United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (in case citations, 5th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following federal judicial districts:
- Eastern District of Louisiana
- Middle District of Louisiana
- Western District of Louisiana
- Northern District of Mississippi
- Southern District of Mississippi
- Eastern District of Texas
- Northern District of Texas
- Southern District of Texas
- Western District of Texas
|United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit|
|Location||John Minor Wisdom United States Court of Appeals Building
New Orleans, Louisiana
|Established||June 16, 1891|
|Chief Judge||Carl E. Stewart|
|Circuit justice||Samuel Alito|
The court is one of 13 United States courts of appeals. Composed of 17 active judges, it is based at the John Minor Wisdom United States Court of Appeals Building in New Orleans, Louisiana, with the clerk's office located at the F. Edward Hebert Federal Building in New Orleans.
History of the courtEdit
This court was created by the Evarts Act on June 16, 1891, which moved the circuit judges and appellate jurisdiction from the Circuit Courts of the Fifth Circuit to this court. At the time of its creation, the Fifth Circuit covered Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.
On June 25, 1948, the Panama Canal Zone was added to the Fifth Circuit by 62 Stat. 870.
On October 1, 1981, under Public Law 96-452, the Fifth Circuit was split: Alabama, Georgia, and Florida were moved to the new Eleventh Circuit.
On March 31, 1982, the Fifth Circuit lost jurisdiction over the Panama Canal Zone, which transferred to Panamanian control.
The Fifth Circuit FourEdit
During the late 1950s, Chief Judge Elbert Tuttle and his three colleagues (John Minor Wisdom, John Brown, and Richard Rives) became known as the "Fifth Circuit Four", or simply "The Four", for decisions crucial in advancing the civil rights of African-Americans. In this, they were usually opposed by their fellow Fifth Circuit Judge, Benjamin F. Cameron of Mississippi, until his death in 1964.
Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans on August 29, 2005, devastating the city and slightly damaging the John Minor Wisdom Courthouse. All deadlines concerning filings were extended. The court temporarily relocated its administrative operations to Houston, but has since returned to normal operations in New Orleans.
Current composition of the courtEdit
As of October 3, 2017, the judges on the court are as follows:
|#||Title||Judge||Duty station||Born||Term of service||Appointed by|
|71||Chief Judge||Carl E. Stewart||Shreveport, LA||1950||1994–present||2012–present||—||Clinton|
|63||Circuit Judge||Edith H. Jones||Houston, TX||1949||1985–present||2006–2012||—||Reagan|
|64||Circuit Judge||Jerry Edwin Smith||Houston, TX||1946||1987–present||—||—||Reagan|
|73||Circuit Judge||James L. Dennis||New Orleans, LA||1936||1995–present||—||—||Clinton|
|74||Circuit Judge||Edith Brown Clement||New Orleans, LA||1948||2001–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|75||Circuit Judge||Edward C. Prado||San Antonio, TX||1947||2003–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|77||Circuit Judge||Priscilla Owen||Austin, TX||1954||2005–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|78||Circuit Judge||Jennifer Walker Elrod||Houston, TX||1966||2007–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|79||Circuit Judge||Leslie H. Southwick||Jackson, MS||1950||2007–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|80||Circuit Judge||Catharina Haynes||Dallas, TX||1963||2008–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|81||Circuit Judge||James E. Graves Jr.||Jackson, MS||1953||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|82||Circuit Judge||Stephen A. Higginson||New Orleans, LA||1961||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|83||Circuit Judge||Gregg Costa||Houston, TX||1972||2014–present||—||—||Obama|
|51||Senior Circuit Judge||Carolyn Dineen King||Houston, TX||1938||1979–2013||1999–2006||2013–present||Carter|
|53||Senior Circuit Judge||Thomas Morrow Reavley||Houston, TX||1921||1979–1990||—||1990–present||Carter|
|59||Senior Circuit Judge||Patrick Higginbotham||Austin, TX||1938||1982–2006||—||2006–present||Reagan|
|60||Senior Circuit Judge||E. Grady Jolly||Jackson, MS||1937||1982–2017||—||2017–present||Reagan|
|61||Senior Circuit Judge||W. Eugene Davis||Lafayette, LA||1936||1983–2016||—||2016–present||Reagan|
|65||Senior Circuit Judge||John Malcolm Duhé Jr.||inactive||1933||1988–1999||—||1999–present||Reagan|
|66||Senior Circuit Judge||Rhesa Hawkins Barksdale||Jackson, MS||1944||1990–2009||—||2009–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|67||Senior Circuit Judge||Jacques L. Wiener Jr.||New Orleans, LA||1934||1990–2010||—||2010–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|70||Senior Circuit Judge||Fortunato "Pete" Benavides||Austin, TX||1947||1994–2012||—||2012–present||Clinton|
Vacancies and pending nominationsEdit
|Seat||Seat Last Held By||Vacancy Reason||Date of Vacancy||Nominee||Date of Nomination|
|22||Emilio M. Garza||Senior status||August 1, 2012||Don R. Willett||October 3, 2017|
|20||Carolyn Dineen King||Senior status||December 31, 2013||James C. Ho||October 16, 2017|
|10||W. Eugene Davis||Senior status||December 31, 2016||Stuart Kyle Duncan||October 2, 2017|
|2||E. Grady Jolly||Senior status||October 3, 2017||–||–|
|24||Edith Brown Clement||Senior status||TBD||Kurt D. Engelhardt||October 5, 2017|
List of former judgesEdit
Sixty-one judges formerly served on the court but no longer do:
|1||Pardee, Don AlbertDon Albert Pardee||LA||1837–1919||1891–1919||——||——||||death|
|2||McCormick, Andrew PhelpsAndrew Phelps McCormick||TX||1832–1916||1892–1916||——||——||Harrison, B.B. Harrison||death|
|3||Shelby, David DavieDavid Davie Shelby||AL||1847–1914||1899–1914||——||——||McKinley, McKinley||death|
|4||Walker Jr., Richard WildeRichard Wilde Walker Jr.||AL||1857–1936||1914–1930||——||1930–1936||Wilson, Wilson||death|
|5||Batts, Robert LynnRobert Lynn Batts||TX||1864–1935||1917–1919||——||——||Wilson, Wilson||resignation|
|6||Bryan, Nathan PhilemonNathan Philemon Bryan||FL||1872–1935||1920–1935||——||——||Wilson, Wilson||death|
|7||King, Alexander CampbellAlexander Campbell King||GA||1856–1926||1920–1924||——||——||Wilson, Wilson||resignation|
|8||Foster, Rufus EdwardRufus Edward Foster||LA||1871–1942||1925–1942||——||——||Coolidge, Coolidge||death|
|9||Sibley, Samuel HaleSamuel Hale Sibley||GA||1873–1958||1931–1949||——||1949–1958||Hoover, Hoover||death|
|10||Hutcheson Jr., Joseph ChappellJoseph Chappell Hutcheson Jr.||TX||1879–1973||1931–1964||1948–1959||1964–1973||Hoover, Hoover||death|
|11||Holmes, Edwin R.Edwin R. Holmes||MS||1878–1961||1936–1954||——||1954–1961||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|12||McCord, Leon ClarenceLeon Clarence McCord||AL||1878–1952||1938–1951||——||1951–1952||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|13||Waller, Curtis L.Curtis L. Waller||FL||1887–1950||1943–1950||——||——||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|14||Lee, Elmo PearceElmo Pearce Lee||LA||1882–1949||1943–1949||——||——||Roosevelt, F.F. Roosevelt||death|
|15||Borah, Wayne G.Wayne G. Borah||LA||1891–1966||1949–1956||——||1956–1966||Truman, Truman||death|
|16||Russell, Robert LeeRobert Lee Russell||GA||1900–1955||1949–1955||——||——||Truman, Truman||death|
|17||Strum, Louie WillardLouie Willard Strum||FL||1890–1954||1950–1954||——||——||Truman, Truman||death|
|18||Rives, RichardRichard Rives||AL||1895–1982||1951–1966||1959–1960||1966–1981||Truman, Truman||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|19||Tuttle, ElbertElbert Tuttle||GA||1897–1996||1954–1968||1960–1967||1968–1981||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|20||Cameron, Benjamin FranklinBenjamin Franklin Cameron||MS||1890–1964||1955–1964||——||——||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|21||Jones, Warren LeroyWarren Leroy Jones||FL||1895–1993||1955–1966||——||1966–1981||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|22||Brown, John RobertJohn Robert Brown||TX||1909–1984||1955–1984||1967–1979||1984–1993||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|23||Wisdom, John MinorJohn Minor Wisdom||LA||1905–1999||1957–1977||——||1977–1999||Eisenhower, Eisenhower||death|
|24||Bell, GriffinGriffin Bell||GA||1918–2009||1961–1976||——||——||Kennedy, Kennedy||resignation|
|25||Gewin, Walter PettusWalter Pettus Gewin||AL||1908–1981||1961–1976||——||1976–1981||Kennedy, Kennedy||death|
|26||Thornberry, HomerHomer Thornberry||TX||1909–1995||1965–1978||——||1978–1995||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||death|
|27||Coleman, James P.James P. Coleman||MS||1914–1991||1965–1981||1979–1981||1981–1984||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||resignation|
|28||Ainsworth Jr., Robert AndrewRobert Andrew Ainsworth Jr.||LA||1910–1981||1966–1981||——||——||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||death|
|29||Godbold, John CooperJohn Cooper Godbold||AL||1920–2009||1966–1981||1981–1981||——||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|30||Goldberg, Irving LoebIrving Loeb Goldberg||TX||1906–1995||1966–1980||——||1980–1995||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||death|
|31||Dyer, David W.David W. Dyer||FL||1910–1998||1966–1976||——||1976–1981||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|32||Simpson, John Milton BryanJohn Milton Bryan Simpson||FL||1903–1987||1966–1975||——||1975–1981||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|33||Clayton, Claude FeemsterClaude Feemster Clayton||MS||1909–1969||1967–1969||——||——||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||death|
|34||Morgan, Lewis RenderLewis Render Morgan||GA||1913–2001||1968–1978||——||1978–1981||Johnson, L.L. Johnson||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|35||Carswell, G. HarroldG. Harrold Carswell||FL||1919–1992||1969–1970||——||——||Nixon, Nixon||resignation|
|36||Clark, CharlesCharles Clark||MS||1925–2011||1969–1992||1981–1992||——||Nixon, Nixon||retirement|
|37||Ingraham, Joe McDonaldJoe McDonald Ingraham||TX||1903–1990||1969–1973||——||1973–1990||Nixon, Nixon||death|
|38||Roney, Paul HitchPaul Hitch Roney||FL||1921–2006||1970–1981||——||——||Nixon, Nixon||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|39||Gee, Thomas GibbsThomas Gibbs Gee||TX||1925–1994||1973–1991||——||——||Nixon, Nixon||retirement|
|40||Tjoflat, Gerald BardGerald Bard Tjoflat||FL||1929–present||1975–1981||——||——||Ford, Ford||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|41||Hill, James ClinkscalesJames Clinkscales Hill||GA||1924–2017||1976–1981||——||——||Ford, Ford||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|42||Fay, Peter T.Peter T. Fay||FL||1929–present||1976–1981||——||——||Ford, Ford||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|43||Rubin, Alvin BenjaminAlvin Benjamin Rubin||LA||1920–1991||1977–1989||——||1989–1991||Carter, Carter||death|
|44||Vance, Robert SmithRobert Smith Vance||AL||1931–1989||1977–1981||——||——||Carter, Carter||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|45||Kravitch, Phyllis A.Phyllis A. Kravitch||GA||1920–2017||1979–1981||——||——||Carter, Carter||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|46||Johnson, Frank MinisFrank Minis Johnson||AL||1918–1999||1979–1981||——||——||Carter, Carter||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|47||Anderson III, R. LanierR. Lanier Anderson III||GA||1936–present||1979–1981||——||——||Carter, Carter||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|48||Garza, Reynaldo GuerraReynaldo Guerra Garza||TX||1915–2004||1979–1982||——||1982–2004||Carter, Carter||death|
|49||Hatchett, Joseph W.Joseph W. Hatchett||FL||1932–present||1979–1981||——||——||Carter, Carter||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|50||Henderson, Albert JohnAlbert John Henderson||GA||1920–1999||1979–1981||——||——||Carter, Carter||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|52||Politz, Henry AnthonyHenry Anthony Politz||LA||1932–2002||1979–1999||1992–1999||1999–2002||Carter, Carter||death|
|54||Johnson Jr., Samuel D.Samuel D. Johnson Jr.||TX||1920–2002||1979–1991||——||1991–2002||Carter, Carter||death|
|55||Tate Jr., AlbertAlbert Tate Jr.||LA||1920–1986||1979–1986||——||——||Carter, Carter||death|
|56||Clark, Thomas AlonzoThomas Alonzo Clark||GA||1920–2005||1979–1981||——||——||Carter, Carter||reassignment to 11th Cir.|
|57||Williams, Jerre StocktonJerre Stockton Williams||TX||1916–1993||1980–1990||——||1990–1993||Carter, Carter||death|
|58||Garwood, William LockhartWilliam Lockhart Garwood||TX||1931–2011||1981–1997||——||1997–2011||Reagan, Reagan||death|
|62||Hill, Robert MaddenRobert Madden Hill||TX||1928–1987||1984–1987||——||——||Reagan, Reagan||death|
|68||Garza, Emilio M.Emilio M. Garza||TX||1947–present||1991–2012||——||2012–2015||G.H.W. Bush, G.H.W. Bush||retirement|
|69||DeMoss Jr., Harold R.Harold R. DeMoss Jr.||TX||1930–present||1991–2007||——||2007–2015||G.H.W. Bush, G.H.W. Bush||retirement|
|72||Parker, Robert ManleyRobert Manley Parker||TX||1937–present||1994–2002||——||——||Clinton, Clinton||retirement|
|76||Pickering, Charles W.Charles W. Pickering||MS||1937–present||2004||——||——||Bush, G.W.G.W. Bush||retirement|
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
Succession of seatsEdit
The court has had 29 seats for active judges. Twelve of these seats were reassigned to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, leaving a seventeen-seat court. The seats are numbered in the order in which they were filled. Judges who retire into senior status remain on the bench but leave their seat vacant. That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president.
- Practitioner’s Guide to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit
- "That Fascinating and Frenetic Fifth," Time Magazine, 1964-12-04.
- "U. S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit". Official website of the Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on March 26, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2005.
- Future Judicial Vacancies
- Adler, Jonathan H. (2017-09-28). "Opinion | Four for the 5th Circuit (and other new judicial nominations)". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-09-28.
- Pardee was appointed as a circuit judge for the Fifth Circuit in 1881 by James A. Garfield. The Judiciary Act of 1891 reassigned his seat to what is now the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.
- Recess appointment, confirmed by the United States Senate at a later date.
- Recess appointment, never confirmed or rejected by the Senate.