Ready Player One
Ready Player One is a 2011 science fiction novel, and the debut novel of American author Ernest Cline. The story, set in a dystopia in 2045, follows protagonist Wade Watts on his search for an Easter egg in a worldwide virtual reality game, the discovery of which would lead him to inherit the game creator's fortune. Cline sold the rights to publish the novel in June 2010, in a bidding war to the Crown Publishing Group (a division of Random House). The book was published on August 16, 2011. An audiobook was released the same day; it was narrated by Wil Wheaton, who was mentioned briefly in one of the chapters.Ch. 20 In 2012, the book received an Alex Award from the Young Adult Library Services Association division of the American Library Association and won the 2012 Prometheus Award.
First edition cover
|Genre||LitRPG, Science fiction, dystopian|
|August 16, 2011|
|Media type||Print (hardcover and paperback), e-book, audiobook|
In the 2040s, the world has been gripped by an energy crisis from the depletion of fossil fuels and the consequences of global warming and overpopulation, causing widespread social problems and economic stagnation. To escape the decline their world is facing, people turn to the OASIS,[a] a virtual reality simulator accessible by players using visors and haptic technology such as gloves. It functions both as a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) and as a virtual world, with its currency being the most stable in the real world. It was created by James Donovan Halliday, founder of Gregarious Simulation Systems (former Gregarious Games), who, when he died, had announced in his will to the public that he had left an Easter egg inside the OASIS, and the first person to find it would inherit his entire fortune, ownership of his corporation as well as full control of the OASIS itself, which is worth trillions. The story follows the adventures of Wade Watts, starting about five years after the announcement, when he becomes the first to discover one of the three keys which unlock three successive gates leading to the treasure. .
Teenager Wade Watts lives with his aunt in Oklahoma City in the "stacks", a poverty-stricken district constructed of trailer homes piled on top of each other. He spends his spare time as a "gunter" ("egg hunter"), logging on to the OASIS as an avatar under the moniker Parzival, reading Halliday's journal Anorak's Almanac, and researching details of the 1980s pop culture, mainly classic video games and movies, that Halliday loved. One day, he realizes that the first key is located on Ludus, the same virtual world as his own online high school, and discovers a re-creation of the Dungeons & Dragons module Tomb of Horrors. He meets Art3mis, a famous female gunter and blogger who has been exploring the place, and advances further than she does when he defeats the AI Acererak at the video game Joust. He is awarded the Copper Key, and Parzival appears on the "Scoreboard", attracting the world's attention.
Parzival completes the Copper Gate's puzzles by teleporting to planet Middletown, playing through the Dungeons of Daggorath video game in a recreation of Halliday's parents' house and then role-playing Matthew Broderick's character in the film WarGames. Art3mis clears the gate shortly afterwards, as does Parzival's best friend Aech. Wade's fame enables him to make a living by endorsing virtual products. It also brings him to the attention of Nolan Sorrento, head of operations at Innovative Online Industries (IOI), a multinational corporation bent on a well-funded effort to find the Easter egg in order to take control of the OASIS and monetize it. When Wade refuses to join IOI, Sorrento attempts to kill him by blowing up the stacks where Wade lives, killing his aunt along with several other people and disguising the explosion as a meth lab accident.
Wade escapes and moves to Columbus, Ohio (hometown of both GSS and IOI), where he lies low, assuming the pseudonym Bryce Lynch and living in an anonymous apartment designed for hardcore OASIS users. He considers an alliance with Aech, Art3mis, as well as Daito and Shoto, a duo of Japanese gunters who have also earned the Copper Key. Instead, he and Art3mis begin a wary friendship, but when he asks her out, Art3mis declines. IOI operatives, called Sixers because of their six-digit avatar name, always beginning with "6", attempt to assassinate Wade and Art3mis's avatars at the birthday party of OASIS co-founder Ogden Morrow. They are stopped by Morrow, who has special privileges and powers within the OASIS. Art3mis abandons Wade due to the competition being more personal for her. Five months pass and neither Wade nor anyone else has found the next token, the Jade Key.
When Art3mis finally finds the Jade Key, Parzival scrambles to planet Archaide, where he plays a perfect game of Pac-Man, receiving only a quarter as a prize. Aech, who was the second player to find the Jade Key, provides a hint leading him to the planet Frobozz where he solves a recreation of the text adventure game Zork and whistles a 2600-hertz-sound through a Cap'n Crunch Bo'Sun Whistle. Sorrento, who had tracked Art3mis and Aech using a premium locator artifact, establishes a base there to farm Jade Keys for their company's avatars, unlocks the second Gate, and rapidly acquires the Crystal Key as well. Shoto tells Parzival that the Sixers infiltrated Daito's real-life apartment and threw him off his balcony, killing him and passing it off as a Japanese suicide.
Parzival unlocks the Jade Gate, a Voight-Kampff machine by entering a privately owned Blade Runner-themed building, and completes the arcade game Black Tiger as a character from the first-person shooter perspective, being given a virtual mecha as a prize as well as another clue: a red star in a circle. Using his knowledge of Rush, he acquires the Crystal Key on planet Syrinx (the red star being the symbol of the Solar Federation in the song "2112"), and after playing "Discovery", the third movement of the song, finds a clue regarding the conditions to unlock the final gate that the Sixers had missed. As he messages Art3mis, Aech, and Shoto with his solution, Sorrento ends their covert attempts to clear the third gate, Castle Anorak on planet Chthonia, and places a force field around it.
Wade manipulates his assumed identity in order to be arrested and placed in indentured servitude in IOI's tech support department. While inside IOI, he uses black market passwords and security exploits to hack into IOI's intranet: he acquires a wealth of information, including footage of Daito's murder. The information also includes the attempt on his own life, as well as plans to force Shoto and Art3mis to work for IOI in real life, and kill them at the end of the contest (IOI doesn't know who Aech is because he uses a pseudonym and stays mobile). After planting a hack in the force field surrounding the castle and escaping the corporation, he shares his information with his friends and publicizes a gathering of avatars to storm the castle. They are interrupted by Ogden Morrow, who offers them a safe haven at his home in Oregon. Wade meets the real-life Aech and Ogden, but not Art3mis or Shoto, who are already hooked into Ogden's immersion pods.
On the day of the battle, Wade uses his planted hack to bring down the force field, and a massive battle between gunters and Sixers ensues. Parzival uses the mecha Leopardon (accompanied by Art3mis's Minerva X, Aech's Gundam, and Shoto's Raideen) to fight against Sorrento's Mechagodzilla Kiryu, though Shoto's avatar is killed and Leopardon is destroyed during the fight. Parzival then uses an ace up his sleeve: a device that transforms him into Ultraman. With this power, he utterly destroys Sorrento's mech and kills his avatar. Parzival and his friends unlock the gate, at which point the Sixers use an artifact called the Cataclyst to destroy the castle and all avatars in the entire space sector. Parzival survives because having the Pac-Man quarter granted him an extra life. As he enters the Crystal Gate, he announces that if he wins, he will share his fortune with his three friends. With Sorrento and his Sixers on his heels, Parzival plays Tempest, role-plays King Arthur and various characters in Monty Python and the Holy Grail, and finally retrieves the Easter egg in Adventure. His victory grants him control of the OASIS, including the ability to "kill" his enemies' avatars, resurrect his friends, and a Big Red Button that can shut down the OASIS forever. Sorrento is arrested for the murder of Daito and for conspiring to kill Wade and the others. Back in Oregon, Wade and Art3mis, whose actual name is Samantha, meet in person and rekindle their relationship with a kiss.
- Wade Owen Watts a.k.a. Parzival: The viewpoint character, an overweight orphan from the "stacks" surrounding metropolitan Oklahoma City, where his parents (his father being a thief and his mother a drug-addicted prostitute) died. Wade names his OASIS character Parzival after the Arthurian knight involved in the quest for the holy grail, and dedicates his life to finding James Halliday's Easter egg. His specialty is in game or movie franchises that Halliday was known to be a fan of. He is 18 years old when he finds the Copper Key in the prologue of the book. His username at the virtual high school he attends is Wade3.[b] Wade's character was based on a mix of Cline as well as his geek friends.
- James Donovan Halliday a.k.a. Anorak: The creator of OASIS. A big fan of 1980s culture, Halliday had announced in his will his plans to leave his entire fortune to whoever can find his Easter egg that he had hidden in OASIS. His avatar's name is based on a British slang term for an obsessive geek. According to the gunter's research, Halliday had a miserable upbringing in Middletown, Ohio (his father being an abusive alcoholic and his mother being bipolar) and is believed to have suffered from Asperger's Syndrome. His character was initially inspired by Willy Wonka who Cline described as a "rich eccentric holding a fantastic contest". Cline used the personalities of Howard Hughes and Richard Garriott, and placed Halliday's birth year around the same as his own so that his pop culture interests would coincide with Cline's "and the other middle-aged uber geeks I know".
- Aech (pronounced like the letter HCh. 33): Wade's best friend, fellow gunter, and rival in the quest to find the egg. Aech's specialty is in PvP and first-person shooter games, and is one of the top combatants on OASIS. Although Aech's avatar is an athletic Caucasian heterosexual male,p. 38-39 Aech is played by an African-American lesbian named "Helen Harris", who grew up in Atlanta, Georgia and is about the same age as Wade.Ch. 33 She chose her avatar's name from a nickname her mother used to call her. Aech is based partly on Cline's friend Harry Knowles as well as himself and other geeks, both men and women.
- Art3mis: A famous female gunter and blogger. Her specialty is in video games and movies that feature or include female protagonists. Wade has a huge cyber-crush on her, which is complicated by their competition in search of the egg.p. 35 She chose her avatar's name from the Greek goddess of the hunt.[c] Like other characters, Cline based Art3mis on himself and other geeks, both men and women. Her real name is "Samantha Evelyn Cook" from Vancouver, British Columbia and she has a port-wine stain on her face.Ch. 30
- Ogden "Og" Morrow a.k.a. The Great and Powerful Og: Co-creator of the OASIS and best friend of James Halliday. They founded the video game company Gregarious Games, where he would handle the business operations, and which would later become Gregarious Simulation Systems (GSS), the company that launched OASIS.p. 54-56 His appearance and personality are described in the book as being "a cross between Albert Einstein and Santa Claus". Concerned that people were using OASIS to escape reality, he quit GSS and worked on educational software with his wife Kira until her death in a car accident. His relationship with Halliday deteriorated due to Halliday's own infatuation with Kira and the two men remained estranged until a few days before Halliday's death, when he is entrusted with ensuring that the hunt goes smoothly and without cheating.Ch. 32-33 Ogden lives in Oregon and owns a set of advanced OASIS consoles and immersion rigs, and is able to monitor everyone in the OASIS, even in private chat rooms.Ch. 12, 32-33 He rarely appears in public, and only shows up on the OASIS once a year on his birthday, where he assumes the avatar of the Great and Powerful Og. Ogden's character and relationship with Halliday was inspired by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, with Morrow being more like Jobs as a "charismatic tech leader", while his avatar's name is clearly inspired by the Wizard of Oz's.
- Daito: One of the two Japanese gunters who rise to the top of the scoreboard early on in the hunt, working in a team with his "brother" Shoto. His specialty is in old Japanese movies and video games, which works well with Shoto's specialty. The pair have a generally tense, but not unfriendly relationship with Aech, and Art3mis. They are closer to Parzival, and work together on quests unrelated to the hunt. At first, Daito is seen as stubborn and paranoid, but he is later shown to be a reasonable and honorable gamer. He chose his avatar's name from the name of the longer sword in a daisho set, which is a katana on its own. They are both based on otaku: Japanese geeks who enjoy movies and anime, as well as hikikomori: people who live as recluses inside their family's homes, referred to in the book as "the Missing Millions". Daito's real name is revealed to be "Toshiro Yoshiaki" after he is killed by the IOI.
- Shoto: The second and younger of the two Japanese gunters working as a team in their quest for the egg.p. 129 His specialty is in American pop culture, which works well with Daito's specialty. He chose his avatar's name from the name of the shorter sword of a daisho set, which is a wakizashi on its own. He is shown to be much more friendly and compassionate than Daito, but he is unwilling to go against Daito's decisions due to their brotherly bond. Shoto's real name is "Akihide Karatsu".p. 292 Following the death of his partner, Shoto collaborates with Art3mis, Aech and Wade to finish the hunt.
- Nolan Sorrento: The head of operations at Innovative Online Industries (IOI), the multinational corporation that serves as an Internet service provider for most of the world, and that plans to take over and monetize the OASIS. Sorrento is head of IOI's "Oology division", which is dedicated to searching for Halliday's Easter egg through the process of trial and error.p. 33 His avatar name is IOI-655321, after his employee number.Ch. 14, 16 IOI employees in the division are nicknamed Sixers, after their six-digit employee numbers that also begin with the number 6.p. 33 Cline said that he named Sorrento after Nolan Bushnell, founder of the video game company Atari and said "Not that I think Nolan is a bad guy, or anything. It’s meant as a subtle tribute!"
Ready Player One was a New York Times bestseller. Among those praising the book were Entertainment Weekly, The Boston Globe, The A.V. Club, CNN.com, io9, and Boing Boing. USA Today wrote that the novel "undoubtedly qualifies Cline as the hottest geek on the planet right now." NPR said that the book was "ridiculously fun and large-hearted". Cline "takes a far-out premise and engages the reader instantly" with a "deeply felt narrative [that] makes it almost impossible to stop turning the pages." Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote that "The book gets off to a witty start" but noted that it lacks at least one dimension, stating that gaming had overwhelmed everything else about this book. Rebecca Serle of HuffPost described the book as "the grown-up's Harry Potter" and that it "has it all – nostalgia, trivia, adventure, romance, heart and, dare I say it, some very fascinating social commentary."
The book has also polarized readers. Nick Shager, writing for The Daily Beast, offered a scathing review that criticized the book's narrative style by stating "It’s... a terribly written piece of adolescent fantasy that, at heart, exemplifies everything wrong and repellent about modern nerd culture" and challenged its coming-of-age premise by calling it "a stunted-adolescent story". Regarding the abundance of pop culture references, Shager called the book "an unbearable celebration of nostalgic juvenilia". He summarized his argument against the book by stating "It’s a lionization of immature things (and immaturity) as an end to itself, rather than as the building blocks of more mature – and worthwhile – creations". Shager also lamented the book's "Peter Pan-ish infatuation with childishness, which comes coated in a stench of stale Doritos, Jolt Cola and lowbrow smugness".
Michael J. Nelson's and Conor Lastowka's podcast series 372 Pages We'll Never Get Back dissected the book, criticizing it for defective worldbuilding, repetitive and excessive pop culture references in place of descriptive writing, and weak plot.
The book has been translated into over 20 languages.
In an interview with Fortune, Cline said that his book had inspired designers at companies such as Oculus VR which recommended the book for their new employees. Oculus has also invited Cline several times to sign books and demo hardware. The Ready Player One: Oasis beta, developed by Directive Games Limited, was released on March 23, 2018 alongside the Steven Spielberg movie and consists of four experiences made for virtual reality headsets. The game is currently available for free on Steam and Viveport.
Lacero, a fan-fiction story by Andy Weir, was published in the 2016 edition of Ready Player One. It follows the story of Nolan Sorrento and functions as a precursor to the main novel, and is considered canonical to the Ready Player One fictional universe.
In 2015, in an interview with Den of Geek, screenwriter Zak Penn reported that Cline was working on a Ready Player One sequel novel. In December 2017, Cline confirmed that he was working on a sequel. Cline stated that the novel would have a different story-line involving all of the characters, while still exploring pop culture references like the first book.
In other mediaEdit
Easter egg hunt promotionEdit
Ten months after the first edition release, Cline revealed on his blog that Ready Player One itself contained an elaborately hidden Easter egg. This clue would form the first part of a series of staged video gaming tests, similar to the plot of the novel. Cline also revealed that the competition's grand prize would be a DeLorean. The Easter egg was a URL hidden in the book for anoraksalmanac.com. This was the first stage of the contest where the 2011 Atari 2600 game The Stacks by developers Mike Mika & Kevin Wilson was featured. The game Ultimate Collector: Garage Sale by Austin-based developer Portalarium was featured in the second stage of the contest. The final stage of the contest was announced on August 1, 2012, and was to set a world record on one of several classic arcade or Atari 2600 games. This was completed on August 9, 2012 by Craig Queen, who set a new world record in Joust. He was awarded the DeLorean on the TV series X-Play.
The film rights were purchased by Warner Bros. on the same day Cline finalized his publishing deal with Random House, one year prior to the novel's publication. Dan Farah brought the project into the studio and produced it with Donald De Line. Cline adapted his novel into a screenplay. Over the years, Eric Eason and Zak Penn assisted Cline with rewrites.
Steven Spielberg signed on to direct in March 2015. Spielberg and Kristie Macosko Krieger of Amblin Partners also joined Deline and Farah as producers. Warner Bros. initially announced a release date of December 15, 2017. On February 9, 2016, the release date was pushed back to March 30, 2018, to avoid competition with Star Wars: The Last Jedi. The movie began production in the spring of 2016 and was filmed in both the United States and the United Kingdom.
On June 9, 2016, Variety stated that Spielberg's regular collaborator John Williams was planning on composing the film's score. However, scheduling conflicts with another Spielberg film, The Post, led to Spielberg signing Alan Silvestri for the score.
The film stars Tye Sheridan, Olivia Cooke, Ben Mendelsohn, Lena Waithe, T. J. Miller, Simon Pegg, and Mark Rylance with Philip Zao, Win Morisaki, and Hannah John-Kamen in supporting roles. It premiered at South by Southwest on March 11, 2018, and was theatrically released by Warner Bros. in the United States on March 29, 2018. It received generally positive reviews from critics who praised its visuals and brisk pacing, the performances of Sheridan and Rylance, and noted it as an improvement over the book. This film received criticism for its lack of character development and its "achingly regressive" view of pop culture fans.
- OASIS is an acronym for Ontologically Anthropocentric Sensory Immersive Simulationp. 48
- In OASIS, the students are required to use their real name when attending school, plus a number for name duplicates. For example, Wade Watts goes by Wade3, and there is another student named Todd13. p. 29-30
- Art3mis chose the leet spelling as her username because the original spelling was already taken.p. 93
- ^ The terms "Ch.." and "p." are shortened forms for chapter and page, and refer to chapters and pages in the Ready Player One novel in its first American edition.
-  Archived November 21, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
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- "You want to accept Anorak's Invitation. Trust me. -". wilwheaton.net. August 15, 2011. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
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- Maslin, Janet (August 14, 2011). "'Ready Player One' by Ernest Cline – Review". The New York Times.
- Author, Rebecca Serle; Mine, When You Were; Falling, The Edge of; Love, Famous in (August 17, 2011). "'Ready Player One': An Interview with Author Ernest Cline". HuffPost. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- Shager, Nick. "How is Steven Spielberg going to make a great movie out of this god-awful book?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
- Vanderbilt, Mike. "Exclusive: It's game over when RiffTrax alums take on Ernest Cline and Ready Player One". News.
- "Ready Player One". ernestcline.com. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "How Ready Player One author Ernest Cline inspired Oculus VR". fortune.com. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- Brogan, Jacob (July 14, 2015). ""Imagining the Future Is Dangerous"". Retrieved February 14, 2017 – via Slate.
- "Facebook gives its Oculus employees a dystopian sci-fi book to get them excited about building the future". businessinsider.com. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
- "Ready Player One's Oasis Beta Launches On Oculus Rift". UploadVR. April 17, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- "Lacero". galactanet.com. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Brock Wilbur (March 28, 2016). "How 'The Martian' Impacted the 'Ready Player One' Movie". INverse.
- Lussier, Germain. "The Author of The Martian Wrote Ready Player One Fan Fiction, and Now It's Canon". gizmodo.com. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- Sequel citations:
- "Ernie Cline Reportedly Writing Ready Player One Sequel". slashfilm.com. January 16, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- "Ready Player One Is Getting A Sequel". cinemablend.com. January 16, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- "READY PLAYER ONE Sequel Rumored To Be In The Works - Nerdist". nerdist.com. January 25, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- Knight, Jacob (December 12, 2017). "Ernie Cline Penning A Sequel Novel To READY PLAYER ONE". birthmoviesdeath.com. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- "Ready Player One sequel: Everything you need to know". Digital Spy. September 13, 2018. Retrieved October 17, 2018.
- "Three Hidden Keys Open Three Secret Gates | Ernie's Blog". Ernestcline.com. June 5, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
- "Stacks, The Play online - The Stacks (Atari 2600) :: DJ OldGames". www.oldgames.sk. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- "Contest Winners Level Up In The Ready Player One Easter Egg Hunt | Giant Freakin RobotGiant Freakin Robot". www.giantfreakinrobot.com. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- "Contest Winners Level Up In The Ready Player One Easter Egg Hunt". Giant Freakin Robot.
- "For Ernest Cline, author of Ready Player One, success is measured in DeLoreans and geeked-out fans". venturebeat.com. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "Ready Player —One Author Ernest Cline Gives Away a DeLorean on X-Play". g4tv.com. August 30, 2012. Archived from the original on January 14, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- Fleming, Michael (June 18, 2010). "Warner Bros and De Line Pictures Win Book Auction For 'Ready Player One'". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- Sneider, Jeff (January 13, 2010). "Eason to rewrite 'Player' script". Variety. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- Busch, Anita (March 25, 2015). "Steven Spielberg To Direct Sci-Fi Cult Favorite 'Ready Player One'; Back At Warner Bros". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 24, 2015.
- Zumberge, Marianne. "Steven Spielberg's 'Ready Player One' Slated for 2017 Release".
- Lang, Brent (February 9, 2016). "Steven Spielberg's 'Ready Player One' Pushed Back to Avoid 'Star Wars: Episode VIII'". Variety. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
- Burlingame, Jon (June 9, 2016). "AFI Honoree John Williams Looks Back on Six Decades of Iconic Themes". Variety. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
- Jagneaux, David (March 13, 2018). "Ready Player One Movie Review Roundup: Another Spielberg Classic?". UploadVR. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
- Casey, Henry T. (March 14, 2018). "Ready Player One Review Roundup: Pretty, Flawed". Tom’s Guide. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
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