The Capitoline Museums (Italian: Musei Capitolini) are a group of art and archaeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy. The historic seats of the museums are Palazzo dei Conservatori and Palazzo Nuovo, facing on the central trapezoidal piazza in a plan conceived by Michelangelo in 1536 and executed over a period of more than 400 years.
|1734open to public, 1471 bronzes donated by Pope Sixtus IV to the people of Rome
|Piazza del Campidoglio 1, 00186 Rome, Italy
|Archaeology, art museum, historic site
|Maria Vittoria Marini Clarelli
The history of the museum can be traced to 1471, when Pope Sixtus IV donated a collection of important ancient bronzes to the people of Rome and located them on the Capitoline Hill. Since then, the museums' collection has grown to include many ancient Roman statues, inscriptions, and other artifacts; a collection of medieval and Renaissance art; and collections of jewels, coins, and other items. The museums are owned and operated by the municipality of Rome.
Opened to the public in 1734 under Clement XII, the Capitoline Museums are considered one of the oldest museums in the world, understood as a place where art could be enjoyed by all and not only by the owners.
In 2016, the museum enclosed several of its nude statues in white-colored wooden panels ahead of a meeting between Iranian president Hassan Rouhani and Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi that it hosted. The move was criticized by Italian Culture Minister Dario Franceschini as "incomprehensible," while the museum said that it had done so following a request from the prime minister's office, although Franceschini said that the government had not been informed of the matter in advance. Rouhani also denied asking Italian officials to cover up the artefacts but expressed his thanks to his hosts for making his visit "as pleasant as possible".
This section contains collections sorted by building, and brief information on the buildings themselves. For the history of their design and construction, see Capitoline Hill#Michelangelo.
The Capitoline Museums are composed of three main buildings surrounding the Piazza del Campidoglio and interlinked by an underground gallery beneath the piazza.
The three main buildings of the Capitoline Museums are:
- Palazzo Senatorio, built in the 12th century and modified according to Michelangelo's designs;
- Palazzo dei Conservatori, built in the mid-16th century and redesigned by Michelangelo with the first use of the giant order column design; and
- Palazzo Nuovo, built in the 17th century with an identical exterior design to the Palazzo dei Conservatori, which it faces across the palazzo.
In addition, the 16th century Palazzo Caffarelli-Clementino, located off the piazza adjacent to the Palazzo dei Conservatori, was added to the museum complex in the early 20th century.
Palazzo dei Conservatori edit
Main staircase edit
Features the relief from the honorary monument to Marcus Aurelius.
2nd floor edit
The second floor of the building is occupied by the Conservator's Apartment, a space now open to the public and housing such famous works as the bronze she-wolf nursing Romulus and Remus, which has become the emblem of Rome. The Conservator's Apartment is distinguished by elaborate interior decorations, including frescoes, stuccos, tapestries, and carved ceilings and doors.
3rd floor edit
The third floor of the Palazzo dei Conservatori houses the Capitoline Art Gallery, housing the museums' painting and applied art galleries. The Capitoline Coin Cabinet, containing collections of coins, medals, jewels, and jewelry, is located in the attached Palazzo Caffarelli-Clementino.
Palazzo Nuovo edit
- The colossal statue restored as Oceanus, located in the museum courtyard of this building
- A fragment of the Tabula Iliaca located at the Hall of the Doves
- The statue of Capitoline Venus, from an original by Praxiteles (4th century BC)
Galleria di Congiunzione edit
The Galleria di Congiunzione is located beneath the Palazzo dei Conservatori and the piazza itself, and links the three palazzos sitting on the piazza. The gallery was constructed in the 1930s. It contains in situ 2nd century ruins of ancient Roman dwellings, and also houses the Galleria Lapidaria, which displays the Museums' collection of epigraphs.
New wing edit
The new great glass covered hall — the Sala Marco Aurelio — created by covering the Giardino Romano is similar to the one used for the Sala Ottagonale and British Museum Great Court. The 1996 design is by the architect Carlo Aymonino. Its volume recalls that of the oval space designed by Michelangelo for the piazza.
Its centerpiece is the bronze equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which was once in the centre of Piazza del Campidoglio and has been kept indoors ever since its modern restoration. Moving these statues out of the palazzo allows those sculptures temporarily moved to the Centrale Montemartini to be brought back. It also houses the remaining fragments of the bronze colossus of Constantine and the archaeological remains of the tuff foundations of the temple of Capitoline Jupiter, with a model, drawn and computer reconstructions and finds dating from the earliest occupation on the site (in the mid Bronze Age: 17th-14th centuries B.C.) to the foundation of the temple (6th century BC).
In the three halls adjacent to the Appartamento dei Conservatori are to be found the showcases of the famous Castellani Collection with a part of the set of Greek and Etruscan vases that was donated to the municipality of Rome by Augusto Castellani in the mid-19th century.
Centrale Montemartini edit
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The Centrale Montemartini is a former power station of Acea (active as a power-station between the 1890s and 1930s) in southern Rome, between Piramide and the basilica of San Paolo Fuori le Mura, close to the Metro station Garbatella.
In 1997, the Centrale Montemartini was adapted to temporarily accommodate a part of the antique sculpture collection of the Capitoline museums, at that time closed for renovation; the temporary exhibition was so appreciated that the venue was eventually converted into a permanent museum.
Its permanent collection comprises 400 ancient statues, moved here during the reorganisation of the Capitoline Museums in 1997, along with tombs, busts, and mosaics. Many of them were excavated in the ancient Roman horti (e.g. the Gardens of Sallust) between the 1890s and 1930s, a fruitful period for Roman archaeology.
Panorama of busts displayed at Capitoline museum, Rome
Mosaic. - Roman artwork from the 2d quarter of the 4th century AD
Statue of Athena, Centrale Montemartini, Rome
Roman Trophy displayed inside the Musei Capitolini courtyard
Courtyard of the Capitoline Museum
The wounded Amazon, copy from original work by Phidias
Bust of Alexander-Helios
Probably a copy of the statue of Artemis by Kephisodotos
Head of the bronze colossus of Constantine
Statue from Horti Lamiani
Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius
Baby Heracles strangling a snake sent to kill him in his cradle (Roman marble, 2nd century AD)
See also edit
- AA. VV. Roma e dintorni, edito dal T.C.I. nel 1977, pag. 83. ISBN 88-365-0016-1. Sandra Pinto, in Roma, edito dal gruppo editoriale L'Espresso su licenza del T.C.I. nel 2004, pag. 443. ISBN 88-365-0016-1. AA. VV. La nuova enciclopedia dell'arte Garzanti, Garzanti editore, 2000, ISBN 88-11-50439-2, alla voce "museo".
- Iordanidou, Chrysavgi. "Daylight openings in art museum galleries: A link between art and the outdoor environment." (2017).
- "Critics Assail Italy for Hiding Nude Statues During Rouhani Visit". VOA. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
- Centrale Montemartini Archived October 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- "Centrale Montemartini". Inexhibit magazine. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
- "Classical art & industrial archaeology". likealocalguide.com. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
- Capitoline Museums official website (English language version). Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Capitoline Museums research website (English/German/Italian language versions).
- Virtual tour of the Capitoline Museums provided by Google Arts & Culture
Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum
|Landmarks of Rome
Casa di Goethe