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The writings of Marcus Tullius Cicero constitute one of the most famous bodies of historical and philosophical work in all of classical antiquity. Cicero, a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, and Roman constitutionalist, lived from 106 - 43 BC. He was a Roman senator and consul (chief-magistrate) who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. A contemporary of Julius Caesar, Cicero is widely considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.[1][2]

Marcus Tullius Cicero
M-T-Cicero.jpg
BornJanuary 3, 106 BC
Arpinum, Italy
DiedDecember 7, 43 BC
Formia, Italy
OccupationPolitician, lawyer, orator and philosopher
NationalityAncient Roman
Subjectpolitics, law, philosophy, oratory
Literary movementGolden Age Latin
Notable worksOrations: In Verrem, In Catilinam I–IV, Philippicae
Philosophy: De Oratore, De Re Publica, De Legibus, De Finibus, De Natura Deorum, De Officiis

Cicero is generally held to be one of the most versatile minds of ancient Rome. He introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary, distinguishing himself as a linguist, translator, and philosopher. An impressive orator and successful lawyer, Cicero probably thought his political career his most important achievement. Today, he is appreciated primarily for his humanism and philosophical and political writings. His voluminous correspondence, much of it addressed to his friend Atticus, has been especially influential, introducing the art of refined letter writing to European culture. Cornelius Nepos, the 1st-century BC biographer of Atticus, remarked that Cicero's letters to Atticus contained such a wealth of detail "concerning the inclinations of leading men, the faults of the generals, and the revolutions in the government" that their reader had little need for a history of the period.[3]

During the chaotic latter half of the first century BC, marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. However, his career as a statesman was marked by inconsistencies and a tendency to shift his position in response to changes in the political climate. His indecision may be attributed to his sensitive and impressionable personality; he was prone to overreaction in the face of political and private change. "Would that he had been able to endure prosperity with greater self-control and adversity with more fortitude!" wrote C. Asinius Pollio, a contemporary Roman statesman and historian.[4][5]

Contents

WorksEdit

Cicero was declared a "virtuous pagan" by the early Church, and therefore many of his works were deemed worthy of preservation. Important Church Fathers such as Saint Augustine and others quoted liberally from his works, e.g. "On the Commonwealth" (De Re Publica) and "On Laws" (De Legibus), as well as Cicero's (partial) Latin translation of Plato's Timaeus dialogue. Cicero also articulated an early, abstract conceptualisation of rights, based on ancient law and custom.[6]

SpeechesEdit

Of his speeches, eighty-eight were recorded, fifty-two of which survive today. Some of the items below include more than one speech.

Legal speeches

Several of Cicero's speeches are printed, in English translation, in the Penguin Classics edition Murder Trials. These speeches are included:

  • In defence of Sextus Roscius of Ameria (This is the basis for Steven Saylor's novel Roman Blood.)
  • In defence of Aulus Cluentius Habitus
  • In defence of Gaius Rabirius"
  • Note on the speeches in defence of Caelius and Milo
  • In defence of King Deiotarus
Political speeches
Early career (before exile)
Mid career (between exile and Caesarian Civil War)
Late career

(The Pro Marcello, Pro Ligario, and Pro Rege Deiotaro are collectively known as "The Caesarian speeches").

Rhetoric and politicsEdit

  • (84 BC) De Inventione (About the composition of arguments)
  • (55 BC) De Oratore ad Quintum fratrem libri tres (On the Orator, three books for his brother Quintus)
  • (54 BC) De Partitionibus Oratoriae (About the subdivisions of oratory)
  • (52 BC) De Optimo Genere Oratorum (About the Best Kind of Orators)
  • (51 BC) De Re Publica (On the Republic, also known as "On the Commonwealth", and referred to as such, above)
  • (46 BC) Brutus (For Brutus, a short history of Roman rhetoric and orators dedicated to Marcus Junius Brutus)
  • (46 BC) Orator ad M. Brutum (About the Orator, also dedicated to Brutus)
  • (44 BC) Topica (Topics)
  • (?? BC) De Legibus (On the Laws)
  • (?? BC) De Consulatu Suo (On his consulship – epic poem about Cicero's own consulship, fragmentary)
  • (?? BC) De temporibus suis (His Life and Times) – epic poem, entirely lost

PhilosophyEdit

LettersEdit

Cicero's letters to and from various public and private figures are considered some of the most reliable sources of information for the people and events surrounding the fall of the Roman Republic. While 37 books of his letters have survived into modern times, 35 more books were known to antiquity that have since been lost. These included letters to Caesar, to Pompey, to Octavian, and to his son Marcus.[9]

SpuriaEdit

Several works extant through having been included in influential collections of Ciceronian texts exhibit such divergent views and styles that they have long been agreed by experts not to be authentic works of Cicero. They are also never mentioned by Cicero himself, nor any of the ancient critics or grammarians who commonly refer to and quote passages from Cicero's authentic works.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Rawson, E.: Cicero, a portrait (1975) p. 303
  2. ^ Haskell, H.J.: This was Cicero (1964) pp. 300–01
  3. ^ Cornelius Nepos, Atticus 16, trans. John Selby Watson.
  4. ^ Haskell, H.J.:"This was Cicero" (1964) p. 296
  5. ^ Castren and Pietilä-Castren: "Antiikin käsikirja" /"Handbook of antiquity" (2000) p. 237
  6. ^ Atkins, Jed William (2010). "Rights in Cicero's Political Philosophy". American Political Science Association 2010 Annual Meeting.
  7. ^ M. Tullius Cicero, Orations: The fourteen orations against Marcus Antonius (Philippics) (ed. C. D. Yonge)
  8. ^ Epicurus.info : E-Texts : De Finibus, Book I
  9. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cicero" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  10. ^ M. Tullius Cicero, Letters (ed. Evelyn Shuckburgh)

ReferencesEdit

Selected critical editions and translationsEdit

PhilippicsEdit

2003. Ramsay, J. Cicero: Philippics I-II. Cambridge University Press.

2012. Manuwald, G. Cicero, "Philippics" 3-9: Edited with Introduction, Translation and Commentary. Volume 1: Introduction, Text and Translation, References and Indexes. Volume 2: Commentary. De Guyter.

Pro SestioEdit

2006. Kaster, R.A. Cicero: Speech on Behalf of Publius Sestius. Oxford University Press.

Selected OrationsEdit

1993. Gotoff. H. Cicero's Caesarian Speeches: A Stylistic Commentary. University of North Carolina Press.2009. Zetzel. J. Marcus Tullius Cicero: Ten Speeches. Hackett Publishing.

2001. Siani-Davies. M. Cicero's Speech Pro Rabirio Postumo. Clarendon Press.

2011. Gildenhard. I. Cicero, Against Verres, 2.1.53-86: Latin Text with Introduction, Study Questions, Commentary and English Translation. Open Book Publishers.

De Re PublicaEdit

1928. De Re Publica, De Legibus. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library. Latin text and English translation by Clinton Walker Keyes.

1980. Bréguet, E. La République. Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France. (2 volumes).

1984. Büchner, K. De Re Publica. Heidelberg: Winter. Wissenschaftliche Kommentare zu griechischen und lateinischen Schriftstellern.

1995. Zetzel, J. De Re Publica. Selections. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Edited with Introduction and Commentary.

2006. Powell. J.G.F. De Re Publica, De Legibus, Cato Maior De Senectute, Laelius De Amicitia. New York: Oxford University Press.

2008. Powell J. and N. Rudd.The Republic, the Laws. New York: Oxford University Press. Oxford World's Classics.

2010. Nickel. R. Der Staat = De Re Publica. Düsseldorf: Artemis & Winkler. Lateinisch-Deutsch.

De legibusEdit

1972. Kenter, L. P. De Legibus. A Commentary on Book I. Amsterdam: Hakkert. By L. P. Kenter. Translation from the Dutch by Margie L. Leenheer-Braid.

1928. Keyes. C.W. De Re Publica, De Legibus. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library.

1999. Zetzel, J. On the Commonwealth; on the Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2004. Dyck, A. A Commentary on Cicero, De Legibus. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

2010. Caspar, T. W. Recovering the Ancient View of Founding. A Commentary on Cicero's De Legibus. Lanham: Lexington Books.

1959. Plinval. G de.Traité Des Lois. Paris Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France.

1983. Giraret, K. M. Die Ordnung Der Welt. Ein Beitrag Zur Philosophischen Und Politischen Interpretation Von Ciceros Schrift De Legibus. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.

1994. Nickel, R. De Legibus = Über Die Gesetze; Paradoxa Stoicorum = Stoische Paradoxien. Zürich: Artemis & Winkler. Lateinisch-Deutsch. Herausgegeben.

2007. Sauer, J. Argumentations- Und Darstellungsformen Im Ersten Buch Von Ciceros Schrift De Legibus. Heidelberg: Winter.

Paradox StoicorumEdit

1971. Molager, J. Les Paradoxes Des Stoïciens. Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France.

1991. Ronnick, M. V. Paradoxa Stoicorum. A Commentary, an Interpretation, and a Study of Its Influence. Bern: Peter Lang.

1994. Nickel, R. De Legibus = Über Die Gesetze; Paradoxa Stoicorum = Stoische Paradoxien. Zürich: Artemis & Winkler. Lateinisch-Deutsch. Herausgegeben.

HortensiusEdit

1958. Ruch, M. L' Hortensius. Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection d'études anciennes.

1962. Grilli, A. Hortensius. Milano: Istituto editoriale Cisalpino.

1976. Staume-Zimmermann, L. Hortensius. Bern: Peter Lang. Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe XV, Klassische Philologie und Literatur.

De Finibus Bonorum et MalorumEdit

1914. Rackham, H. De Finibus Bonorum Et Malorum. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library. Latin text and English translation revised in 1951.

1928. Levy, C. and J. Martha. Des Termes Extrêmes Des Biens Et Des Maux. Paris: Belles Lettres.

1988. Gigon O. and L. Straume-Zimmermann. Über Die Ziele Des Menschlichen Handelns = De Finibus Bonorum Et Malorum. München: Artemis.

1991. Wright, M.R. On Stoic Good and Evil: De Finibus Bonorum Et Malorum, Liber Iii; and Paradoxa Stoicorum. Warminster: Aris & Phillips.

1998. Reynolds, L.D. De Finibus Bonorum Et Malorum: Libri Quinque. New York: Clarendon Press.

2005. Moreschini, C. De Finibus Bonorum Et Malorum. Munich: Teubner.

2001. Annas, J. and R. Woolf. On Moral Ends. Cambridge: Cambridger University Press.


Tusculanae DisputationesEdit

1927. King, J.E. Tusculanae Disputationes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library.

1985. Douglas, A.E. Tusculan Disputations. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press.

2002. Graver, M. Cicero on the Emotions. Tusculan Disputations 3 and 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

2007. Gildenhard, I. Paideia Romana. Cicero's Tusculan Disputations. Cambridge: Cambridge Philological Society.

1930. Fohlen, G. and J. Humbert. Tusculanes. Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France. Tome I: Livres I et II (1930); Tome II. Livre III-V (1931).

1952. Büchner, K. Gespräche in Tusculum. Zürich: Artemis.

1998. Gigon, O. Gespräche in Tusculum = Tusculanae Disputationes. München: Artemis und Winkler.

2006. Koch, B. Philosophie Als Medizin Für Die Seele. Untersuchungen Zu Ciceros Tusculanae Disputationes. Stuttgart: Steiner.

2008. Eckhard, L. Philosophie Unter Der Tyrannis. Ciceros Tusculanae Disputationes. Heidelberg: Winter.

AcademicaEdit

1970. Ruch, M. Academica Posteriora. Liber Primus. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Érasme.

1988. Hunt, T. J. A Textual History of Cicero's Academici Libri. Leiden: Brill.

1995. Schäublin, C. Akademische Abhandlungen. Lucullus. Hamburg: F. Meiner. Einleitung von Andreas Graeser und Christoph Schäublin. Anmerkungen von Andreas Bächli und Andreas Graeser.

1998. Haltenhoff, A. Kritik Der Akademischen Skepsis. Ein Kommentar Zu Cicero, Lucullus 1-62. Bern: Peter Lang.

2006. Brittain, C. On Academic Scepticism. Indianapolis: Hackett.

Translation of Plato's TimaeusEdit

2011. Plasberg, O. M. Tulii Ciceronis Paradoxa stoicorum, Academicorum, Reliquiae cum Lucullo, Timaeus, ND, De divinatione, De fato. Leipzig. (Online publication of the 1908 text).

1975. Giomini, R. (ed.) De Divinatione, De Fato, Timaeus. Teubner. Leipzig.

De Natura DeorumEdit

1933. Rackham, H. De Natura Deorum; Academica. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library.

1955. Pease, A.S. De Natura Deorum. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Two volumes: 1 (1955), 2 (1958). Reprint: New York, Arno Press, 1979.

1986. van den Bruwaene, M. De Natura Deorum: Tables. Latomus no. 192:1-173.

1996. Gigon O. und L. Straume-Zimmermann Vom Wesen Der Götter: Lateinisch-Deutsch. Zürich: Artemis und Winkler.

1997. Walsh, P.G. The Nature of the Gods. New York: Oxford University Press.

2003. Dyck, A. De Natura Deorum. Liber I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2002. Auvray-Assayas, C. La Nature Des Dieux. Paris: Belles Lettres.


De DivinationeEdit

1920. Pease, A.S. De Divinatione; Liber Primvs-Secvndvs. Urbana: University of Illinois.Two volumes: 1 (1920); 2 (1923). Reprint: New York, Arno Press, 1979.

2006. Wardle, D. Cicero on Divination. De Divinatione, Book 1. New York: Oxford University Press.

1992. Freyburger, G. and J. Scheid. De La Divination. Paris: Belles Lettres.

2004. Kany-Turpin, J. De La Divination = De Divinatione. Paris: Flammarion.

2006. De François, G. Le De Diuinatione De Cicéron Et Les Théories Antiques De La Divination. Bruxelles: Éditions Latomus.

1991. Schäublin, C. Über Die Wahrsagung = De Divinatione : Lateinisch-Deutsch. München: Artemis und Winkler.

1923. Falconer, W.A. De Senectute; De Amicitia; De Divinatione. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library.

De FatoEdit

1933. Yon, A. Traité Du Destin. Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France.

1963. Bayer, K. De Fato. Über Das Fatum. Lateinisch-Deutsch. München: Heimeran-Verlag.

1991. Sharples, R.W. On Fate (De Fato) / Cicero. & the Consolation of Philosophy (Philosophiae Consolationis) : Iv.5-7, V / Boethius. Warminster: Aris and Phillips.

2008. Schallenberg, M. Freiheit Und Determinismus. Ein Philosophischer Kommentar Zu Ciceros Schrift De Fato. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

De Senectute and De Amicitia (Laelius)Edit

1965. Müller, C.F.W. and M. Seyffert. Laelius; De Amicita Dialogus. Hildesheim: Georg Olms. Reprografischer Nachdruck der Ausgabe Leipzig, 1876.

1923. Falconer, W.A. De Senectute; De Amicitia; De Divinatione. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library.

1967. Steinmetz, F-A. Die Freundschaftslehre Des Panaitos. Nach Einer Analyse Von Ciceros Laelius De Amicitia. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner.

1972. Ruch, M. De Senectute. Paris: Bordas.

1988. Powell, J.G.F. Cato Maior De Senectute. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1989. Wuilleumier, P. Caton L'ancien (De La Vieillesse). Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France.

1990. Powell, J.G.F. On Friendship and the Dream of Scipio. Warminster: Arts and Phillips.

1998. Merklin, H. Cato Maior De Senectute = Cato Der Ältere Über Das Alter. Lateinisch-Deutsch. Stuttgart: Reclam.


De OfficiisEdit

1913. Miller, W. De Officiis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library.

1965. Testard, M. Les Devoirs. Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France. 2 volumes: 1 (1965); 2 (1970).

1967. Higginbotham, J. On Moral Obligation. Berkeley: University of California Press.

1991. Griffin, M.T. and Atkins, M. On Duties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1994. Winterbottom, M. De Officiis. New York: Oxford University Press.

1995. Kinapenne, C. De Officiis. Index Verborum, Listes De Fréquence, Relevés Grammaticaux. Liège.

1996. Dyck, A. R. A Commentary on Cicero, De Officiis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

2001. Walsh, P.G. On Obligations. New York: Oxford Univeristy Press.

2008. Nickel, R. De Officiis = Vom Pflichtgemässen Handel. Lateinisch-Deutsch. Düsseldorf: Artemis und Winkler.

De InventioneEdit

1949. Hubbell, H.M. De Inventione; De Optimo Genere Oratorum; Topica. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library.

1994. Achard, G. De L'invention. Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France.

1998. Nüsslein, T. De Inventione = Über Die Auffindung Des Stoffes ; De Optimo Genere Oratorum = Über Die Beste Gattung Von Rednern. Düsseldorf: Artemis und Winkler.

De OratoreEdit

1902. Wilkins, A.S. Rhetorica, Tomus I: Libros De Oratore Tres Continens. New York: Oxford University Press.

1948. Rackham. H. and E.W. Sutton. De Oratore [and De Fato; Paradoxa Stoicorum; De Partitione Oratoria]. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library. Contents: I. De Oratore, Books 1-2. II. De Oratore, Book 3. De Fato, Paradoxa Stoicorum, De Partitione Oratoria.

1985. Leeman, D. H. Pinkster, et al. De Oratore Libri Iii. Kommentar. Heidelberg: Winter. Wissenschaftliche Kommentare zu griechischen und lateinischen Schriftstellern. Band 1: Buch I, 1-65 (A. D. Leeman, H. Pinkster, Hein L. Nelson, Edwin Rabbie, 1993); Band 2: Buch I, 166-265, Buch II, 1-98 (A. D. Leeman, H. Pinkster, Hein L. Nelson, Edwin Rabbie, 1985); Band 3: Buch II, 99-290 (A. D. Leeman, H. Pinkster, Hein L. Nelson, Edwin Rabbie, 1989); Band 4: Buch II, 291-367 /Buch III, 1-95 (A. D. Leeman, H. Pinkster, J. Wisse, H. L. Nelson, E. Rabbie, 1996).

2001. May, J.M. and J. Wisse. Cicero on the Ideal Orator (De Oratore). New York: Oxford University Press.

2007. Nüsslein, T. De Oratore = Über Den Redner. Düsseldorf: Artemis & Winkler. Lateinisch-Deutsch.

2008. Yon, A. L'orateur. Du Meilleur Genre D'orateurs. Paris: Belles Lettres. Collection des universités de France.


BrutusEdit

1885. Sandys, J.E. Ad M. Brutum Orator. Cambridge: Cambridge Unviersity Press. Reprint: New York, Arno Press, 1979.

1903. Wilkins, A.S. Rhetorica, Tomus Ii: Brvtvs; Orator; De Optimo Genere Oratorvm; Partitiones Oratoriae; Topica. New York: Oxford University Press.

1907. Ad M. Brutum Orator. Lipsia: G. Teubner. Bibliotheca Scriptorvm Graecorvm Et Romanorvm Tevbneriana. Recognovit Wilhelm Friedrich.

1962. Hendrickson, G.L. and H.M. Hubbell. Brutus; Orator. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Loeb Classical Library.

1981. Barwick, K. Brutus. Freiburg: Ploetz. Lateinisch-Deutsch.

Orator, Paritiiones OratoriaeEdit

1903. Rhetorica, Tomus Ii: Brvtvs; Orator; De Optimo Genere Oratorvm; Partitiones Oratoriae; Topica. New York: Oxford University Press. Scriptorum classicorum bibliotheca Oxoniensis. Recognovit brevique adnotatione critica instrvxit August Samuel Wilkins.

TopicaEdit

2003. Reihnardt, T. Topica. New York: Oxford University Press.

1924. Bornecque, H. Divisions De L'art Oratoire, Topiques. Paris: Belles Lettres.

1983. Zekl, H. G. Topik. Lateinisch-Deutsch. Hamburg: F. Meiner.

EpistulaeEdit

1987. Shackleton-Bailey, D.R. Epistulae ad Atticum. Vol.I: Libri I–VIII (BT 1208, 1987); Vol.II: Libri IX–XVI (BT 1209, 1987)

1988 Shackleton-Bailey, D.R. Epistulae ad Familiares libri I–XVI (BT 1210, 1988)

1988 Shackleton-Bailey, D.R. Epistulae ad Quintum fratrem. Epistulae ad M. Brutum. Commentariolum petitionis. Fragmenta epistolarum (BT 1211, 1988)

Fragmentary worksEdit

1984. Garbarino, G. Fragmenta Ex Libris Philosophicis, Ex Aliis Libris Deperditis, Ex Scriptis Incertis. Milano: Mondadori.

1963. Cooper, C.G. Latin extracts of Cicero on Himself. University of Queensland Press.

1984. Crawford, Jane W. M. Tullius Cicero: The Lost and Unpublished Orations (Hypomnemata Untersuchungen zur Antike und zu Ihrem Nachleben, Heft 80, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1984) ISBN 3-525-25178-5

1994. Crawford, Jane W. M. Tullius Cicero: The Fragmentary Speeches, an Edition with Commentary, 2nd edition (American Philological Association, American Classical Studies no. 37, Scholars Press, Atlanta, 1994) ISBN 0-7885-0076-7

Penguin Classics English translations

  • Cicero
    • Selected Political Speeches (Penguin Books, 1969)
    • Selected Works: Against Verres I, Twenty-three letters, The Second Philippic against Antony, On Duties III, On Old Age, by Michael Grant (Penguin Books, 1960)
    • On Government: Against Verres II 5, For Murena, For Balbus, On the State III, V, VI, On Laws III, The Brutus, The Philippics IV, V, X, by Michael Grant (Penguin Books, 1993)
  • Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, Six Lives by Plutarch: Marius, Sulla, Crassus, Pompey, Caesar, Cicero, by Rex Warner (Penguin Books, 1958; with Introduction and notes by Robin Seager, 1972)

Secondary literatureEdit

  • Atkins, Jed William (2010). "Rights in Cicero's Political Philosophy". American Political Science Association 2010 Annual Meeting.
  • Bishop, C. (2018) Cicero, Greek Learning, and the Making of a Roman Classic. Oxford.
  • Ciaceri, E, (1941), Cicerone e i suoi tempi, volume 2, Milan-Genoa.
  • Cowell, F.R. (1973) Cicero and the Roman Republic, Penguin Books, Great Britain.
  • Everitt, Anthony (2001) Cicero: the life and times of Rome's greatest politician. Random House. ISBN 0-375-50746-9
  • Frier, B.W (1985) The Rise of the Roman Jurists: Studies in Cicero's Pro Caecina. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03578-4
  • Gotoff, H.C. (1993) Cicero's Caesarian Speeches: A Stylistic Commentary. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4407-1
  • Gruen, E.S. (1974) The last Generation of the Roman Republic. University of California Press.
  • Haskell, H.J. (1946) This was Cicero. Fawcett publications, Inc. Greenwich, Conn.
  • Kinsey, T. E. (1980) "Cicero's case against Magnus, Capito and Chrysogonus in the pro Sex. Roscio Amerino and its use for the historian", L'Ant.Classique 49: 173–190.
  • Manuwald, G. (2004) "Performance and Rhetoric in Cicero's Philippics", Antichthon 38: 51–69.
  • March, D. A. (1989) "Cicero and the 'Gang of Five'", Classical World 82: 225–234
  • Powell, J.G.F. (ed.) (1995) Cicero the Philosopher. Oxford University Press.
  • Rawson, Elizabeth (1975) Cicero, A portrait. Allen Lane, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-7139-0864-5
  • Shackleton-Bailey, D R (1992) Onomasticon to Cicero's Speeches, 2nd edition. Teubner, Stuttgart-Leipzig.
  • Smith, R E (1966) Cicero the Statesman. Cambridge University Press.
  • Strachan-Davidson, J. L., (1936) Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Republic, University of Oxford Press, London.
  • Taylor, H: (1918) Cicero: A sketch of his life and works. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit