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Karnal (pronunciation (help·info) is a city in the National Capital Region (NCR), located in the state of Haryana, India and is the administrative headquarters of Karnal District. It was used by East India Company army as a refuge during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 in Delhi. The Battle of Karnal between Nader Shah of Persia and the Mughal Empire took place in this city in 1739.
Cantonment Church Tower, Karna lake, Streets of Karnal
|• Body||Municipal Corporation Karnal|
|• Mayor||Renu Bala Gupta|
|• Member of Parliament||Sanjay Bhatia|
|• Official||Hindi, Punjabi, English|
|• Regional||Punjabi, Haryanvi|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Sex ratio||996/1000 Female/Male|
The city associates itself with Karna and has recently set up a large statue of the Mahabharata hero Karna, the great donor and warrior. A tank in the city also bears the name Karna Tal and a town gate is called Karna gate.
At the end of 6th century A.D., the area was under the rule of the Vardhanas of Thanesar. The 7th century was a period of eclecticism in religion, Buddhism was declining and Hinduism was resurging in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The region was under Kanauj rule under the Pala Emperor of Bengal (770-810 A.D.). The authority of Mihira Bhoja (836-885 A.D.), the Pratihara ruler of Kanauj penetrated as far as Pehowa, including Karnal.
The Tomaras descending from Raja Jaula established themselves as rulers of this region in the middle of the 9th century. About the beginning of the 10th century, as the Pratihara power began to decline, the Tomaras assumed independence. One of the Tomara rulers, Anangpal Tomar, found the city of Delhi and made it his capital, with the area of Karnal and modern-day Haryana being under his realm. The Tomaras came into conflict with the Chauhans of Shakambhari, but continued to rule the Haryana country until the middle of 12th century when they were overthrown by the Chahamana Vigraharaja IV. The country between the Satluj and the Yamuna including Karnal experienced relative peace for a century and a half except the plundering invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni.
In A.D. 1739, Nader Shah of Persia invaded the Mughal empire and Karnal was the scene of the famed Battle of Karnal in which Nader Shah decisively defeated Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah. Muhammad Shah along with an enormous army occupied a strongly fortified camp at Karnal, but he yielded to the invader as his supplies were cut off from the open country by Shah and was starved into submission. The tactical defeat drastically weakened the Mughal Empire, while the Persian Empire prospered and subsequently hastened the establishment of the British Empire in India.
Sikhs appeared on the scene in the 18th century. The importance of Karnal grew in the time of Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind State who after its capture in A.D. 1763 built the boundary wall and a fort and under whose rule the town increased considerably in size. On January 14 1764, Sikh Chiefs defeated and killed Zain Khan Sirhindi, the Durrani Governor, and took possession of the whole of Sirhind province as far south as Panipat including Karnal.
During the Indian independence movement, a district political conference was organized at Karnal with Lala Lajpat Rai as its chairman. Mool Chand Jain, often referred to as "Gandhi of Haryana" hailed from Karnal and was one of the prominent leaders of the Indian Independence movement.
|Climate data for Karnal (1981–2010, extremes 1949–2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||31.2
|Average high °C (°F)||19.1
|Average low °C (°F)||7.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−0.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||26.7
|Average rainy days||1.5||1.8||1.6||0.9||1.6||3.9||7.9||7.8||4.7||0.2||0.4||0.8||33.2|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||64||58||51||31||33||44||67||73||68||54||53||60||55|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
- National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Kachhwa Road
- St. Theresa's Convent Sr. Sec. School
- Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College
- Maharana Pratap Horticultural University
- Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayaya University of Health Sciences
- Sainik School, Kunjpura
- Dyal Singh College, Karnal
- Delhi Public School, Karnal
- Pratap Public Schools (Jarnailly Colony, Sector 6, Kunjpura), Karnal
- Dyal Singh Public School,Karnal
- Kalpana Chawla, first Indo-American woman astronaut. In 2003, Chawla was one of the seven crew members that died in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster
- Mool Chand Jain, Indian Independence leader
- Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, first Prime Minister of Pakistan.
- Anish Bhanwala, Indian shooter. He is from Karnal Haryana and competes in the 25 meter rapid fire pistol, 25 meter pistol, and 25 meter standard pistol events.
- Navdeep Saini, Indian cricketer
- "Karnal (M Cl)". censusindia.gov.in. Government of India. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- King Karna returns to his land — Karnal. Mythology inspires ambitions, a larger-than-life portrayal of past events in order to add awe, plus a few nickels to the government kitty by way of tourism.
- D. C. Ganguly (1981). "Western India in the Sixth Century A.D.". In R. C. Majumdar (ed.). A Comprehensive History of India. 3, Part I: A.D. 300-985. Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. OCLC 34008529.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- H. A. Phadke (1990). Haryana, Ancient and Medieval. Harman. ISBN 978-81-85151-34-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore. OCLC 11038728.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Axworthy, Michael (2009)
- D. C. Miglani (1993). Politics and Rural Power Struggle: Emerging Trends. Deep and Deep Publications. ISBN 81-7100-578-0.
- "Babu Mool Chand Jain Comprehensive Archives".
- "Station: Karnal Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 395–396. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M65. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- , official website.
- , official website.
- Maharana Pratap Horticultural University, Karnal, official website.
- , official website.
- pratap, publicschool. "Pratap Public School Karnal". pratappublicschool.com.
- "Cleanliness survey: Karnal city needs toilets to improve rank". The Tribune. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- "Karnal to be developed as smart city".
- "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". 28 August 2015.
- "63th death anniversary of Liaquat Ali Khan being observed today". The News Teller.
- India, Press Trust of (26 March 2018). "Anish wins India's third individual gold in Jr. World Cup". Business Standard India.
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|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Karnal.|