end of these blocks was tapered so the estimated volume is 95 cubic meters or 2.4 tons. The mortuary complex immediately around the pyramid also includes a second, much smaller, pyramid, likely built for the Ka of the king.
Sahure's most immediate legacy is his funerary cult, which continued until the end of the Old Kingdom, some 300 years after his death. At least 22 agricultural estates were established to produce the goods necessary for this cult. Several priests serving this cult or in Sahure's sun temple during the later Fifth and Sixth Dynasties are known thanks to inscriptions and artefacts from their tombs in Saqqara and Abusir.
These include Tjy, overseer of the sun temples of Sahure, Neferirkare, Neferefre and Nyuserre; Atjema, priest of the sun temple of Sahure during the 6th Dynasty; Khuyemsnewy, who served as priest of the mortuary cult of Sahure during the reigns of Neferirkare and Nyuserre;[note 8] Nikare, priest of the cult of Sahure and overseer of the scribes of the granary during the Fifth Dynasty. Further priests are known, such as Senewankh, serving in the cults of Userkaf and Sahure and buried in a mastaba in Saqqara; Sedaug, a priest of the cult of Sahure, priest of Ra in the sun-temple of Userkaf and holder of the title of royal acquaintance; Tepemankh, priest of the cults of kings of the Fourth to early Fifth Dynasty including Userkaf and Sahure, buried in a mastaba at Abusir. Another legacy of Sahure is his pyramid complex. Its layout became the template for all subsequent pyramid complexes of the Old Kingdom and some of its architectural elements, such as its palmiform columns, became hallmarks of Egyptian architecture.[note 9]
No priest serving in the cult of funerary Sahure is known from the Middle Kingdom period. Evidence from this period rather come from works undertaken in the Karnak temple by 12th Dynasty pharaoh Senusret I, who dedicated a number of statues of Old Kingdom kings including one of Sahure.[note 10] The statue and the accompanying group of portraits of deceased kings indicates the existence of a generic cult of royal ancestor figures, a "limited version of the cult of the divine" as Jaromir Málek writes. The statue of Sahure, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (catalog number CG 42004), is made of black granite and is 50 cm (20 in) tall. Sahure is shown enthroned, wearing a pleated skirt and a round curly wig. Both sides of the throne bear inscriptions identifying the work as a portrait of Sahure made on the orders of Senusret I.
Sahure is mentioned in a story of the Westcar Papyrus, probably written during the 12th Dynasty. The papyrus tells the mythical story of the origins of the Fifth Dynasty, presenting kings Userkaf, Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai as three brothers, sons of Ra and a woman named Rededjet destined to supplant Khufu's line.
Sahure's mortuary complex continued to be used as a model during the Middle Kingdom. Reliefs from Senusret I's own temple were copied from Sahure's and the innovative layout of Sahure's complex was followed once again. This represent an abrupt change from the burial customs of the 11th Dynasty pharaohs, possibly spurred by the return of the capital to Itjtawy, close to Memphis and the then already ancient pyramids of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties.
New Kingdom and later timesEdit
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sahure.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pyramid of Sahure.|
As a deceased king, Sahure continued to receive religious offerings during the New Kingdom as part of the standard cult of the royal ancestors. For example, Sahure is present on the "Karnak king list", a list of kings inscribed on the walls of the Akhmenu, the Karnak temple of Thutmose III. Unlike other ancient Egyptian king lists, the kings there are not listed in chronological order. Rather, the purpose of the list was purely religious, its aim being to name the deceased kings to be honored in the Karnak temple.
During the 19th Dynasty, prince Khaemwaset, a son of Ramesses II, undertook restoration works throughout Egypt on pyramids and temples which had fallen into ruin. Inscriptions on the stone cladding of the pyramid of Sahure show that it was restored at this time. In the second part of the 18th Dynasty and during the 19th Dynasty numerous visitors left inscriptions, stelae and statues in the temple. These activities may be related to an unusual cult then taking place in the mortuary temple of Sahure, which had become dedicated to the king in a form associated with the goddess Sekhmet.
During the 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC) of the Late Period, a statue of Sahure was among a group of statues of Old Kingdom kings hidden in a cachette of the Karnak temple, testifying to a continued cult at the time. Graffiti dating to the Late Period up until the Ptolemaic period (332–30 BC) have been found in Sahure's mortuary complex, showing that it was at least visited if not used until the Roman times.
- Proposed dates for the reign of Sahure: 2506—2492 BC, 2496—2483 BC, 2491—2477 BC, 2487—2475 BC, 2471—2458 BC, 2458—2446 BC, 2446–2433BC, 2428—2417 BC, 2428—2416 BC.
- Ancient Egyptian Mwt-Nswt.
- In a version of this theory, Khentkaus possibly remarried Userkaf after the death of her first husband and became the mother of Sahure and his successor on the throne, Neferirkare Kakai. This theory is based on the fact that Khentkaus is known to have borne the title of mwt nswt bity nswt bity, which could be translated as "mother of two kings". Additionally, a story from the Westcar Papyrus tells of a magician foretelling to Khufu that the future demise of his lineage will come from three brothers, born of the god Ra and a woman named Rededjet, who will reign successively as the first three kings of the Fifth Dynasty. Some egyptologists have therefore proposed that Khentkaus was the mother of Sahure and the historical figure on which Rededjet is based. Following the discoveries of Verner and El-Awady in Abusir, this theory has been abandoned and the real role of Khentkaus remains difficult to ascertain. This is in part because the translation of her title is problematic and because the details of the transition from the Fourth to the Fifth Dynasty are not yet clear. In particular, an ephemeral pharaoh Djedefptah may have ruled between Shepseskaf and Userkaf.
- The first pharaoh to have a throne name, called the prenomen, different from his birth name, called the nomen
- In the context of Egyptology, the term "Asiatics" is used to refer to people from the Levant, including Canaan, modern day Lebanon and the southern coast of modern day Turkey.
- The expedition to the copper mine of Wadi Kharit left an inscription reading: "Horus Lord-of-Risings, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sahure, granted life eternally. Thot lord-of-terror who smashes Asia".
- His mastaba tomb is located close to Nepherhetepes's pyramid in Saqqara.
- Khuyemsnewy was also priest of Ra and Hathor in Neferirkare's sun temple, priest of Neferirkare, priest in Nyuserre Ini's and Neferirkare Kakai's pyramid complexes and Overseer of the Two Granaries.
- The standard work on Sahure's pyramid complex is Borchardt's excavation report, available online in its entirety.
- Another statue from this group is that of Intef the Elder.
- MET 2015.
- Allen et al. 1999, pp. 329–330.
- Online archive 2014.
- Verner 2001b, p. 588.
- Altenmüller 2001, p. 598.
- Walters Art Museum website 2015.
- von Beckerath 1997, p. 188.
- Clayton 1994, pp. 60–63.
- Rice 1999, p. 173.
- Málek 2000, pp. 83–85.
- Baker 2008, pp. 343–345.
- Sowada 2009, p. 3.
- von Beckerath 1999, p. 283.
- Allen et al. 1999, p. XX.
- Strudwick 1985, p. 3.
- Hornung 2012, p. 491.
- Allen et al. 1999, p. 337.
- Leprohon 2013, p. 38.
- Dodson & Hilton 2004, pp. 62–69.
- El Awady 2006a, pp. 214–216.
- Borchardt 1910, p. Plate (Blatt) 32, 33 & 34.
- Lehner 2008, pp. 142–144.
- Brinkmann 2010, Book abstract, English translation available online.
- El Awady 2006a, pp. 192–198.
- Labrousse & Lauer 2000.
- Baud 1999b, p. 494.
- Clayton 1994, p. 46.
- Hayes 1978, pp. 66–68 & p. 71.
- Lichteim 2000, pp. 215–220.
- Baud 1999b, pp. 547—548 & 550.
- Borchardt 1910, Pl. 32, 33 & 34.
- Verner 2002, p. 268.
- Baud 1999b, pp. 509—510.
- El Awady 2006a, pp. 208–213.
- El Awady 2006a, pp. 213–214.
- El Awady 2006a, pp. 198–203.
- Baud 1999b, p. 535.
- Baud 1999b, p. 521.
- Baud 1999b, p. 487.
- Mac Farlane 1991, p. 80.
- Baud 1999a, p. 297.
- von Beckerath 1999, pp. 56–57, king number 2.
- Wilkinson 2000, p. 259.
- Breasted 1906, p. 70.
- Verner 2001a, p. 391.
- Wilkinson 2000, p. 168.
- Waddell 1971, p. 51.
- Gardiner, Peet & Černý 1955, p. 15.
- Sethe 1903, p. 32.
- Hayes 1978, pp. 66–67.
- Sowada 2009, p. 160 and Fig. 39.
- Smith 1971, p. 233.
- Baker 2008, pp. 343–345.
- Clayton 1994, pp. 60–63.
- Smith 1965, p. 110.
- Mazur 2005.
- Sowada 2009, p. 198.
- Hawass 2003, pp. 260–263.
- Verner 2001b, p. 589.
- Tallet 2012.
- Wachsmann 1998, p. 12.
- Strudwick 2005, p. 135, text number 57.
- Giveon 1977, p. 61.
- Giveon 1977, pp. 61–63.
- Mumford 1999, pp. 875–876.
- Breasted 1906, pp. 108–110.
- Baines 2011, pp. 65–66.
- Kuiper 2010, p. 48.
- Baud 1999a, p. 336.
- Labrousse 1997, p. 265.
- Verner & Zemina 1994, p. 110.
- Czech Institute of Egyptology website 2018.
- Verner 2012, pp. 16–19.
- Verner 2003, p. 150.
- Past Preserves News Dirk Huyge: King Sahure in Elkab, in Egyptian Archaeology, 50, Spring 2017, pp. 41-43
- Smith 1971, p. 167.
- Petrie Museum, online catalog, seal UC 21997 2015.
- Petrie Museum, online catalog, seal UC 11769 2015.
- List of attestations of Sahure 2000.
- Breasted 1906, pp. 108–109.
- Ghaliounghui 1983, p. 69.
- Sethe 1903, p. 38.
- Sethe 1903, p. 48.
- El Awady 2006a, pp. 192–198.
- Breasted 1906, pp. 109–110.
- Lauer & Flandrin 1992, p. 122.
- Sethe 1903, p. 40.
- Online catalog of the British Museum.
- Strudwick 1985, p. 136.
- Schneider 2002, pp. 243–244.
- Strudwick 1985, p. 80.
- List of viziers 2000.
- Dorman 2014.
- Schmitz 1976, p. 84.
- Schmitz 1976, p. 166.
- Strudwick 1985, p. 339.
- Strudwick 1985, pp. 312–313.
- Strudwick 1985, p. 338.
- Strudwick 1985, pp. 10, 15 & footnote 3 p. 10.
- Strudwick 1985, p. 15.
- Strudwick 1985, pp. 26–27.
- Strudwick 1985, p. 41.
- Strudwick 1985, pp. 39–40.
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