Karnal (About this soundpronunciation  is a city in the National Capital Region (NCR), located in the state of Haryana, India and is the administrative headquarters of Karnal District. It was used by East India Company army as a refuge during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 in Delhi. The Battle of Karnal between Nader Shah of Persia and the Mughal Empire took place in this city in 1739.

Karnal
Cantonment Church Tower, Karnal.jpg
Karna lake 02.jpg
KarnalDiwaliRoad.JPG
Cantonment Church Tower, Karna lake, Streets of Karnal
Karnal is located in Haryana
Karnal
Karnal
Location in Haryana, India
Karnal is located in India
Karnal
Karnal
Karnal (India)
Coordinates: 29°41′10″N 76°59′20″E / 29.686°N 76.989°E / 29.686; 76.989Coordinates: 29°41′10″N 76°59′20″E / 29.686°N 76.989°E / 29.686; 76.989
Country India
StateHaryana
DistrictKarnal district
RegionNorth India
Named forKarna
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation Karnal
 • MayorRenu Bala Gupta
 • Member of ParliamentSanjay Bhatia
Population
 (2011)
 • Total286,827[1]
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, Punjabi, English
 • RegionalPunjabi, Haryanvi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
132001
Vehicle registrationHR-05
literacy rate84.60%[1]
Sex ratio996/1000 Female/Male
Websitekarnal.gov.in

Ancient history

The city associates itself with Karna and has recently set up a large statue of the Mahabharata hero Karna, the great donor and warrior.[2] A tank in the city also bears the name Karna Tal and a town gate is called Karna gate.

At the end of 6th century A.D., the area was under the rule of the Vardhanas of Thanesar.[3] The 7th century was a period of eclecticism in religion, Buddhism was declining and Hinduism was resurging in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The region was under Kanauj rule under the Pala Emperor of Bengal (770-810 A.D.). The authority of Mihira Bhoja (836-885 A.D.), the Pratihara ruler of Kanauj penetrated as far as Pehowa, including Karnal.[4]

The Tomaras descending from Raja Jaula established themselves as rulers of this region in the middle of the 9th century.[4] About the beginning of the 10th century, as the Pratihara power began to decline, the Tomaras assumed independence. One of the Tomara rulers, Anangpal Tomar, found the city of Delhi and made it his capital, with the area of Karnal and modern-day Haryana being under his realm. The Tomaras came into conflict with the Chauhans of Shakambhari, but continued to rule the Haryana country until the middle of 12th century when they were overthrown by the Chahamana Vigraharaja IV.[5] The country between the Satluj and the Yamuna including Karnal experienced relative peace for a century and a half except the plundering invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni.

Medieval era

 
Daria-i-Noor diamond was seized by Persia's Nader Shah from the Mughal dynasty following the Battle of Karnal and subsequent sack of Delhi (1739)

In A.D. 1739, Nader Shah of Persia invaded the Mughal empire and Karnal was the scene of the famed Battle of Karnal in which Nader Shah decisively defeated Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.[6] Muhammad Shah along with an enormous army occupied a strongly fortified camp at Karnal, but he yielded to the invader as his supplies were cut off from the open country by Shah and was starved into submission.[6] The tactical defeat drastically weakened the Mughal Empire, while the Persian Empire prospered and subsequently hastened the establishment of the British Empire in India.

Sikhs appeared on the scene in the 18th century. The importance of Karnal grew in the time of Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind State who after its capture in A.D. 1763 built the boundary wall and a fort and under whose rule the town increased considerably in size.[7] On January 14 1764, Sikh Chiefs defeated and killed Zain Khan Sirhindi, the Durrani Governor, and took possession of the whole of Sirhind province as far south as Panipat including Karnal.

Modern history

During the Indian independence movement, a district political conference was organized at Karnal with Lala Lajpat Rai as its chairman. Mool Chand Jain, often referred to as "Gandhi of Haryana" hailed from Karnal and was one of the prominent leaders of the Indian Independence movement.[8]

Climate

Climate data for Karnal (1981–2010, extremes 1949–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.2
(88.2)
33.2
(91.8)
37.5
(99.5)
45.2
(113.4)
46.0
(114.8)
45.6
(114.1)
43.9
(111.0)
42.0
(107.6)
38.3
(100.9)
39.3
(102.7)
34.4
(93.9)
28.5
(83.3)
46.0
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
22.4
(72.3)
27.7
(81.9)
35.3
(95.5)
38.3
(100.9)
37.9
(100.2)
33.9
(93.0)
32.8
(91.0)
32.5
(90.5)
31.7
(89.1)
27.4
(81.3)
21.8
(71.2)
30.1
(86.2)
Average low °C (°F) 7.1
(44.8)
9.4
(48.9)
13.5
(56.3)
18.8
(65.8)
23.3
(73.9)
25.5
(77.9)
25.6
(78.1)
25.1
(77.2)
23.2
(73.8)
17.4
(63.3)
12.0
(53.6)
8.0
(46.4)
17.4
(63.3)
Record low °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
0.6
(33.1)
3.5
(38.3)
9.0
(48.2)
14.5
(58.1)
18.0
(64.4)
16.0
(60.8)
18.4
(65.1)
16.0
(60.8)
9.4
(48.9)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
−0.4
(31.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 26.7
(1.05)
24.8
(0.98)
17.8
(0.70)
8.4
(0.33)
24.2
(0.95)
65.7
(2.59)
171.8
(6.76)
157.5
(6.20)
115.9
(4.56)
3.5
(0.14)
1.9
(0.07)
9.0
(0.35)
627.1
(24.69)
Average rainy days 1.5 1.8 1.6 0.9 1.6 3.9 7.9 7.8 4.7 0.2 0.4 0.8 33.2
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 64 58 51 31 33 44 67 73 68 54 53 60 55
Source: India Meteorological Department[9][10]

Education

Smart city

Karnal was ranked 24th (1st in Haryana) among 4000+ cities in the list of the cleanest cities of India under Swachh Survekshan 2019.[16]

Karnal was selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[17]

Notable people

References

  1. ^ a b "Karnal (M Cl)". censusindia.gov.in. Government of India. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  2. ^ King Karna returns to his land — Karnal. Mythology inspires ambitions, a larger-than-life portrayal of past events in order to add awe, plus a few nickels to the government kitty by way of tourism.
  3. ^ D. C. Ganguly (1981). "Western India in the Sixth Century A.D.". In R. C. Majumdar (ed.). A Comprehensive History of India. 3, Part I: A.D. 300-985. Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. OCLC 34008529.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. ^ a b H. A. Phadke (1990). Haryana, Ancient and Medieval. Harman. ISBN 978-81-85151-34-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  5. ^ R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore. OCLC 11038728.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  6. ^ a b Axworthy, Michael (2009)
  7. ^ D. C. Miglani (1993). Politics and Rural Power Struggle: Emerging Trends. Deep and Deep Publications. ISBN 81-7100-578-0.
  8. ^ "Babu Mool Chand Jain Comprehensive Archives".
  9. ^ "Station: Karnal Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 395–396. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  10. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M65. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  11. ^ [1], official website.
  12. ^ [2], official website.
  13. ^ Maharana Pratap Horticultural University, Karnal, official website.
  14. ^ [3], official website.
  15. ^ pratap, publicschool. "Pratap Public School Karnal". pratappublicschool.com.
  16. ^ "Cleanliness survey: Karnal city needs toilets to improve rank". The Tribune. 17 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  17. ^ "Karnal to be developed as smart city".
  18. ^ "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". 28 August 2015.
  19. ^ "63th death anniversary of Liaquat Ali Khan being observed today". The News Teller.
  20. ^ India, Press Trust of (26 March 2018). "Anish wins India's third individual gold in Jr. World Cup". Business Standard India.

External links