British Interplanetary Society
The British Interplanetary Society (BIS), founded in Liverpool in 1933 by Philip E. Cleator, is the oldest space advocacy organisation in the world. Its aim is exclusively to support and promote astronautics and space exploration.
|Motto||From imagination to reality|
|Legal status||Non-profit organisation|
|Purpose||UK space advocacy, promotion of astronautics research|
|UK astronautical engineers|
|Affiliations||International Astronautical Federation|
The BIS was only preceded in astronautics by the American Interplanetary Society (founded 1930), the German VfR, and Soviet rocket research groups, but unlike those it never became absorbed into a national industry. Thus it is now the world's oldest existing space advocacy body. 
When originally formed in January 1933, the BIS aimed not only to promote and raise the public profile of astronautics, but also to undertake practical experimentation into rocketry along similar lines to the organisations above. However early in 1936, the Society discovered that this ambition was thwarted by the Explosives Act of 1875, which prevented any private testing of liquid-fuel rockets in the United Kingdom.
Proposals for design of space vehiclesEdit
In the late 1930s, the group devised a project of landing people on the Moon by a multistage rocket, each stage of which would have many narrow solid-fuel rockets. Their lander was gumdrop-shaped but otherwise quite like the Lunar Module. As it was considered that the cabin would have to rotate, BIS member Ralph A. Smith, who helped re-establish the society post-WW2, invented the first instrument for space travel — the Coelostat, a navigation mechanism which would ingeniously cancel out the rotating view. It was R.A. Smith and Harry Ross M.Eng. who were the aerospace visionaries named on the original patent. Smith also authored and illustrated the 1947 book 'The Exploration of the Moon' showing the first ever conceptual 'orbital satellite' (text by Arthur C. Clarke) which is said to have inspired both John F. Kennedy and Stanley Kubrick. 
Role in international spaceEdit
During the second International Astronautical Congress, held in London in 1951, the BIS was one of 13 national space societies which together founded the International Astronautical Federation. The other founding members no longer exist as national societies leaving only the BIS. 
In 1978, the Society published a starship study called Project Daedalus, which was a detailed feasibility study for a simple unmanned interstellar flyby mission to Barnard's Star using present-day technology and a reasonable extrapolation of near-future capabilities. Daedalus was to have used a pellet driven nuclear-pulse fusion rocket to accelerate to 12 percent of the speed of light.
The latest in this series of far-reaching studies produced the Project Boreas report, which designed a manned station for the Martian North Pole. The report was short-listed for the 2007 Sir Arthur Clarke Awards in the category of Best Written Presentation.
The BIS publishes the academic journal Journal of the British Interplanetary Society and the monthly magazine Spaceflight. In 2008, the BIS published 'Interplanetary', a history of the society to date.
Awards given by the societyEdit
The science writer Arthur C. Clarke was a well-known former Chairman of the British Interplanetary Society. The society was presented with the first Special Award, from the 2005 Sir Arthur Clarke Awards. This was a gift of Sir Arthur's choice, independent of the judging panel. In 2008, the Society's magazine, Spaceflight, edited by Clive Simpson, was the winner of the award for Best Space Reporting.
- Reaching for the Stars History Today, Volume: 63 Issue: 1 2013
- Source: https://www.britishpathe.com/video/first-moon-men/query/Moon+men.
- In the years following World War II, an audacious British plan would have used Nazi rockets to put a man in space.
- Interplanetary, British Interplanetary Society 2008 ISBN 978-0-9506597-1-8
- Interview with Charles Chilton, Round Midnight, BBC Radio 2, 1989