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Soyuz 17 (Russian: Союз 17, Union 17) was the first of two long-duration missions to the Soviet Union's Salyut 4 space station in 1975. The flight set a Soviet mission-duration record of 29 days, surpassing the 23-day record set by the ill-fated Soyuz 11 crew aboard Salyut 1 in 1971.

Soyuz 17
COSPAR ID1975-001A
SATCAT no.7604
Mission duration29 days, 13 hours, 19 minutes, 45 seconds
Orbits completed479
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeSoyuz 7K-T
ManufacturerNPO Energia
Launch mass6,800 kilograms (15,000 lb)
Crew
Crew size2
MembersAleksei Gubarev
Georgi Grechko
CallsignЗенит (Zenit - "Zenith")
Start of mission
Launch dateJanuary 10, 1975, 21:43:37 (1975-01-10UTC21:43:37Z) UTC
RocketSoyuz
Launch siteBaikonur 1/5[1]
End of mission
Landing dateFebruary 9, 1975, 11:03:22 (1975-02-09UTC11:03:23Z) UTC
Landing site110 kilometres (68 mi) NE of Tselinograd
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee altitude185 kilometres (115 mi)
Apogee altitude249 kilometres (155 mi)
Inclination51.6 degrees
Period88.8 minutes
Docking with Salyut 4
Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
 

CrewEdit

Position Cosmonaut
Commander Aleksei Gubarev
First spaceflight
Flight Engineer Georgi Grechko
First spaceflight

Backup crewEdit

Position Cosmonaut
Commander Vasili Lazarev
Flight Engineer Oleg Makarov

Reserve crewEdit

Position Cosmonaut
Commander Pyotr Klimuk
Flight Engineer Vitali Sevastyanov

Mission parametersEdit

  • Mass: 6,800 kg (15,000 lb)
  • Perigee: 185 km (115 mi)
  • Apogee: 249 km (155 mi)
  • Inclination: 51.6°
  • Period: 88.8 min

Mission highlightsEdit

Salyut 4 was launched 26 December 1974, and Soyuz 17, with cosmonauts Georgi Grechko and Aleksei Gubarev as its first crew, was launched 16 days later on 10 January 1975.[2] Gubarev manually docked Soyuz 17 to the station on 12 January, and upon entering the new station he and Grechko found a note from its builders which said, "Wipe your feet!"[2]

Salyut 4 was in an unusually high circular orbit of 350 km (220 mi) when Soyuz 17 docked with the station. Salyut designer Konstantin Feoktistov said this was to ensure propellant consumption would be half of what was needed for lower-altitude Salyuts.[3]

The crew worked between 15 and 20 hours a day, including their 2​12 hour exercise period.[2] One of their activities included testing communication equipment for tracking ships and contacting mission control via a Molniya satellite.[2]

Astrophysics was a major component of the mission, with the station's solar telescope activated on 16 January.[3] The crew later discovered that the main mirror of the telescope had been ruined by direct exposure to sunlight when the pointing system failed. They resurfaced the mirror on 3 February and worked out a way of pointing the telescope using a stethoscope, stopwatch, and the noises the moving mirror made in its casing.[2]

On 14 January, a ventilation hose was set up from Salyut 4 to keep the Soyuz ventilated while its systems were shut down.[2] On 19 January it was announced that ion sensors were being used to orient the station, a system described as being more efficient.[3]

A new teleprinter was used for communications from the ground crew, freeing the Salyut crew from constant interruptions during their work.[3]

The cosmonauts began powering down the station on 7 February and they returned to Earth in the Soyuz capsule two days later.[3] They safely landed near Tselinograd in a snowstorm with winds of 72 km/h and wore gravity suits to ease the effects of re-adaptation.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Baikonur LC1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2009-03-04. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Newkirk, Dennis (1990). Almanac of Soviet Manned Space Flight. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87201-848-2.
  3. ^ a b c d e Clark, Phillip (1988). The Soviet Manned Space Program. New York: Orion Books, a division of Crown Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-517-56954-X.