Massachusetts General Hospital

Massachusetts General Hospital (Mass General or MGH) is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. It is the third oldest general hospital in the United States and has a capacity of 999 beds.[4] With Brigham and Women's Hospital, it is one of the two founding members of Partners HealthCare, the largest healthcare provider in Massachusetts. Massachusetts General Hospital conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the world, with an annual research budget of more than $1 billion in 2019. It is currently ranked as the #6 best hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report.[5]

Massachusetts General Hospital
Partners HealthCare
Massachusetts General Hospital logo.svg
Front Entrance of Massachusetts General Hospital.jpg
The front entrance of Massachusetts General Hospital
Geography
Location55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Coordinates42°21′46.10″N 71°04′07.07″W / 42.3628056°N 71.0686306°W / 42.3628056; -71.0686306Coordinates: 42°21′46.10″N 71°04′07.07″W / 42.3628056°N 71.0686306°W / 42.3628056; -71.0686306
Organization
TypeTeaching
Affiliated universityHarvard Medical School
Services
Emergency departmentLevel I Trauma Center and Level I Pediatric Trauma Center[1]
Beds999
Helipads
HelipadFAA LID: 0MA1[2]
Number Length Surface
ft m
H1 60 18 Asphalt
History
Opened1811[3]
Links
Websitewww.massgeneral.org
giving.massgeneral.org
ListsHospitals in Massachusetts

In November 2017, The Boston Globe ranked MGH the fifth best place to work out of Massachusetts companies with over 1,000 employees.[6]

HistoryEdit

From the upper:
The Bulfinch Building as it appeared in 1941, including the Ether Dome.
The Bulfinch Building: State of the Art from the Start.

Founded in 1811,[3] the original hospital was designed by the famous American architect Charles Bulfinch.[7] It is the third-oldest general hospital in the United States; only Pennsylvania Hospital (1751) and NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital's predecessor New York Hospital (1771) are older.[3] John Warren, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at Harvard Medical School, spearheaded the move of the medical school to Boston. Warren's son, John Collins Warren, a graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, along with James Jackson, led the efforts to start the Massachusetts General Hospital, which was initially proposed in 1810 by Rev. John Bartlett, the Chaplain of the Almshouse in Boston. Because all those who had sufficient money were cared for at home, Massachusetts General Hospital, like most hospitals that were founded in the 19th century, was intended to care for the poor.[8] A 30-year-old sailor was the first patient admitted to the hospital on September 3, 1821.[9] During the mid-to-late 19th century, Harvard Medical School was located adjacent to Massachusetts General Hospital.

Walter J. Dodd established the radiology department at the hospital. From just after the discovery of x-rays in 1895, until his early death in 1916 from metastatic cancer caused by multiple radiation cancers he oversaw the radiology department. He also underwent over 50 surgical procedures at the hospital to treat his radiation injuries, from skin grafts to amputations.[10]

The first American hospital social workers were based in the hospital.[11]

The hospital's work with developing specialized computer software systems for medical use in the 1960s led to the development of the MUMPS programming language, which stands for "Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System," an important programming language and database system heavily used in medical applications such as patient records and billing. A major patient database system called File Manager, which was developed by the Veterans Administration (now the Department of Veterans' Affairs), was created using this language.

Early use of anesthesiaEdit

 
Monument in Boston commemorating Morton's demonstration of ether's anesthetic use

It was in the Ether Dome of MGH in October 1846,[7] that a local dentist, William Thomas Green Morton, was invited to perform a public demonstration of the administration of inhaled ether to produce insensibility to pain during surgery.[7] Several years prior, Dr. Crawford Long of Danielsville, Georgia had given ether for surgery, but his work was unknown outside Georgia until he published his experience in 1849. On 16 October 1846, after administration of ether by Morton, MGH Chief of Surgery, John Collins Warren, painlessly removed a tumor from the neck of a local printer, Edward Gilbert Abbott.[7] Upon completion of the procedure, which was without screaming or restraint, the usually skeptical Warren reportedly quipped, "Gentlemen, this is no humbug." News of this "anesthesia" invention rapidly traveled within months around the world.[12]

A reenactment of the Ether Dome event was painted in 2000 by artists Warren and Lucia Prosperi. They used the then-MGH staff to pose as their counterparts from 1846.[13] The Ether Dome still exists[7] and is open to the public.

An anesthesia department was established at the MGH in 1936 under the leadership of Henry Knowles Beecher.

First successful replantation of a severed limbEdit

On May, 1962, under the direction of Ronald A. Malt, a team of surgeons successfully accomplished the first replantation of completely severed limb.[14]

While attempting to hitch a ride on the back of a freight train, Everett Knowles hit an abutment when the train lurched, severing his arm completely at the shoulder. He and his arm were rushed to MGH, where a 30 year old Malt conducted the team of surgeons. Some doctors prepared Everett for surgery, while others worked on the separated arm. First, they rejoined the "chaotically mangled blood vessels, then the bone and finally the skin." In the time since the accident, the arm had grown a "deathly gray," but grew steadily pink as the surgery progressed and blood vessels were reattached. The nerves would be reconnected in a later surgery.[15][16]

"All we did," said the modest Dr. Malt, "was apply techniques we've known about for a long time and simply never had occasion to correlate before…The astonishing thing was not the newness of the operation but the teamwork—the way 12 doctors with expert skills, distinguished a collection of authorities as you could find anywhere, were willing to stand by and feed the incomparable extent of their knowledge to me, for no gain other than to know they had contributed."[15]

In April 2019, MGH received a $200 million gift from Cambridge entrepreneur Phillip "Terry" Ragon to endow a permanent vaccine research center. This gift is the largest in the hospital's history and is addition to the $100 million gift he previously gave the hospital. The center is currently testing an HIV vaccine in South Africa.[17]

Facilities and current operationsEdit

The main MGH campus is located at 55 Fruit Street in Boston, Massachusetts. It has expanded into an area formerly known as the West End, adjacent to the Charles River and Beacon Hill. The hospital handles around 1.5 million outpatient visits each year at its main campus, as well as its seven satellite facilities in Boston at Back Bay, Charlestown, Chelsea, Everett, Revere, Waltham and Danvers. With more than 25,000 employees, the hospital is the largest non-governmental employer in Boston.[18]

The hospital has 1,011 beds and admits around 50,000 patients each year.[5] The surgical staff performs over 34,000 operations yearly.[19] The obstetrics service handles over 3,800 births each year.[20] The Massachusetts General Hospital Trauma Center is the oldest and largest American College of Surgeons-verified Level One Trauma Center in New England,[21] evaluating and treating over 2600 trauma patients per year.[22] Architect Hisham N. Ashkouri, working in conjunction with Hoskins Scott Taylor and Partners, provided the space designs and schematics for the pediatrics, neonatal intensive care, and in-patient related floors, as well as the third-floor surgical suites and support facilities. In the fall of 2004, the Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care (named for Jean R. Yawkey) opened. This 380,000-square-foot (35,000 m2) ten-floor facility is the largest and most comprehensive outpatient building in New England.[23] In 2011, the Lunder Building, a 530,000 square foot, 14-floor building opened. The building houses three floors of operating rooms, an expanded emergency room, radiation oncology suites, inpatient neurology and neurosurgery floors, and inpatient oncology floors; all of which increase the inpatient capacity by 150 beds.

Massachusetts General Hospital for ChildrenEdit

Massachusetts General Hospital for Children
Partners Healthcare
 
 
Organisation
FundingNon-profit hospital
TypeChildren's hospital
Affiliated universityHarvard Medical School
Services
Emergency departmentLevel 1 Pediatric Trauma Center
History
Former name(s)Children's Health Service
Links
Websitehttps://www.massgeneral.org/children/

Massachusetts General Hospital for Children (MGHfC) is a pediatric acute care children's teaching hospital located in Boston, Massachusetts. The hospital has an estimated 100 pediatric beds[24] and is affiliated the Harvard Medical School.[25] The hospital is a member of Partners Healthcare and is the only children's hospital in the network. The hospital provides comprehensive pediatric specialties and subspecialties to infants, children, teens, and young adults aged 0–21[26][27] throughout Boston and the wider Massachusetts. Massachusetts General Hospital for Children also sometimes treats adults that require pediatric care.[28] Massachusetts General Hospital for Children also features the only ACS verified Level 1 Adult and Pediatric Trauma Center in the state.[29] The hospital is directly attached to Massachusetts General Hospital and near the Ronald Mcdonald House of New England.[30]

The hospital has an American Academy of Pediatrics verified level III neonatal intensive care unit that has a capacity of 18 bassinets.[31] The hospital also has a 14-bed pediatric intensive care unit for critical pediatric patients age 0-21.[32]

AwardsEdit

As of 2021 Massachusetts General Hospital for Children has placed nationally in 5 ranked pediatric specialties on U.S. News & World Report.

U.S. News & World Report Rankings for Massachusetts General Hospital for Children[33]
Specialty Rank (In the U.S.) Score (Out of 100)
Neonatology #42 79.1
Pediatric Diabetes & Endocrinology #28 70.7
Pediatric Gastroenterology & GI Surgery #25 79.6
Pediatric Pulmonology & Lung Surgery #23 77.6
Pediatric Urology #47 51.1

The Mass General Research InstituteEdit

Massachusetts General Hospital conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the United States, with an annual research budget of over $1 billion[34] in 2019. The hospital received the 10th most funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2018,[35] with ~$500 million going to support 959 awards. The Mass General Research Institute was launched in 2015 as a formalized way to support promote and guide research at Massachusetts General Hospital. Research at Mass General takes place in over 30 departments, centers, and institutes across the hospital. The hospital is home to fundamental research labs investigating the basic building blocks of life as well as a clinical research program with approximately 1,200 active clinical trials. The hospital has six thematic research centers:

  • The Center for Systems Biology
  • The Center for Regenerative Medicine
  • The Center for Genomic Medicine
  • The Wellman Center for Photomedicine
  • The Center for Computational and Integrative Biology
  • The Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard

Notable scientists at MGH include Jack Szostak, PhD, 2009 Nobel Prize Winner in Physiology or Medicine,[36] Rakesh Jain, PhD, a 2015 recipient of the National Medal of Science,[37] and Gary Ruvkun, PhD, winner of the 2014 Wolf Prize in Medicine,[38] the 2014 Gruber Prize in Genetics[39] and the 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences.[40] In 2019, 55 scientists from MGH were listed in Clarivate Analytics’ Web of Science annual Highly Cited Researchers Report.[41] There are 23 MGH researchers in the National Academy of Medicine (some are listed under their Harvard Medical School affiliation),[42] and four MGH researchers in the National Academy of Sciences.[43]

Notable medications that have resulted from research at Mass General include:

Treatment Company Description Investigator
Enbrel Amgen Treatment for autoimmune diseases Brian Seed, PhD
Duralt Longevity E1, Vivacit-E Zimmer Biomet Polyethelyne that reduces orthopedic implant wear William H. Harris, MD, DSc and Orhun Muratoglu, PhD
Coolsculpting Allergan Selective freezing of fat for aesthetic fat removal Rox Anderson, MD
INOmax Mallinckrodt Hyponic respiratory failure treatment in neonates Warren Zapol, MD
StarLux CynoSure Laser hair removal Rox Anderson, MD
Victoza Johnson & Johnson Treatment for type 2 diabetes Joel Habner, MD
Cobas EFGR Mutation Test LabCorp Photodynamic therapy of wet age-related macular degeneration Tayyaba Hasan, PhD (Wellman Center for Photomedicine)
Visudyne Novartis Photodynamic therapy of wet age-related macular degeneration Tayyaba Hasan, PhD
Entyvio Takeda Treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease Robert B. Colvin, MD and Andrew Lazarvotis, MD

TransportationEdit

The closest MBTA stop to the main campus is Charles/MGH on the Red Line. On March 27, 2007, the new Charles/MGH station was opened with new renovations, including handicap accessible elevators.[44] There are five main food service areas for the general public on the MGH campus. They include the Eat Street Cafe in the lower level of the Ellison Building, the Blossom Street Cafe in the Cox lobby, Coffee Central in the White lobby, Tea Leaves and Coffee Beans in the Wang Ambulatory Care Center, and Coffee South in the Yawkey outpatient center.

Second OpinionsEdit

The hospital offers a global second opinion service in cooperation with Grand Rounds.[45]

Affiliated institutionsEdit

Massachusetts General Hospital is affiliated with Harvard Medical School and is its original teaching hospital. Together they form an academic health science center. In February 2009, the Phillip T. and Susan M. Ragon Institute of immunology was founded to bolster research into creating vaccines and other therapies for acquired immune system conditions, chiefly AIDS. It was made possible by a $100 million gift over ten years, and represents the largest single donation made to MGH.[46]

The Recovery Research Institute was created in 2013 by Dr. John F. Kelly, the first ever endowed professor of Addiction Medicine at Harvard Medical School.[47] The institute is a part of the Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Psychiatry[48] and published the National Recovery Study, the first-ever nationally representative study on the number of Americans in recovery from alcohol or other drug use.[49] The institute also created the Addictionary, the first ever glossary of addiction-related terms and a system for stigmatized terminology alerts.[50][51][52]

MGH is affiliated with the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute through Dana-Farber/Partners Cancer Care and the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center.[35] They are also affiliated with Project Pinball Charity. In 2015, MGH Home Base Program became a founding partner of the Warrior Care Network health system focused on treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans, along with partners Emory Healthcare, Rush University Medical Center, UCLA Health and Wounded Warrior Project.[53][54]

Though it has its own chief of psychiatry and top-ranking department, MGH is closely affiliated with nearby McLean Hospital, a psychiatric hospital also affiliated with Harvard Medical School.[55]

Awards and recognitionEdit

Nobel laureatesEdit

There have been thirteen Nobel Laureates who have either worked or trained at MGH.[56]

RankingsEdit

In 2015, MGH was named the number one hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report and is nationally ranked in 16 specialties.

In 2012, MGH was named the number one hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report.

In 2011, MGH was named the second best hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report. MGH consistently ranks as one of the country's top hospitals in U.S. News & World Report.[57] In 2011, MGH was also ranked as one of the top three hospitals in the country for Diabetes & Endocrinology; Ear, Nose & Throat; Neurology & Neurosurgery; Ophthalmology; Orthopedics; and Psychiatry.

In 2003, MGH was named the state's first Magnet hospital by the American Nurses Credentialing Center, a subsidiary of the American Nurses Association. Magnet recognition represents the highest honor awarded for nursing excellence.[58]

In August 2011, Becker's Hospital Review listed MGH as number 12 on the 100 Top Grossing Hospitals in America with $5.64 billion in gross revenue.[59]

ControversiesEdit

A former MGH physician filed a lawsuit under seal in May 2015 alleging that at least five orthopedic surgeons endangered patient safety by keeping them under anesthesia longer than necessary while the surgeons performed simultaneous surgeries. Dr. Lisa Wollman refiled the lawsuit in June 2017, citing concerns that the hospital was driven by economic benefit and keeping patients unaware of the practice of concurrent surgeries. Wollman's attorney claimed that Medicare and Medicaid were being defrauded because they require that the surgeons must be present for all "critical portions" of the surgery in order to be compensated.[60]

The hospital released a statement defending the use of overlapping surgeries: "The MGH continues to believe that its practices comply with all applicable laws and regulations, and the hospital will defend the claims accordingly."[60]

The records of those involved in research studies at Massachusetts General Hospital were affected in an incident that exposed their names, diagnoses, and tests.

In a June 2019 incident that was reported in August, approximately 10,000 patients, who were participating in research studies at MGH, had their names, dates of birth, diagnoses, tests, medical record numbers, and medical histories exposed in a data breach by "An unauthorized third party".[61]

Educational unitsEdit

(in partnership with Harvard University)[62]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Verified Trauma Centers". American College of Surgeons. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
  2. ^ "AirNav: 0MA1 - Massachusetts General Hospital Heliport". Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  3. ^ a b c Liz Kowalczyk (February 26, 2011). "A great institution rises and, with it, the healing arts". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2011-02-26.
  4. ^ "About Massachusetts General Hospital". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  5. ^ a b "U.S. News Announces 2020-21 Best Hospitals". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 10 Aug 2020.
  6. ^ Johnson, Katie (2017-11-16). "Top largest employers for 2017 in Greater Boston". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 2018-11-17. Retrieved 2018-10-03.
  7. ^ a b c d e Sara Brown (February 23, 2011). "New Beacon Hill museum will showcase MGH medical innovations". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  8. ^ "Harvard Medical School: A History and Background". Archived from the original on 2007-05-16. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  9. ^ "Massachusetts General Hospital Admits First Patient". MassMoments. Mass Humanities. Archived from the original on 2019-05-27. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
  10. ^ Suit, Herman D.; Loeffler, Jay S. (4 February 2011). Evolution of Radiation Oncology at Massachusetts General Hospital. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781441967442. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  11. ^ Beder, J. (2006). Hospital Social Work: The interface of medicine and caring... Routledge: New York
  12. ^ Fenster, J. M. (2001). Ether Day: The Strange Tale of America's Greatest Medical Discovery and the Haunted Men Who Made It. New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019523-6.
  13. ^ Museum at Mass General Archived 2013-04-15 at Archive.today
  14. ^ "Ronald Malt". The Times. 2002-11-11. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  15. ^ a b Howard, Jane (1962). "He Takes a Grip on Life". Life Magazine.
  16. ^ "Donald Alan Malt". Harvard Gazette. 2006-03-02. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  17. ^ Di Mento, Maria (2019-04-26). "Tech Billionaires Give $200 Million to Mass. General Hospital". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. Archived from the original on 2019-04-27. Retrieved 2019-04-27.
  18. ^ "The Largest Employers in the City of Boston 2013". Boston Redevelopment Authority. Archived from the original on 15 October 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  19. ^ "Hospital Overview". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  20. ^ "Obstetrics Program". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  21. ^ "Hospital Overview". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  22. ^ "Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical Care". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  23. ^ Perkins, Will (September 2007). "Massachusetts General Hospital—Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care [Boston, MA]". Healthcare Design. Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  24. ^ "Greener pastures: Mass General's ambitious plans to compete in pediatric care". FierceHealthcare. Archived from the original on 2016-10-29. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  25. ^ "Harvard-Wide Pediatric Health Services Research Fellowship". Massachusetts General Hospital for Children. Archived from the original on 2020-09-26. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  26. ^ "Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 2020-05-02. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  27. ^ "Down Syndrome Adolescent & Young Adult Clinic". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 2020-06-19. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  28. ^ "CHD Clinic - Massachusetts General Hospital Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program". ACHA. Archived from the original on 2020-09-26. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  29. ^ "Trauma Centers". American College of Surgeons. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  30. ^ "About Us". Ronald McDonald House Boston Harbor. Archived from the original on 2020-08-03. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  31. ^ "NICUSearch". AAP.org. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  32. ^ "Our Mission". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 2020-07-11. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  33. ^ "Best Children's Hospitals". U.S. News and World Report. 2021.
  34. ^ "Overview of the Research Institute". Archived from the original on 2020-05-10. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  35. ^ "NIH Awards by Location and Organization - NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT)". report.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-07-07. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  36. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009". NobelPrize.org. Archived from the original on 2019-06-16. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  37. ^ "President Obama to Honor Rakesh Jain of MGH and Harvard Medical School | INDIA New England News". Indianewengland.com. 2015-12-22. Archived from the original on 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  38. ^ "פרופ' גארי רובקון, Gary Ruvkun". www.wolffund.org.il. Archived from the original on 2019-07-02. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  39. ^ "Gary Ruvkun | Gruber Foundation". gruber.yale.edu. Archived from the original on 2019-07-09. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  40. ^ "Breakthrough Prize – Life Sciences Breakthrough Prize Laureates – Gary Ruvkun". breakthroughprize.org. Archived from the original on 2019-07-02. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  41. ^ "Highly Cited Researchers - The Most Influential Scientific Minds". HCR. Archived from the original on 2019-02-20. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  42. ^ (deceased). "Directory – National Academy of Medicine". Nam.edu. Archived from the original on 2019-07-02. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  43. ^ "Member Search". www.nasonline.org. Archived from the original on 2017-03-26. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  44. ^ "New Charles/MGH Station Opens". Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  45. ^ "Remote Second Opinions - Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA". www.massgeneral.org. Archived from the original on 2019-02-20. Retrieved 2017-04-24.
  46. ^ "History - The Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard". The Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  47. ^ "John F. Kelly, Ph.D., ABPP. Elizabeth R. Spallin Professor of Psychiatry in Addiction Medicine at Harvard Medical School". Harvard University. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  48. ^ "MGH launches Recovery Research Institute". Massachusetts General Hospital. November 8, 2013. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
  49. ^ Kelly, John (October 18, 2017). "Prevalence and pathways of recovery from drug and alcohol problems in the United States population: Implications for practice, research, and policy". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 181: 162–169 – via US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health.
  50. ^ Hamstra, Emily (May 7, 2020). "Addictionary: a Glossary of Substance Use Disorder Terminology". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  51. ^ Providers Clinical Support System (July 24, 2018). "The ADDICTIONary, created by Facing Addiction and the Recovery Research Institute". Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  52. ^ Polansky, Brittany (September 20, 2019). "The 'Addictionary'". First Step Behavioral Health. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  53. ^ "Wounded Warrior Project announces Warrior Care Network". www.healio.com. June 8, 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  54. ^ Jolie, Charlie (January 18, 2016). "Rush Launches Intensive Outpatient Program for Veterans". Rush University Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2017-08-17. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  55. ^ "History - MGH McLean Adult Psychiatry Residency Program". Massachusetts General Hospital. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  56. ^ Massachusetts General Hospital. "MGH Nobel Prize Laureates throughout history". Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  57. ^ Kotz, Deborah (17 July 2012). "Massachusetts General Hospital earns top spot in US News ranking for first time". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  58. ^ "Accreditation of Continuing Nursing Education" (PDF). ANCC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  59. ^ "Becker's Hospital Review". Becker's Healthcare. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  60. ^ a b Saltzman, Jonathan; Wallack, Todd (2017-06-07). "Whistle-blower files suit over alleged double-booked surgeries". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 2017-06-08. Retrieved 2017-06-08.
  61. ^ Globe, Staff (2019-08-22). "MGH reports data breach that exposed information of nearly 10,000 people". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 2019-08-22. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  62. ^ "MGH Institute of Health Professions |". www.mghihp.edu. Archived from the original on 2019-06-30. Retrieved 2019-06-30.

External linksEdit