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Richard Allen Garriott de Cayeux (né Garriott; born July 4, 1961) is an American and British video-game developer and entrepreneur. Although both his parents were American, he maintains dual British citizenship by birth.
Richard Allen Garriott
July 4, 1961
|Occupation||Video game developer|
|Known for||Ultima series|
|Relatives||Robert Garriott (brother)|
|Awards||AIAS Hall of Fame Award (2006)|
|Space Adventures private astronaut|
Time in space
|11d 20h 35m|
Garriott, who is the son of NASA astronaut Owen Garriott, was originally a game designer and programmer, and is now involved in a number of aspects of computer-game development. On October 12, 2008, Richard flew aboard the Soyuz TMA-13 mission to the International Space Station as a private astronaut, returning 12 days later aboard Soyuz TMA-12. He became the second astronaut, and first from the United States, to have a parent who was also a space traveler. During his ISS flight, he created the first narrative film to be made in space, Apogee of Fear (2012).
Richard Allen Garriott was born in Cambridge, England on 4 July 1961, to Helen Mary (née Walker) Garriott (April 18, 1930 - September 5, 2017) and Owen Garriott, one of NASA's first scientist-astronauts (selected in NASA Astronaut Group 4), who flew on Skylab 3 and Space Shuttle mission STS-9. His parents had been high school sweethearts growing up in Enid, Oklahoma.:61 Although both his parents were Americans, Garriott claims dual citizenship for both the United States and Great Britain by birth.
Richard was raised in Nassau Bay, Texas from the age of about two months. Since his childhood, he had dreamed of becoming a NASA astronaut like his father. Eyesight problems discovered at the age of 13 blocked his ambition, however, so he instead came to focus on computer game development.
What Garriott later described as "my first real exposure to computers" occurred in 1975, during his freshman year of high school at Clear Creek High School. As he wanted more experience beyond the single one-semester BASIC class the school offered, and as a fan of The Lord of the Rings and Dungeons & Dragons, Garriott convinced the school to let him create a self-directed course in programming, in which he created fantasy computer games on the school's teletype machine. Garriott later estimated that he wrote 28 computer fantasy games during high school.
A common part of his game pseudonyms is "British". Garriott uses the name to this day for his various gaming characters, including Ultima character Lord British and Tabula Rasa character General British. The name was given to him by his first Dungeons and Dragons friends because he was born in the UK.
Game design careerEdit
Garriott began writing computer games in 1974. His first games were created on and for teletype terminals. The code was stored on paper tape spools and the game was displayed as an ongoing print-out on the spools of printer paper produced by teletype machines. In summer 1979, Garriott worked at a ComputerLand store where he had his first encounter with Apple computers. Inspired by their video monitors with color graphics, he began to add perspective view to his own games. After he created Akalabeth for fun, the owner of the store convinced Garriott it might sell. Garriott spent US$200 printing copies of a manual and cover sheet that his mother had drawn, then he put copies of the game in Ziploc bags to sell at the store. Although Garriott sold fewer than a dozen copies of Akalabeth at the store, one copy made it to California Pacific, who signed a deal with him. The game sold over 30,000 copies, and Garriott received $5 for each copy sold. Akalabeth is considered the first published Computer Role Playing Game. In the fall, Garriott entered the University of Texas at Austin, joined the school's fencing team and later joined the Society for Creative Anachronism. He created Ultima I while at the university. It was published by California Pacific Computers and sold in Ziploc plastic bags, as was common in those days.
Steve Jackson Games (SJG) maintained a friendly relationship with Garriott and, when he visited the SJG office one day, Garriott was so impressed by the artwork of Denis Loubet that he commissioned him to paint the cover of Ultima I (1980). Loubet subsequently painted many other covers for Garriott's games.
In the early 1980s, Garriott continued to develop the Ultima series of computer games, eventually leaving university to author them on a full-time basis. Originally programmed for the Apple II, the Ultima series later became available on several platforms. Ultima II was published by Sierra On-Line, as they were the only company that would agree to publish it in a box together with a printed cloth map. By the time he developed Ultima III, Garriott, together with his brother Robert, their father Owen and Chuck Bueche established their own video game publisher, Origin Systems, to handle publishing and distribution, in part due to controversy with Sierra over royalties for the PC port of Ultima II.
Garriott sold Origin Systems to Electronic Arts in September 1992 for 30 million dollars. In 1997, he coined the term massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), giving a new identity to the nascent genre previously known as graphical MUDs. In 1999 and 2000, EA canceled all of Origin's new development projects, including Privateer Online, and Harry Potter Online. In the midst of these events, Garriott resigned from the company and returned to the industry by forming Destination Games in April 2000 with his brother and Starr Long (the producer of Ultima Online). Once Garriott's non-compete agreement with EA expired a year later, Destination partnered with NCsoft where he acted as a producer and designer of MMORPGs. After that, he became the CEO of NCsoft Austin, also known as NC Interactive.
Tabula Rasa failed to generate a significant amount of money during its initial release, despite its seven-year development period. On November 11, 2008, in an open letter on the Tabula Rasa website, Garriott announced his plans to leave NCsoft to pursue new interests sparked by his spaceflight experiences. Later, however, Garriott claimed that the letter was forged as a means of forcing him out of his position and that he had had no intention of leaving.‹See TfM›[failed verification – see discussion] Garriott reviewed and signed this announcement, but did not sign a resignation letter that had been drafted for him by NCSoft. On November 24, 2008 NCsoft announced that it planned to end the live service of Tabula Rasa. The servers shut down on February 28, 2009, after a period of free play from January 10 onward for existing account holders.
In July 2010, an Austin District Court awarded Garriott US$28 million in his lawsuit against NCsoft, finding that the company did not appropriately handle his departure in 2008. In October 2011, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed the judgment.
Garriott founded the company Portalarium in 2009. The company is developing Shroud of the Avatar: Forsaken Virtues, a spiritual successor to the Ultima series, with Garriott having remarked that had they been able to secure the rights to the Ultima intellectual property from Electronic Arts, the game could have become Ultima Online 2 in name. On March 8, 2013, Portalarium launched a Kickstarter campaign for Shroud of the Avatar: Forsaken Virtues. An early access version of the game was released on Steam on November 24, 2014, and the game was fully released in March 2018.
In 1983, Softline reported that "Garriott wants to go into space but doesn't see it happening in the predictable future ... He has frequently joked with his father about stowing away on a spaceship, and recently his speculations have been sounding uncomfortably realistic". The income from the success of Garriott's video game career allowed him to pursue his interest in spaceflight, and the sale of Origin Systems allowed him to invest in Space Adventures and purchase the ticket to become the first private citizen to fly into space. However, Garriott suffered financial setbacks in 2001 after the dot-com bubble burst, and he was forced to sell his seat to Dennis Tito.
Garriott says he then returned to making games in order to make more money, and once he had enough, he put down another non-refundable deposit to go into space. During the mandatory medical examination, they found he had a hemangioma on his liver, which could cause potentially fatal internal bleeding if there was a rapid depressurization of a spacecraft. Told he had to either give up his large deposit, or undergo life-threatening surgery, he decided to have the operation, and now has a 16-inch (41 cm) scar from it. He spent a year in Russia training before he launched into space.
On September 28, 2007, Space Adventures announced that Garriott would fly to the International Space Station in October 2008 as a self-funded private astronaut, reportedly paying US$30 million. On October 12, 2008, Garriott became the second second-generation space traveler (after Sergei Volkov) and the first offspring of an American astronaut to go into space, and the second person to wear the British Union flag in space. The Soyuz docked with the station on October 14. His father, Owen K. Garriott, was at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for the launch of his son and was in attendance when a Soyuz capsule returned with his son twelve days later.
During his spaceflight, Garriott took part in several education outreach efforts. As a part of that outreach program he worked with the free Metro newspaper in London, which provided him with a special edition containing details of British primary school student's space experiment concepts which Richard took to the ISS. The Metro has claimed as a result that it was the first newspaper in space. He was an Amateur Radio Operator (call sign W5KWQ, now expired), and during his stay on the International Space Station (ISS), communicated with students and other Amateur Radio operators using Amateur Radio. Garriott also transmitted photographs using the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) slow-scan television system. Garriott also placed a geocache while aboard the ISS.
Garriott also worked with the Windows on Earth project, which provides an interactive, virtual view of Earth as seen from the ISS. Garriott used Windows on Earth software to assist in the selection of locations on Earth to photograph, and the public were able to use the same online tool to track the ISS and see the view Richard was experiencing out an ISS window. Richard's photographs, along with images taken by his astronaut father Owen Garriott in 1973, will be available to the public through Windows on Earth, adding a personal element to studies of Earth and how Earth has changed over time.
On October 24, Russian cosmonauts of ISS Expedition 17, Sergei Volkov and Oleg Kononenko, along with private astronaut Richard Garriott, aboard Soyuz TMA-12 capsule, landed safely (ideal) at 09:36 (03:36GMT, 07:36 Moscow time), 55 miles north of Arkalyk, Kazakhstan. They were lifted to the Kazakhstan Baikonur space center by helicopter, and then flew to Zvezdny Gorodok (Star City), Moscow Region.
On June 3, 2009, the New York Daily News announced that Garriott would officiate at the first wedding to be held in zero gravity. The wedding took place in a specially modified Boeing 727-200 aircraft, G-Force One, operated by Zero Gravity Corporation, or ZERO-G, a company offering weightless flight experiences, of which he is the co-founder.
In 2010 he was featured in a documentary, Man on a Mission: Richard Garriott's Road to the Stars, which covered his spaceflight training and mission into orbit.
Other accomplishments and interestsEdit
In 1986, Garriott helped start the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. His high school science teacher was June Scobee-Rogers, wife of Challenger Shuttle Commander Dick Scobee, who piloted the STS-51-L mission. STS-51-L was intended to carry the first teacher in space flight, before it and its crew were tragically lost on lift off. Scobee drew on Garriott's early leadership in gaming, to help design what has become approximately 50 global interactive networked facilities, where students study about and perform simulated space missions.
Garriott bought the Luna 21 lander and the Lunokhod 2 rover (both currently on lunar surface) from the Lavochkin Association for $68,500 in December 1993 at a Sotheby's auction in New York (although the catalog incorrectly lists lot 68A as Luna 17/Lunokhod 1). Garriott notes that while UN treaties ban governmental ownership of property on other celestial bodies, corporations and private citizens retain such rights. Lunokhod 2 is still in use, with mirrors aligned to reflect lasers such that precise Earth-Moon distances can be measured. With his vehicle "still in use", Garriott claims property rights to the territory surveyed by Lunokhod 2. This may be the first valid claim for private ownership of extraterrestrial territory. Lunokhod 2 held the record for distance traveled on the surface another planetary body, until it was surpassed by NASA's Opportunity Rover in 2014.
Garriott built a haunted house/museum at his residence called Britannia Manor in Austin, Texas. Garriott's haunted house was stated to cost $50,000 each year and took two months to construct. In 1991 the haunted house event was cancelled, as Garriott was busy working on Ultima VII.
Garriott wrote a memoir (with David Fisher) covering his accomplishments in games publishing and his spaceflight; entitled Explore/Create: My Life in Pursuit of New Frontiers, Hidden Worlds, and the Creative Spark, it was published on January 10, 2017.
- Garriott was named Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award in 1992.
- Garriott became the ninth inductee into the Academy of Interactive Arts and Sciences' Hall of Fame in 2006.
- Garriott became the sixth recipient of the Game Developers Choice Lifetime Achievement Award in 2006.
- Garriott received the British Interplanetary Society's Sir Arthur Clarke Award for Best Individual Achievement in 2009.
- Garriott received the British Interplanetary Society's Astronaut Pin given to British-born astronauts in 2009.
- Garriott received the Society of NASA Flight Surgeons Lovelace Award for Contributions to Space Medicine in 2009.
- Garriott was inducted into the Environmental Hall of Fame in 2010.
|Game name||First released||Garriott's role(s)|
|Akalabeth: World of Doom||1979||Game designer & programmer|
|Ultima I: The First Age of Darkness||1981||Original conceptor, programmer & graphic artist|
|Ultima II: The Revenge of the Enchantress||1982||Game designer|
|Ultima III: Exodus||1983||Project director|
|Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar||1985||Project director|
|Autoduel||1985||Programmer & designer|
|Ultima V: Warriors of Destiny||1988||Designer, writer & programmer|
|Ultima VI: The False Prophet||1990||Designer, producer, sound effect worker, writer & voice actor|
|Worlds of Ultima: The Savage Empire||1990||Executive producer|
|Ultima: Worlds of Adventure 2: Martian Dreams||1991||Creative director|
|Ultima: Runes of Virtue||1991||Creative director|
|Ultima Underworld: The Stygian Abyss||1992||Director & voice actor|
|Ultima VII: The Black Gate||1992||Director & producer|
|Ultima VII: Forge of Virtue||1993||Creative assistance & producer|
|Ultima VII Part Two: Serpent Isle||1993||Creative director & audio team member|
|Ultima VII Part Two: The Silver Seed||1993||Director & voice actor|
|Ultima VIII: Pagan||1994||Producer|
|Ultima: Runes of Virtue II||1994||Creative director & additional design|
|Ultima VIII: The Lost Vale||Cancelled||Producer|
|Ultima Online: The Second Age||1998||Executive designer|
|Ultima IX: Ascension||1999||Director|
|Lineage II||2003||Executive producer|
|City of Heroes||2004||Executive producer|
|City of Villains||2005||Executive management|
|Tabula Rasa||2007||Creative director & executive producer|
|Shroud of the Avatar: Forsaken Virtues||2018||Creative director|
- "One on One With Richard 'Lord British' Garriott". PC Gamer. UK. August 2007. p. 11. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
PCG: 'How did you come by the alias of Lord British? You're obviously not English. Richard Garriott: 'Actually, that's not true ... I am a British citizen. That said, I only lived there for about two months prior to moving to the States.'
- "D.I.C.E Special Awards". Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- Mark Carreau (2008). "$30 million buys Austin resident a ride on Soyuz mission". The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
- Tariq Malik. "Former Astronaut's Son Signs on as Next Space Tourist". SPACE.com. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
- About – Portalarium from official company website
- Garriott de Cayeux, Richard. "By the way..." Google+. Archived from the original on 2017-04-14. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
- Durkee, David (Nov–Dec 1983). "Profiles in Programming / Lord British". Softline. p. 26. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Inside Ultima IV". Computer Gaming World. March 1986. pp. 18–21. Archived from the original on 2008-12-27.
- Garriott Family (2017-09-05). Helen Mary Walker Garriott. Enid News, 5 September 2017. Retrieved on 2020-07-04 from https://obituaries.enidnews.com/obituary/helen-mary-garriott-972976051.
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- Shayler, David J.; Burgess, Colin (2007). NASA's Scientist Astronauts. Praxis Publishing. ISBN 0-387-21897-1. LCCN 2006930295.
- "NASA said no to my astronaut dream, so I found another way". NBC News. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
- Official Book of Ultima by Shay Addams, page 3-5
- Garriott, Richard (July 1988). "Lord British Kisses and Tells All / as told by His Royal Highness, High King of Britannia". Computer Gaming World. p. 28. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- King, Brad; John Borland (2003). Dungeons and Dreamers: The Rise of Computer Game Culture from Geek to Chic. McGraw-Hill. pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-07-222888-1.
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- "Richard Garriott's Ultima Story - Retro Tea Break," https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LU90N4Cbj10
- The Official Book of Ultima, page 8
- Ferrell, Keith (January 1989). "Dungeon Delving with Richard Garriott". Compute!. p. 16. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Shannon Appelcline (2011). Designers & Dragons. Mongoose Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-907702-58-7.
- The Official Book of Ultima (second edition), page 25.
- Gillen, Kieron (2008-03-04). "Warren Spector Interviews Every-Bloody-One". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Pimps and Dragons". The New Yorker. 2001-05-28. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
- Safko, Ron; Brake, David (2009). The Social Media Bible: Tactics, Tools, and Strategies for Business Success. Wiley. ISBN 0-470-41155-4.
Richard Garriott first coined the term MMORPG in 1997.
- Linder, Brian (2001-05-10). "IGN: Harry Potter LEGO Redux". Retrieved 2007-04-28.
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- "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 2009-05-20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-20. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
- "RICHARD GARRIOTT v. NCSOFT CORPORATION | FindLaw". 21 October 2011.
Later that day, NCsoft sent Garriott a press release announcing his departure to Tabula Rasa fans. Garriott reviewed and signed the announcement, which stated that 'I am leaving NCsoft to pursue [other] interests.'
- Garriott, Richard (2008-11-11). "Richard Garriott's Tabula Rasa – An Open Letter from General British". Archived from the original on 2008-12-27. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
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- Jef Reahard. "Garriott's Ultimate RPG 'clearly the spiritual successor' to Ultima". Engadget. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Garriott's Ultimate RPG could become Ultima Online 2". Eurogamer.net. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- LOGIN 2011 Keynote: Richard Garriott - The Next Big Games. YouTube. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Lord British shall walk the streets of Britannia again!. YouTube. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Shroud of the Avatar Kickstarter Campaign". Portalarium. 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
- "Shroud of the Avatar Home Page". Portalarium. 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
- O'Connor, Alice (2014-11-25). "Steaming: Shroud Of The Avatar Arrives On Early Access". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
- Starr Long (March 26, 2018). "Launch is Here!". Kickstarter. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
- "The Moth and the World Science Festival Present Richard Garriott: The Overview Effect". YouTube. 2011-12-15. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- Space Adventures, Ltd. (2008). "Space Adventures Announces 1st Second Generation Astronaut". Space Adventures, Ltd. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
- Peter Leonard for The Associated Press (October 12, 2008). "US game designer blasts into space with DNA cargo". USA Today. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Marcia Dunn for The Associated Press (2008). "Space tourist will pay high price for adventure". NBC News. Retrieved October 12, 2008.
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- "Login". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Successful Lift Off For US Space Tourist – Space News – redOrbit". redorbit.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Metro is the first paper in space". Metro.
- Greenslade, Roy. "Metro is 'first newspaper in space'". Guardian. Guardian, London.
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- "International Space Station Traditional Geocache".
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- "LTUE, Day 2". Tachyon City (Nathan Shumate). Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
- "Soyuz space capsule lands safely". BBC. October 24, 2008.
- ap.google.com, American, Russians return from space station[dead link]
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- "ITAR-TASS". Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Boyle, Christina (3 June 2009). "So in love they could float away: Brooklyn couple to wed in zero gravity". New York Daily News.
- "Couple floats into zero gravity nuptials". Reuters. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Heath Newburn (14 March 2010). "Man on a Mission: Richard Garriott's Road to the Stars (2010)". IMDb. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Challenger Center / Space Adventures Announcement Archived 2014-08-12 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Bloc on the Block". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Sotheby's Catalogue – Russian Space History, Addendum, Lot 68A, December 11, 1993
- "Privately Owned Soviet Moon Rover Sparks Space Law Talks". Space.com. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Mars rover Opportunity breaks longest off-Earth driving record, finally beating the speed freak Russians - ExtremeTech". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Garriott's House of Horror". The One. No. 31. emap Images. April 1991. p. 38.
- "Board Of Trustees". XPRIZE. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "NY Couple Gets Hitched in Zero Gravity". Space.com. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Honorary Graduates - Queen Mary University of London". www.qmul.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Shooter Jennings Readies Giorgio Moroder Album". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-10-17. Retrieved 2015-07-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) From virtual-strategy.com
- Mondon, Marielle (2015-08-18). "Is Austin Ready for Personal Rapid Transit? – Next City". Nextcity.org. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Regional Entrepreneurs of the Year". Inc.com. 1992-12-01. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- Sciences, Academy of Interactive Arts &. "Special Awards Details Page". www.interactive.org. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Game Developers Choice Awards". www.gamechoiceawards.com. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- "Honours and Awards". www.bis-space.com. Retrieved 2018-01-08.
- Richard Garriott, Environmentalist from Environmental Hall of Fame
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