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The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897,[4] is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.[5]

American Medical Association
AMA logo.svg
FormationMay 7, 1847; 171 years ago (1847-05-07)
TypeProfessional association
Purpose"To Promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health"
HeadquartersChicago, Illinois, U.S.
Location
  • United States
Membership
240,359 as of 2016[1]
Official language
English
President
Barbara L. McAneny, M.D.[2]
Key people
Board Chair Jack Resneck, Jr.[3], M.D. ; CEO & EVP James Madara, M.D.
Websitehttp://www.ama-assn.org/

The AMA's mission is "to promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health."[6] The Association also publishes the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).[7] The AMA also publishes a list of Physician Specialty Codes which are the standard method in the U.S. for identifying physician and practice specialties.

The American Medical Association is governed by a House of Delegates as well as a board of trustees in addition to executive management.[8] The organization maintains the AMA Code of Medical Ethics that is the guide to ethical practice of medicine and the AMA Physician Masterfile containing data on United States Physicians.[9] The Current Procedural Terminology coding system was first published in 1966, and is maintained by the Association.[10] It has also published works such as the Guides to Evaluation of Permanent Impairment[11] and established the American Medical Association Foundation and the American Medical Political Action Committee.[12]

Contents

HistoryEdit

1847–1900Edit

In 1847, the American Medical Association was founded in Philadelphia by Nathan Smith Davis as a national professional medical organization. The organization was established not only to advance scientific research and improve medical education standards but to improve public health. The AMA established the world's first national code for ethical medical practice, the AMA Code of Medical Ethics. The organization educated people about the dangers of patent medicines and called for legislation regulating their production and sale. One resulting legislation was the Drug Importation Act of 1848.[13] In May 1848, the AMA held its first meeting in Baltimore. The resulting Committee on Surgery produced the report Transactions of the American Medical Association which included lists and reports of cases of physiological effects of ether and chloroform at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, the New York Hospital and the clinics of the University of Pennsylvania and Jefferson Medical College.[14] In 1846, the organization created a committee dedicated to analyzing the methodology of vital records registration.[15] It urged state governments to adopt measures to register births, marriages and deaths within their populations.[16]

At the organization's second meeting in 1849, Thomas Wood suggested a committee on medical science to establish a board to analyze quack remedies and nostrums to be published in order to inform the public about the dangers of such remedies.[17] The AMA's attempts to expose quack remedies aided the passage of the first Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906.[18]

The AMA Committee on Ethics advocated for recognition of qualified female physicians in 1869, and the AMA inducted its first female member, Sarah Hackett Stevenson, as an Illinois State Medical Society delegate in 1876.[19]

The Journal of the American Medical Association was launched in 1883. The organization's founder, Nathan Smith Davis, served as the first editor of the publication.[20]

In 1897, the American Medical Association was incorporated in the state of Illinois.[21] The Association's Committee on National Legislation established the Committee on Medical Legislation in 1899.[22] Also in 1899, the Association appointed a committee to report on tuberculosis, included its communicability and prevention.[23] The Committee on Tuberculosis presented its report in October 1900.[24]

AMA pushed for laws requiring compulsory smallpox vaccinations in 1899.[25]

1901–1920Edit

In 1901, the AMA was reorganized with its central authority shifted to a House of Delegates, a board of trustees, and executive offices.[8] The House of Delegates was modeled after the United States House of Representatives and included representatives from medical organizations across the United States as a formal, reform-minded legislative body.[26] The organization's new president appointed a Committee on Medical Education in order to evaluate medical education in the United States and make recommendations for its improvement.[8]

AMA created the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry in 1905 to set standards for drug manufacturing and advertising.[27] That same year, the Association began a voluntary program of drug approval, which would remain in effect until 1955. Drug companies were required to show proof of the effectiveness of their drugs to advertise them in AMA's journal.[28]

In 1906, the American Medical Association established a Physician Masterfile designed to contain data on physicians in the United States as well as graduates of American medical schools and international graduates who are in the United States. Each file is established when an individual either enters medical schools or enters the United States.[9]

The AMA established the Council for the Defense of Medical Research in 1908.[29]

AMA's Council on Medical Education and Hospitals first published its annual list of hospitals approved for internships in 1914.[30]

The American Medical Association established a policy of opposition to compulsory health insurance by state or federal government in 1920.[31]

1921–1960Edit

In May 1922, the Woman's Auxiliary to the American Medical Association was organized.[32] The following year, the AMA established standards for medical specialty training residency programs.[33] The Association later published its first list of hospitals approved for residency training in 1927.[34]

In 1927, Congress passed the Caustic Poison Act, lobbied by the American Medical Association, which required product labels to include warnings if they included lye or 10 other caustic chemicals.[35]

The Normal Diet, a comprehensive listing of what Americans should be eating, was published by the AMA in 1938.[36]

A formal partnership between the AMA and the Association of American Medical Colleges formed the Liaison Committee on Medical Education in 1942 in order to establish requirements for certification of medical schools.[37] In 1951, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals was created through merging the Hospital Standardization Program with quality standards from the American College of Physicians, the American Hospital Association, and the American Medical Association.[38] The Commission, established for evaluation and accreditation of healthcare organizations in the United States, governed by a board of commissioners including physicians, consumers and administrators.[39]

AMA publicly endorsed the principle of fluoridation of community and water supplies in 1951.[40]

The Physicians Advisory Committee on Television, Radio and Motion Pictures was established by the AMA in 1955 in order to maintain medical accuracy in media.[41] The American Medical Association's Committee on Alcoholism issued a statement in 1956 calling alcoholism an illness and encouraging medical personnel and institutions to admit and treat alcoholic patients.[42]

1961–1980Edit

In 1961, the American Medical Association opposed the King-Anderson bill proposing Medicare legislation and took out advertisements in newspapers, radio and television against government health insurance. The Association established the American Medical Political Action Committee, which was separate from AMA though the Association nominated its board of directors.[12] The AMA's efforts to defeat Medicare legislation was called Operation Coffee Cup and included secretive meetings in which the vinyl LP "Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine" was played.[43] The AMA created an "Eldercare" proposal rather than hospital insurance through Social Security.[44]

The AMA first published the Current Procedural Terminology coding system in 1966. The system was created for uniform reporting of outpatient physician services. The first manual was 163 pages and contained only four-digit codes with descriptions of each.[10] A second edition of the book was published in 1970 with a fifth digit added.[45]

In 1969, AMA proposed the Medicredit program. The program was created to be flexible so that all people had an option for health insurance.[46]

The American Medical Association published the first Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment in 1971. The guides were later republished in 1977 before the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs created 12 committees to review the guides before the second edition was published in 1984.[11]

The AMA spoke out against gender discrimination in medical institutions in the 1970s. In the 1970s, the AMA spoke out against gender discrimination in medical institutions.[47] In 1972, the AMA launched a "war on smoking" and supported legislation that would prohibit tobacco sample disbursement.[48] The following year, in 1973, the AMA urged physicians to combat hypertension through a national program.[49] In 1975, the American Medical Association adopted a policy stating that "unequivocal-discrimination based on sexual orientation is improper and unacceptable by any part of the federation of medicine."[50] It adopted a resolution to repeal all state sodomy laws.[51]

In 1976, the AMA began encouraging all public facilities to have handicap access.[52]

1981–2000Edit

The AMA released a survey in 1981 that found two short-term effects of dioxin on humans and recommended further studies. By 1983, the Association accused the news media of conducting a "witch hunt" against the toxic chemical and launched a public information campaign to counter media hysteria.[53]

In the early 1980s, the American Medical Association advocated for raising the national legal drinking age to 21.[54] The Supreme Court of the United States upheld Federal Trade Commission order that allowed doctors and dentists to advertise without professional associations interfering in 1982. The order restrained the American Medical Association from obstructing agreements between physicians and health maintenance organizations.[55]

In May 1983, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a report that reviewed cases of childhood AIDS.[56] The American Medical Association called for a ban on advertising and promotion of all tobacco products in any form of media.[57] The AMA also proposed declaring snuff and chewing tobacco a health hazard, increasing the tax on cigarettes, prohibiting smoking on public transportation and urged medical facilities to ban smoking on their premises.[58]

A Federal district judge ruled that the AMA had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1987 by depriving chiropractors access to the Association. The lawsuit, filed by four chiropractors, accused AMA of conspiring to prevent chiropractors from practicing in the United States.[59]

In 1990, AMA published Health Assess America, which proposed improved access to affordable health care for citizens without healthcare insurance.[60]

The Journal of the American Medical Association first documented that Joe Camel cartoons reached more children than adults in December 1991. The Association called for the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company to stop using the Joe Camel character in its advertising because of its appeal to youth.[61]

In 1995, Lonnie R. Bristow became the first African-American president of the American Medical Association. Before he became president, Bristow was the first African-American member of the Board of Trustees and first African-American chairman of the Board.[62] The AMA campaigned against health plan "gag clauses" in 1996, stating that the stipulations inhibit the communication of information and restrict the care doctors can give their patients. The clauses were removed from 5 leading providers, and laws prohibiting such clauses were passed in 16 states.[63]

In 1997, the AMA established the National Patient Safety Foundation as an independent, nonprofit research and education organization focused on patient safety.[64] Nancy W. Dickey was named president of the American Medical Association in June 1998. She was the first woman to head the organization and had been part of AMA's leadership since 1977.[65]

2000–presentEdit

In 2002, the American Medical Association released a report that found a medical liability insurance crisis in at least a dozen states forcing physicians to either close practices or limit services. The association called for Congress to take action and campaigned for national reform.[66] The American Medical Association launched the "Voice for the Uninsured" campaign in 2007 to promote coverage for uninsured citizens.[67]

In 2007, AMA called for state and federal agencies to investigate potential conflicts of interest between the retail clinics and pharmacy chains.[68] The American Medical Association issued a formal apology for previous policies that excluded African-Americans from the organization and announced increased efforts to increase minority physician participation in the AMA in 2008.[69]

In 2009, the American Medical Association released a public letter to the United States Congress and President Barack Obama endorsing his proposed overhaul to the public health care system, including universal health coverage.[70] The following year, it offered "qualified support" for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[71]

The AMA officially recognized obesity as a disease in 2013 in an attempt to change how the medical community approaches the issue.[72] In 2014, the Association created the AMA Opioid Task Force to evaluate prescription opioid use and abuse.[73] The American Medical Association supported the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 which introduced Medicare reforms and replaced the SGR formula with increased Medicare physician reimbursement.[74]

In 2015, the AMA declared there is no medically valid reason to exclude transgender individuals from serving in the U.S. military. The Human Rights Campaign lauded the decision.[75] The Association announced its opposition to replacing the federal health care law in March 2017, claiming millions of Americans would lose health care coverage.[76]

Policy positionsEdit

The AMA has one of the largest political lobbying budgets of any organization in the United States. Its political positions throughout its history have often been controversial. In the 1930s, the AMA attempted to prohibit its members from working for the health maintenance organizations established during the Great Depression, which violated the Sherman Antitrust Act and resulted in a conviction ultimately affirmed by the US Supreme Court.[77] The American Medical Association's vehement campaign against Medicare in the 1950s and 1960s included the Operation Coffee Cup, supported by Ronald Reagan. Since the enactment of Medicare, the AMA reversed its position and now opposes any "cut to Medicare funding or shift [of] increased costs to beneficiaries at the expense of the quality or accessibility of care". However, the AMA remains opposed to any single-payer health care plan that might enact a National Health Service-style organization in the United States, such as the United States National Health Care Act. In the 1990s, the organization was part of the coalition that defeated the health care reform advanced by Hillary and Bill Clinton.[citation needed]

The AMA has also supported changes in medical malpractice law to limit damage awards, which, it contends, makes it difficult for patients to find appropriate medical care. In many states, high risk specialists have moved to other states that have enacted reform. For example, in 2004, all neurosurgeons had relocated out of the entire southern half of Illinois.[78] The main legislative emphasis in multiple states has been to effect caps on the amount that patients can receive for pain and suffering. These costs for pain and suffering are only those that exceed the actual costs of healthcare and lost income. At the same time however, states without caps also experienced similar results; suggesting that other market factors may have contributed to the decreases. Some economic studies have found that caps have historically had an uncertain effect on premium rates.[79] Nevertheless, the AMA believes the caps may alleviate what is often perceived as an excessively litigious environment for many doctors.[citation needed] A recent report by the AMA found that in a 12-month period, five percent of physicians had claims filed against them.[80]

Claims that the AMA generates $70 million in revenue through its stewardship of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes appear to be a mischaracterization.[citation needed] The estimate is based on a distortion[citation needed] of the transparent financial information the AMA voluntarily offers in its Annual Report. The AMA has publicly reported this figure represents income from its complete line of books and products, which include more than 100 items, not just CPT.[81]

The AMA sponsors the Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee which is an influential group of 29 physicians, mostly specialists, who help determine the value of different physicians' labor in Medicare prices.

Collections of the association's papers dating from the late 1860s to the late 1960s are held at the National Library of Medicine.[82][83]

CriticismEdit

During the Civil Rights Movement, the American Medical Association's policy of allowing its constituent groups to be racially segregated in areas with widespread prejudice faced opposition from doctors as well as other healthcare professionals. Pressure from organizations such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) resulted in changed policies by the late 1960s. The AMA was also criticized for the lack of newly licensed foreign-trained medical professionals after Adolf Hitler came to power, who were fleeing to the U.S. from Nazi-controlled Germany and adjacent nations.[84]

Nobel Memorial Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman as well as his wife, Rose Friedman, have claimed that the organization acts as a guild and has attempted to increase physicians' wages and fees by influencing limitations on the supply of physicians and competition from non-physicians. In the book Free to Choose, the Friedmans stated that "the AMA has engaged in extensive litigation charging chiropractors and osteopathic physicians with the unlicensed practice of medicine, in an attempt to restrict them to as narrow an area as possible."[84] Profession and Monopoly also criticized the AMA for limiting the supply of physicians and inflating the cost of medical care in the U.S as well as its influence on hospital regulation.[85]

In a 1987 antitrust court case, a federal district judge called the AMA's behavior toward chiropractors "systematic, long-term wrongdoing". The AMA was accused of limiting the associations between physicians and chiropractors. In the 1960s and 1970s, the association's Committee on Quackery was said to have targeted the chiropractic profession, and for many years the AMA held that it was unethical for physicians to refer patients to chiropractors or to receive referrals from chiropractors.[86]

StructureEdit

The AMA is composed of various internal groups that discuss policy twice a year. There is an annual meeting, always held in Chicago, IL and an Interim meeting set on a rotating schedule for different locations.[87] Within the AMA, there are sections that can make up the total AMA. These sections include Medical Students, Resident and Fellows, Academic physicians, Medical School Deans and Faculty, Physicians in group practice setting, Retired and Senior Physicians, International Medical graduates, Woman physicians, Physician Diversity and Minority health, GLBT, USAN, AMA board of Trustees, Foundation and Council.[88] Externally to the AMA, there are organizations that come to these meetings by sending representatives. These representatives meet two a year in the House of Delegates at the Interim and/or annual meeting. Representatives come from medical societies that are either from a state, specialty or the federal services/government services. These organizations are called AMA member organizations.[89]

Charitable activitiesEdit

The AMA Foundation provides approximately $1,000,000 annually in tuition assistance to financially needy students. This has to be seen on the background that in 2007, graduating medical students carried a mean debt load of $140,000 which rose to $220,000 after four years of negative amortization during residency[90] medical student debt has increased by 7% each successive year.[91] By the time debt is paid off, it is sometimes almost half a million dollars.[92]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Annual Report - AMA
  2. ^ Barbara L. McAneny, M.D., Inaugurated as 173nd President of AMA - American Medical Association
  3. ^ Jack Resneck, Jr., M.D. named chair of Board of Trustees - American Medical Association
  4. ^ "AMA (AMA History) 1847 to 1899". American Medical Association. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  5. ^ Pollack, Andrew (2013-06-18). "AMA Recognizes Obesity as a Disease". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  6. ^ "About the American Medical Association - AMA". Ama-assn.org. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  7. ^ "About JAMA: JAMA website". Jama.ama-assn.org. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b c Donald A. Barr (March 12, 2010). Questioning the Premedical Paradigm: Enhancing Diversity in the Medical Profession a Century after the Flexner Report.
  9. ^ a b E. Pamuk (1999). Health United States 1998: With Socioeconomic Status and Health Chart Book.
  10. ^ a b Mary Jo Bowie (January 1, 2018). Understanding Current Procedural Terminology and HCPCS Coding Systems.
  11. ^ a b Steven Babitsky (2011). Understanding the AMA Guides in Workers’ Compensation.
  12. ^ a b Ronald Hamowy (January 1, 2008). Government and Public Health in America.
  13. ^ A Brief History of Pharmacy: Humanity’s Search for Wellness.
  14. ^ "Civil War Medicine".
  15. ^ "History of the birth certificate: from inception to the future of electronic data".
  16. ^ Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 23.
  17. ^ Druggists’ Circular, Volume 51.
  18. ^ Pharmaceuticals and Society: Critical Discourses and Debates.
  19. ^ History of Women's Suffrage Trilogy – Part 1.
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of Global Health, Volume 1.
  21. ^ The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 40, Part 2.
  22. ^ Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 50 Part 2.
  23. ^ Gaillard's Medical Journal, Volumes 72-73.
  24. ^ Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 35, Part 2.
  25. ^ The Progressive Era's Health Reform Movement: A Historical Dictionary.
  26. ^ Christopher M. Nichols (March 6, 2017). A Companion to the Gilded Age and Progressive Era.
  27. ^ The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 72, Issue 2. 1919.
  28. ^ A History of the FDA and Drug Regulation in the United States
  29. ^ Robert Garner (July 27, 2016). Political Animals: Animal Protection Politics in Britain and the United States.
  30. ^ James A. Schafer (December 26, 2013). The Business of Private Medical Practice: Doctors, Specialization, and Urban Change in Philadelphia, 1900-1940.
  31. ^ George Rosen (January 16, 2015). A History of Public Health.
  32. ^ Kentucky Medical Journal, Volume 28. 1930.
  33. ^ Christopher S. Chenault (July 26, 2017). Doctors in Community: The Training of Interns and Residents at Brackenridge Hospital, Austin, Texas.
  34. ^ Joseph Karlton Own (1962). Modern Concepts of Hospital Administration.
  35. ^ The Story of the Laws Behind the Labels
  36. ^ American Medical Association History
  37. ^ Dennis K. Wentz (2011). Continuing Medical Education: Looking Back, Planning Ahead.
  38. ^ Practical Predictive Analytics and Decisioning Systems for Medicine. September 27, 2014.
  39. ^ Edmund S. Cibas (January 20, 2009). Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates.
  40. ^ Glen E. Rodgers (January 19, 2011). Descriptive Inorganic, Coordination, and Solid State Chemistry.
  41. ^ Alan Gartner (May 19, 2014). Consumer Education in the Human Services: Pergamon Policy Studies.
  42. ^ Psychiatric Services for Addicted Patients. 1995.
  43. ^ Wendell Potter (November 9, 2010). Deadly Spin: An Insurance Company Insider Speaks Out on How Corporate PR Is Killing Health Care and Deceiving Americans.
  44. ^ Rosemary Stevens (1998). American Medicine and the Public Interest.
  45. ^ Alice Covell (January 29, 2015). 215 Coding Workbook for the Physician’s Office.
  46. ^ Social security and welfare proposals. 1970.
  47. ^ Facts About the American Medical Association (AMA)
  48. ^ Historical Perspectives of the Causation of Lung Cancer: Nursing as a Bystander
  49. ^ AMA History
  50. ^ I Could Not Speak My Heart: Education and Social Justice for Gay and Lesbian Youth. 2004.
  51. ^ David E. Newton (October 27, 2009). Gay and Lesbian Rights: A Reference Handbook.
  52. ^ World Medical Journal
  53. ^ AMA Votes to Fight Dioxin ‘Witch Hunt’
  54. ^ The Legal Minimum Drinking Age in Texas: Effects of an Increase from 18 to 19
  55. ^ Supreme Court Upholds FTC Order Letting Doctors, Dentists Advertise
  56. ^ AIDS Doctors
  57. ^ A.M.A. Votes To Seek Total Ban On Advertising Tobacco Products
  58. ^ Ama’s Proposed Tobacco-ad Ban Lights Legal Fire
  59. ^ U.S. Judge Finds Medical Group Conspired Against Chiropractors
  60. ^ Health Access America-Strengthening the US Health Care System
  61. ^ Advertising and Promotion of Alcohol and Tobacco Products to Youth
  62. ^ Man in the News; Black Leader for A.M.A. – Dr. Lonnie Robert Bristow
  63. ^ AMA rips gag clauses, okays AIDS tests
  64. ^ The National Patient Safety Foundation Agenda for Research and Development in Patient Safety
  65. ^ Former American Medical Association President Named as Editor of Medem
  66. ^ "AMA: States are in crisis of liability and of costs". Relias. August 1, 2002.
  67. ^ "AMA campaign to psuh coverage for uninsured". Modern Healthcare. August 23, 2007.
  68. ^ "In-store clinics". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-22.
  69. ^ "Group Apologizes for Its Racial Bias". The New York Times. July 11, 2008.
  70. ^ David D. Kirkpatrick (September 9, 2009). "A.M.A. Endorses a Health Care Overhaul". The New York Times.
  71. ^ David M. Herzenhorn (March 19, 2010). "A.M.A. Offers 'Qualified Support' for Health Bill". The New York Times.
  72. ^ Andrew Pollack (June 18, 2013). "A.M.A. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease". The New York Times.
  73. ^ Cindy Sanders (September 22, 2017). "Addressing Opioid Addiction in America". Birmingham Medical News.
  74. ^ Joyce Frieden (April 14, 2015). "Senate Passes Historic SGR Repeal Bill By Vote of 92-8". Medpage Today.
  75. ^ Campaign, Human Rights. "Voters Reject Cruz's False Scare Tactics Against Trans Americans - Human Rights Campaign". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  76. ^ Reed Abelson (March 8, 2017). "American Medical Association Opposes Republican Health Plan". The New York Times.
  77. ^ American Medical Ass'n. v. United States, 317 U.S. 519 (1943)
  78. ^ "The doctors are leaving". The Chicago Tribune. April 18, 2004.
  79. ^ "Weiss Ratings - Weiss Ratings". Weissratings.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  80. ^ "Medical Liability Claim Frequency: A 2007-2008 Snapshot of Physicians" (PDF). Ama-assn.org. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  81. ^ [1]
  82. ^ "American Medical Association annual meetings collection 1866-1890". National Library of Medicine.
  83. ^ "AMA Deceased Physicians Masterfile 1906-1969". National Library of Medicine.
  84. ^ a b Friedman, Milton; Friedman, Rose (1990). Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. Mariner Books. pp. 238–241. ISBN 9780156334600.
  85. ^ Berlant, Jeffrey (1975). Profession and Monopoly: a study of medicine in the United States and Great Britain. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02734-5.
  86. ^ "U.S. judge finds medical group conspired against chiropractors". The New York Times. Associated Press. 29 August 1987. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  87. ^ "Meeting Dates". www.ama-assn.org. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
  88. ^ "Physician Leadership Opportunities at the AMA". www.ama-assn.org. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
  89. ^ "Member Organizations". www.ama-assn.org. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
  90. ^ "House passes partial forgiveness for medical student loans".
  91. ^ "Medical Student Debt". Archived from the original on 30 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
  92. ^ "$1 million mistake: Becoming a doctor". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2015-09-23.

External linksEdit