List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies
This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition. The entries listed here had de facto control over their claimed territory and were self-governing with a desire for full independence; or if they lacked such control over their territory, they were recognized by at least one other recognized nation.
Criteria for inclusionEdit
The criteria for inclusion in this list are similar to those of the list of states with limited recognition. To be included here, a polity must have claimed statehood, has not had recognition by at least one widely accepted state for a significant portion of its de facto existence, and either:
- had a population and an organized government with a capacity to enter into relations with other states; or
- had de facto control over a territory or a significant portion of the territory of an otherwise-recognized sovereign state
Historic unrecognized or partially recognized states with de facto control over their territoryEdit
The total number of countries in the African continent is unknown due to the instability throughout the region. At present there are 54 sovereign countries and around 90 countries, territories and regions not recognized by the UN. One needs to take into account the fact that some countries are independent nations, and while they have geopolitical borders they are protectorates or territories (for example the Islands of St. Helena). Also, certain parts of Africa have a tendency towards political instability (more so than other continents); this means that from time to time countries split, merge and are renamed. Some examples include: The Republic of South Sudan, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana and Burkina Faso. Since colonialism, African states have frequently been hampered by instability, corruption, violence, and authoritarianism. The vast majority of African states are republics that operate under some form of the presidential system of rule. However, few of them have been able to sustain democratic governments on a permanent basis, and many have instead cycled through a series of coups, producing military dictatorships.
Great instability was mainly the result of marginalization of ethnic groups, and graft under these leaders. For political gain, many leaders fanned ethnic conflicts, some of which had been exacerbated, or even created, by colonial rule. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa during the 1970s and early 1980s. During the period from the early 1960s to the late 1980s, Africa had more than 70 coups and 13 presidential assassinations. Border and territorial disputes were also common, with the European-imposed borders of many nations being widely contested through armed conflicts.
A variety of causes have been blamed for Africa's political instability, including Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union, over-reliance on foreign aid, decades of corruption and mismanagement by socialist leaders, as well as the policies of the International Monetary Fund. When a country became independent for the first time, it would often align itself with one of the two superpowers in order to get support. Many countries in Northern Africa received Soviet military aid, while many in Central and Southern Africa were supported by the United States, France or both. The 1970s saw an escalation, as newly independent Angola and Mozambique aligned themselves with the Soviet Union, and the West and South Africa sought to contain Soviet influence by funding insurgency movements. There was a major famine in Ethiopia, when hundreds of thousands of people starved. Some claimed that Marxist/Soviet policies made the situation worse. The most devastating military conflict in modern independent Africa has been the Second Congo War; this conflict and its aftermath have killed an estimated 5.5 million people. Since 2003 there has been an ongoing conflict in Darfur which has become a humanitarian disaster. Another notable tragic event is the 1994 Rwandan Genocide in which an estimated 800,000 people were murdered. AIDS in post-colonial Africa has also been a prevalent issue.
In the 21st century, however, the number of armed conflicts in Africa has steadily declined. For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in 2002 after nearly 30 years. This has coincided with many countries abandoning communist style command economies and opening up for market reforms. The improved stability and economic reforms have led to a great increase in foreign investment into many African nations, mainly from China, which has spurred quick economic growth in many countries, seemingly ending decades of stagnation and decline. Several African economies are among the world's fastest growing as of 2011. A significant part of this growth can also be attributed to the facilitated diffusion of information technologies and specifically the mobile phone.
18th and 19th centuriesEdit
|Republic of Swellendam||1795||Now part of South Africa||A republic declared in revolt against the Dutch East India Company. It lasted 3 months before being re-incorporated into the Cape Colony.|
|Graaff-Reinet||1795||Now part of South Africa||Formed in rebellion to Dutch East India Company; it took 2 years to be incorporated into the Cape Colony, though this time under British rule.|
|Griqualand West||1813||Now part of South Africa||Enjoyed de facto independence since the founding of Griquatown in 1813, Griqualand West eventually proclaimed itself a British colony in 1873. It did not gain recognition by Britain nor the neighboring Cape Colony and was annexed in 1880.|
|Potchefstroom Republic||1830||Now part of South Africa||A republic that existed only for a couple of months before joining with Winburg Republic. It was effectively a city-state.|
|Winburg Republic||1836||Now part of South Africa||Established on land the Vet and Vaal Rivers donated to the Voortrekkers by Bataung Chief Makwana in 1836 in exchange for protection from neighboring Basotho tribes. Joined in union with the newly established Potchefstroom Republic in 1838 to form the Republic of Winburg-Potchefstroom.|
|Republic of Winburg-Potchefstroom||1838||Now part of South Africa||Formed from the union of the Potchefstroom Republic and the Winburg Republic in 1838; the nation lasted until Potchefstroom left the union to join with Pietermaritzburg.|
|Natalia Republic||1839||Now part of South Africa||Established in 1839 by local Afrikaans-speaking Voortrekkers after the Battle of Blood River. This Boer Republic lasted for four years before being annexed by British troops under George Napier.|
|Andries-Ohringstad Republic||1845||Now part of South Africa||A fort was established by a group of Voortrekkers under the leadership of Andries Hendrik Potgieter with the help of a Dutch merchant Gregorius Ohrig. The settlers arrived in 1845 and were decimated by malaria. Forced to abandon the area, the republic was officially abandoned in 1849.|
|Utrecht Republic||1854||Now part of South Africa||A republic proclaimed by Andreas Theodorus Spies following a land purchase from the King of the Zulu, Mpande. It joined with the Lydenburg Republic in 1858.|
|Lydenburg Republic||1856||Now part of South Africa||A Boer republic which was created following the dissolution of the Andries-Ohringstad Republic. Eventually this nation expanded with the inclusion of the Utrecht Republic in 1858. The republic lasted until 1860 when it was incorporated into the South African Republic|
|Zoutpansberg Republic||1857||Now part of South Africa||A small Boer Republic that joined with the South African Republic in 1864. The white settlers in Zoutpansberg had for many years a reputation for lawlessness, and were later regarded as typical "back velt Boers". Zoutpansberg contained a larger native population than any other region of the Transvaal.|
|Griqualand West||1861||Now part of South Africa||Founded by Adam Kok III as a final resting place for Griqua people. The State suffered from a secret deal signed between the British Empire and Orange Free State causing unceasing instability. Although the reasons for its annexation are still debated, it was eventually integrated with the Cape Colony in 1880.|
|Klipdrift Republic||1870||Now part of South Africa||A Republic proclaimed during a dispute over diamond mines near what would become Griqualand West.|
|Republic of Stellaland||1882||Now part of South Africa||A Boer republic which existed briefly before its union with its neighboring Boer republic the State of Goshen.|
|Goshen||1882||Now part of South Africa||A Boer Republic which merged with the Republic of Stellaland to form the United States of Stellaland in 1883.|
|United States of Stellaland||1883||Now part of South Africa||A Boer republic which created from the union of neighboring Republic of Stellaland and State of Goshen. The republic lasted until it became a protectorate of the South African Republic on 10 September 1884 only to be annexed 6 days later.|
|Nieuwe Republiek||1884||Now part of South Africa||Created on August 16 of 1884 with land donated by the Zulus through a treaty. The territory was part of the old Boer Republic of Natalia. The republic enjoyed independence until it was annexed by the South African Republic by its own request.|
|Mahdist State||1885–1889||Now part of Sudan||Islamic state established during the Mahdist War by rebels. The rebellion failed and the state was dissolved.|
|Klein Vrystaat||1886||Now part of South Africa||A Boer republic which declared its independence from lands formerly controlled by the Swazi king Mswati II. It was eventually incorporated into the South African Republic in 1891 on its own request.|
20th and 21st centuriesEdit
|Tripolitanian Republic||1918||Now part of Libya||A republic proclaimed following the Paris Peace Conference; it disintegrated sometime in 1923.|
|Sultanate of M'Simbati||1959||Now part of Tanzania||Latham Leslie-Moore, a retired civil servant, declared the secession of the "Sultanate of M'Simbati" from the then colony of Tanganyika. The "secession" was suppressed in 1962 by Tanzanian government troops.|
|Katanga||1960||Part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo||Controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation. Although not recognised by any other country, Katanga received considerable financial, military and political support from Belgium, the Central African Federation, Portugal and the United States. Lobbyists on behalf of Katanga also unsuccessfully attempted to bribe the government of Costa Rica in return for diplomatic recognition.|
|People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba||1964||Now part of Tanzania||Following the 17 January 1964 coup which deposed the Sultan of Zanzibar, the revolutionary group purporting to represent the island's Negro majority proclaimed a People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba. It immediately made an offer of union with the government of Tanganyika.|
|Biafra||1967||Part of Nigeria||Controlled territory in eastern Nigeria, recognized by five states (Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, Zambia)|
|Rhodesia||1965–1979||Now Zimbabwe||Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965. Did not receive official recognition from any state. Had diplomatic relationship with South Africa which did not recognise Rhodesia to preserve its fragile positions with other nations, but frequently assisted the republic. Portugal also maintained informal relations until the Carnation Revolution of 1974.|
|Republic of Martyazo||1972||Now part of Burundi||A state declared by Hutu separatists inside the mountainous Vuzigo commune, between the Makamba and Lake Nyanza; lasted for little over a week.|
|Cabinda||1975||Now part of Angola||Cabinda was a Portuguese protectorate known as the Portuguese Congo. During the Portuguese Colonial War period, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought for the independence of Cabinda from the Portuguese. The independence was proclaimed on 1 August 1975. After the Angolan independence came in effect in November 1975, Cabinda was invaded by forces of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) with support of troops from Cuba.|
|Transkei||1976–1994||Now all part of South Africa||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Bophuthatswana||1977–1994||Now all part of South Africa||Former apartheid Bantustan homeland, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa. Israel extended marginal recognition to Bophuthatswana by allowing both polities to build trade missions in Tel Aviv. In 1993 Bophuthatswana opened an information center in Latvia, so the Latvian song festival was also attended by a chorus of this country (Bop Arts Council Chorus).|
|Zimbabwe Rhodesia||1979||Now Zimbabwe||Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965. Did not receive official recognition from any state. Had diplomatic relationship with South Africa which did not recognise Rhodesia to preserve its fragile positions with other nations, but frequently assisted the republic. Portugal also maintained informal relations until the Carnation Revolution of 1974. State received full international recognition after signing the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979 and became, on 18 April 1980, the independent Republic of Zimbabwe.|
|Venda||1979–1994||Now all part of South Africa||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Ciskei||1972–1994||Now all part of South Africa||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Mohéli||1997||Now part of Comoros||Seceded in 1997 but quietly rejoined the next year.|
|Bushmanland||1989||Now all part of Namibia||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Damaraland||1980–1989||Now all part of Namibia||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Namaland||1980–1989||Now all part of Namibia||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Rehoboth||1979–1989||Now all part of Namibia||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Tswanaland||1979–1989||Now all part of Namibia||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Kaokoland||1970–1989||Now all part of Namibia||Former apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa.|
|Anjouan||1997||Now part of Comoros||Joined with Comoros, then seceded twice to gain independence. Anjouan rejoined Comoros after talks during the first secession. After the second event, the secessionist government was forcefully removed.|
|2008||Now part of Comoros|
|Azawad||2012||Now part of Mali||Controlled territory in Northern Mali, it was unrecognized by any state.|
18th and 19th centuriesEdit
|Vermont Republic||1777–1791||Now part of the United States||Became the State of Vermont, territorial claims disputed by New York.|
|Watauga Association||1772–1778||Now part of the United States||Annexed into the State of North Carolina.|
|State of Muskogee||1799–1802||Part of the United States||A Native American state in Florida; consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. Annexed by the United States.|
|Republic of South Haiti||1810||Now part of Haiti||Haiti declared its independence in 1804 under Jean Jacques Dessalines. That same year, Dessalines declared himself Emperor. After his assassination in 1806, Haiti was divided between the Republic of Haiti in the south and the Kingdom of Haiti, under Henry Christophe, in the north. The situation was further complicated by the secession of South Haiti in the southwest corner of the country under André Rigaud in 1810. His own republic contained the former Maroon enclave of La Grande'Anse under Goman, who was allied with King Henry. A few months after Rigaud seized power, he died, and South Haiti rejoined the Republic. In 1820, Henry Christophe committed suicide. Haiti was reunited soon afterwards.|
|Republic of West Florida||1810||Now part of the United States||Republic consisting of the part of Louisiana now known as the Florida Parishes. Annexed during the presidency of James Madison.|
|Republic of Tucumán||1820||Part of Argentina||Now part of Argentine provinces of Catamarca, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán.|
|Republic of Entre Ríos||1820–1821||Part of Argentina||Today the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos and Corrientes.|
|Republic of Madawaska||1827–1842||Now divided between Canada and the United States||Within the provinces of New Brunswick, Quebec and the state of Maine.|
|Republic of Indian Stream||1832–1835||Now part of the United States||Annexed by the United States. Within the state of New Hampshire.|
|Riograndense Republic||1836–1845||Part of Brazil||The state was proclaimed by the Farroupilha rebels during the Ragamuffin War in 1836. The rebellion eventually failed and republic was dissolved. It is currently the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.|
|Republic of Canada||1837–1838||Now part of Canada||The self-proclaimed government was established on Navy Island in the Niagara River in the latter days of the Upper Canada Rebellion|
|1836–1839||Now part of Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Ecuador and Peru||The Peru–Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) was a confederate state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839. Its first and only head of state, titled "Supreme Protector", was the Bolivian president, Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz. The confederation was a loose union between the states of Peru (by this time divided into a Republic of North Peru and a Republic of South Peru, which included the capital Tacna) and Bolivia.|
|Republic of Lower Canada||1837–1838||Now part of Canada||A government established on the aftermath of Rebellions of 1837 in Lower Canada.|
|Republic of Los Altos||1837–1840||Now part of Guatemala||The United Provinces of Central America were riven by strife for much of their existence. Guatemala’s ruling class was appalled by the thought of an illiterate and brutish peasant Governor Rafael Carrera, and led the six western provinces into secession. The new state of Los Altos, under Liberal leadership, appealed for recognition to the UPCA. In January 1840, Carrera reconquered Los Altos, and then defeated the UPCA's army in March, sounding the death knell for the United Provinces. Los Altos rebelled again when Carrera declared Guatemala an independent republic in 1847, but was again rapidly crushed.|
|Juliana Republic||1839||Part of Brazil||Today's Santa Catarina.|
|Republic of the Río Grande||1840||Now part of the United States and Mexico.||Consisted of part of southern Texas and the 3 Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas.|
|Republic of Yucatán||1841–1843, 1846–1848||Part of Mexico||A state from 1841 to 1848, it was proclaimed after the Mexican government tried to centralize and tried to join the US during the Mexican–American War; it was rejected and joined a federal Mexico after the war ended. A revolt in Yucatán in 1916, led by Felipe Cerillo but with active Mayan involvement, effectively separated the region from the weak Mexican state. On 3 April 1916 Carillo declared the independence of the Socialist Republic of Yucatan, but the Republic failed to garner much support, and was quickly overrun by Mexican forces.|
|California Republic||1846||Now part of the United States||Formed during an Anglo-American revolt in Mexican California during the Mexican–American War. This "state" never actually possessed a high level of organization, and was only in existence for a matter of weeks before the rebels deferred to the US government and American troops.|
|State of Deseret||1846||Now part of the United States||The State of Deseret was formed by Mormons(Latter-Day Saints) in 1849 before becoming Utah Territory in 1850. Advance Parties of Mormon Pioneers entered the Great Basin Area in 1846, and Vanguard Companys arrived in 1847. Believing they were leaving the borders of the United States. After the establishment of the Utah Territory in 1850, the Latter-day Saints did not relinquish the idea of a "State of Deseret". From 1862 to 1870, a group of Mormon elders under Young's leadership met as a shadow government after each session of the territorial legislature to ratify the new laws under the name of the "state of Deseret". Attempts were made in 1856, 1862, and 1872 to write a new state constitution under that name based on the new boundaries of the Utah Territory.|
|Republic of Baja California||1853–1854||Now part of Mexico||The filibuster William Walker took control of La Paz, the capital of the sparsely populated Baja California, and 200 more men joined him. Walker declared La Paz the capital of a new Republic of Baja California, with himself as president and a constitution copied from that of Louisiana. Although he never gained control of Sonora, less than three months later, he pronounced Baja California part of the larger Republic of Sonora.|
|Republic of Sonora||1854||Now part of Mexico||A lesser to William Walker's Republic of Baja California, it was a merger between that and Sonora.|
|Republic of South Carolina||1860–61||Now part of the United States||Secessionist state established on December 20, 1860 when South Carolina became the first state to secede from the United States. It lasted a month and a half before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.|
|Alabama Republic||1861||Now Part of the United States||Secessionist republic declared January 11, 1861 when Alabama seceded from the United States. It only lasted a month before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.|
|Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia||1860–1862||Now part of Argentina and Chile||Set up by a French adventurer who tried to gain legitimacy for his state, only to be denied. The self-proclaimed kingdom was mostly a legal fiction and did only loosely control a small portion of the territory it claimed. In fact the Mapuche warlords that submitted to it were totally autonomous, and used the kingdom only as pretext to obtain foreign support. It was conquered and partitioned by Chile and Argentina.|
|Republic of Florida||1861||Now part of the United States||Secessionist state established January 10, 1861, when Florida seceded from the United States. Only lasted a month before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.|
|Republic of Louisiana||1861||Now part of the United States||Secessionist state formed on January 11, 1861 when Louisiana seceded from the United States. It only lasted two and a half weeks before joining the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861.|
|Republic of Mississippi||1861||Now part of the United States||Secessionist state established January 9, 1861 when Mississippi seceded from the United States. It only lasted a month before joining the Confederate States of America.|
|Republic of Texas||1861||Now part of the United States||Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861 and lasted as an independent state for a month before joining the Confederate States of America.
Not to be confused with the earlier (1836–1845), partially recognized Republic of Texas.
|Confederate States of America||1861–1865||Now part of the United States||Originally formed by seven southern states that seceded from the United States, it consisted of (South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Texas, and Louisiana). After the beginning of the American Civil War, the states of Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and North Carolina seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy. Reintegrated back into the United States throughout the Reconstruction Era.|
|Republic of Manitobah||1867–1869||Now part of Canada||Within the province of Manitoba.|
|Principality of Trinidad||1893–1895||Part of Brazil||American James Harden-Hickey divorced his wife in 1893 (1894?) and announced his intention to move to India and take up a life of Hindu asceticism. On the trip there, a storm forced his ship aground on the island of Trinidad (no relation to the Caribbean Trinidad) in the South Atlantic. Seeing that the island was uninhabited, Harden-Hickey declared himself Prince James I of Trinidad and advertised for settlers in the London Times. The following year, the United Kingdom annexed the island in order to anchor a transatlantic telegraph cable. Prince James was encouraged, hoping that the cable would bring the attention he needed to start his reign. However, the plan was scrapped and Brazil annexed the island again in 1897.|
|Republic of Independent Guyana||1886–1891||Part of Amapa, Brazil||Established by French settlers in defiance of both France and Brazil.|
|Republic of Acre||1899–1903||Now part of Brazil||A trio of attempts to free Acre from Bolivia. Each attempt was defeated, but part of Acre was turned over to Brazilian control after the final attempt.|
|Republic of Airrecú||1993||Now part of Nicaragua||Relations between Costa Rica and Nicaragua have traditionally been strained. This situation was not improved when the Costa Rican government granted land rights to settlers along the San Juan River, which forms part of the border between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. A dispute ended with Costa Rica acknowledging that the territory in fact belonged to Nicaragua, and promised to remove the settlers. The settlers, however, refused to leave. In June 1993, they declared their independence as the Republic of Airrecú, which means "friendship" in a local Indian language. The Nicaraguan Army immediately descended upon the area and escorted the Republic into Costa Rica.|
|Republic of Anguilla||1967–1969||Now a British overseas territory||Created due to opposition to a union with modern St. Kitts and Nevis. It ceased to exist after being occupied by the British Army.|
|Lanfang Republic||1777–1884||Now part of Indonesia.||Established by Chinese in Indonesia as the Dutch began to conquer Indonesia to protect the ethnic Chinese; it was a tributary state of the Qing Dynasty in Imperial China; the Qing Dynasty weakened and it was conquered by the Dutch, who added it to colonies.|
|Kingdom of Sedang||1888–1889||Now part of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam||Marie-Charles David de Mayréna was born in France in 1842. He stopped in Vietnam 1884 and started a plantation. In 1888, the King of Siam began claiming territory west of French territory. Anxious, the Governor of the Indochinese Union agreed to Mayréna's proposed expedition to the interior. When Mayréna reached the central highlands, he organized the local tribes into the Kingdom of Sedang, and declared himself King Marie I. He offered to cede his kingdom to France in exchange for monopoly rights. When the French government became understandably chilly, Mayréna approached the English at Hong Kong. When he was rebuffed there, Mayréna went to Belgium. In 1889, a Belgian financier named Somsy offered arms and money to Mayréna in exchange for mineral rights. Unfortunately, the French Navy blockaded Vietnamese ports to prevent his return, and his arms were seized as contraband at Singapore.|
|Republic of Ezo||1869||Now part of Japan||Set up in Hokkaido by supporters of the Tokugawa clan following the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate after the Boshin War and Meiji Restoration; they received support from the France, but only lasted five months.|
|Republic of Formosa||1895||Now part of Republic of China||Declared independence upon secession of Taiwan to Japan following the First Sino-Japanese War.|
|Sultanate of Aceh||1874–1904||Now part of Indonesia||A sultanate in modern Indonesia, it was later conquered by the Dutch.|
|Republic of Biak-na-Bato||1897||Now part of the Philippines||A revolutionary state that later became the First Philippine Republic.|
|Sovereign Tagalog Nation||1896–1897||Now part of the Philippines.||A revolutionary state that later became the First Philippine Republic|
|Dictatorial Government of the Philippines||1898||Now part of the Philippines.||Succeeded by the Revolutionary Government of the Philippines.|
|Revolutionary Government of the Philippines||1898||Now part of the Philippines.||Succeeded by the First Philippine Republic.|
|Republic of Zamboanga||1899–1903||Now part of the Philippines.||República de Zamboanga was a revolutionary republic, founded shortly after the collapse of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.|
|First Philippine Republic||1899–1901||Now part of the Philippines||Existed as an unrecognized independent sovereign state from its declaration on June 12, 1898, up to the surrender of Géneral Miguel Malvar. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, and pursued a protracted war against the invasion by United States leading to the Philippine–American War.|
|Cantonal Republic of Negros||1898–1901||Now part of the Philippines.||On January 1, 1899, the Federal Republic of Negros was proclaimed as a State or Canton with two Provinces. Notice of its establishment was sent to General Aguinaldo. On March 4, the island of Negros was surrendered to U.S. forces.|
20th and 21st centuriesEdit
|Tagalog Republic||1902–1906||Now part of the Philippines.||Revolutionary body set up during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War.|
|Kingdom of Tibet||1912–1951||Now part of the People's Republic of China||In 1913, Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama of Tibet proclaimed independence from Qing Dynasty, which was only recognized by Mongolia (however, there have been doubts over the authority of the Tibetan representative to sign the treaty, and thus its validity). One year later, a treaty accepting Chinese suzerainty and adjusting the border in favor of British India. The 14th Dalai Lama acknowledged Chinese sovereignty in the Seventeen Point Agreement of 1951, but China continues to reject the 1914 treaty and claims South Tibet (now part of India's Arunachal Pradesh).|
|Alash Autonomy||1917–1920||Now part of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan;||De facto self-governing autonomous region.|
|State of Buryat-Mongolia||1917–1921||Now part of Russia||Established during the Russian Civil War.|
|Southern Government||1917–1921||Now part of the People's Republic of China||Established during the Warlord Era.|
|Republic of Aras||1918–1919||Now part of Azerbaijan||Established during the Russian Civil War, this state only lasted several months.|
|Republic of Mountainous Armenia||1921||Now the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic||An anti-Soviet Armenian state which existed from 26 April until 13 July 1921, roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the present-day Armenian provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and some parts of the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.|
|Kingdom of Syria||1920||Now independent||Lasted for 4 months at the end of World War I until dissolved by the French, who took control.|
|Persian Socialist Soviet Republic||1920–1921||Now Gilan province in Iran||Created by local guerilleros (Jangali) when Red Army troops entered Iran, but failed to spread the revolutionary movement over the whole of Iran.|
|Kingdom of Kurdistan||1921–1924||Now part of Iraq||Establishmend by Kurdish nationalists following the collapse of Ottoman Turkey, but were defeated by Britain and incorporated into the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.|
|Tuvan People's Republic||1921–1944||Now part of Russia||Attempt by Tuvans to gain independence following years of domination by China and Imperial Russia; it was put under Soviet control and later formally annexed. The Soviet Union and the Mongolian People's Republic were the only countries to recognize its independence.|
|Republic of Ararat||1927–1930||Now part of Turkey||One of the first Kurdish republics in history, founded in Ağrı Province, Turkey.|
|Manchukuo||1932–1945||Now part of the People's Republic of China||Puppet state of the Empire of Japan ruled by the Emperor Pu Yi. Manchukuo was diplomatically recognised by El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Soviet Union, Italy, Spain, Nazi Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Vichy France, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Denmark, Croatia, China's Wang Jingwei government, Thailand, and the Philippines. The League of Nations never recognized Manchukuo's annexation by Japan. Manchukou was occupied by the Soviet Red Army in 1945, ending its puppet state status.|
|First East Turkestan Republic||1933–1934||Now part of the People's Republic of China||Set up as part of the movement for an independent East Turkestan it was defeated by the Nationalists.|
|Fujian People's Government||1933–1934||Now part of the People's Republic of China||Formed following the Fujian Incident, when the former 19th Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army broke with commander Chiang Kai-shek and declared a new government. Although originally enjoying popular support, the government lost favour and was crushed by Kuomintang forces in 1934.|
|Chinese Soviet Republic||1931–1937||Now part of China||Recognised by the People's Republic of China (1949–) as a "rehearsal" of the PRC and a "cradle" in which the Communist Party seized power.|
|Mongolian People's Republic||1932–1945, 1953–1992||Now independent||Was unrecognized by several countries from 1940 to 1960 due to being claimed as an integral part of the Republic of China.|
|Wang Jingwei Government||1940–1945||Part of China||Puppet government dissolved at the end of World War II. Recognized by Imperial Japan and its allies.|
|Second Philippine Republic||1943–1945||Now the Philippines||The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.|
|Second East Turkestan Republic||1944–1949||Now part of the People's Republic of China||Soviet satellite state set up in East Turkestan; the Soviets later turned against it and approved its annexation by China.
|Inner Mongolian People's Republic||1945||Now part of the People's Republic of China||During the Second World War the Japanese support in Inner Mongolia was established, and a new puppet state was created, named Mengjiang. In August 1945 it was destroyed by Soviet and Mongolian troops. On September 9, 1945, the Sunid Yutsi held a Congress of People's Representatives and aimags khoshuns of Inner Mongolia. Held for three days, the Congress proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of Inner Mongolia and elected an interim government. In November the Chinese Communist Party managed to bring the situation under control, and reorganized the Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Inner Mongolia in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Government.|
|Azerbaijan People's Government||1945–1946||Now part of Iran||Soviet puppet state set up in Iranian Azerbaijan but later reclaimed by Iran.|
|Republic of Mahabad||1946–1947||Now part of Iran||Declared independence from Iran, but then occupied by Iran after the withdrawal of the Soviet Red Army from the north of the country.|
|Hyderabad State||1947–1948||Is now split up among Telangana, Maharashtra and Karnataka states of India.||One of the largest client rulers during British India. At independence in 1947 the UK allowed the local rulers of the princely states to choose between joining India, Pakistan or to become independent. The Nizam of Hyderabad chose independence declaring Hyderabad a free, self-governing independent state but the Government of India, desirous of ending marginalization of the population under Nizam, refused to accept his point of view citing as reasons: Hyderabad being surrounded by India on all sides and not having an access to the sea. After extensive attempts by India to persuade the Nizam to accede to India failed, the Indian government finally launched a military operation named Operation Polo to overthrow his rule.|
|Khanate of Kalat||1947–1948||Now part of Balochistan province in Pakistan||Kalat was a princely state in Baluchistan Agency, one of the agencies of British India. The Khan of Kalat declared his nation's independence on August 15, 1947, one day after India and Pakistan declared independence. From 15 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. After intense diplomatic pressure, the Khan relented and acceded Kalat to Pakistan in 1948.|
|People's Republic of China||1949–1971||Now independent||Recognised by the Soviet bloc states from 1949. Not recognized by the United States or Western Bloc until the 1970s. Most of the territory is claimed by the Republic of China. See Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China for details.|
|1950||Now part of Indonesia||The Moluccas formed part of the United States of Indonesia (27 December 1949 – 17 August 1950), but declared independence in April 1950 in reaction of centralizing tendencies from Jakarta. It was quickly conquered by Indonesian troops, but maintains a government in exile in the Netherlands.|
|Suvadive Islands||1959–1963||Now part of the Maldives||Attempted break-away state; it was supported by Britain briefly before being abandoned.|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||1954–1961||Now part of India||Territory made up of two former exclaves of the Portuguese district of Daman (Portuguese India). In 1954, it was invaded and occupied by supporters of their integration in the Indian Union. Thereafter and until formal annexation by India in 1961, it enjoyed a de facto independence. Portugal continued to consider Dadra and Nagar Haveli as Portuguese territory until 1974. The native citizens of the territory continued to be entitled to the grant of Portuguese citizenship until 2006.|
|Republic of Timor||1961||Now part of Timor-Leste||In early 1961 the Battle Office for the Liberation of Timor (Bureau de Luta pela Libertação de Timor) was formed under the leadership of Maoclao and backed by Indonesia. A republic was proclaimed in the border town of Batugade on 9 April 1961. It was quickly put down by Portuguese troops.|
|Free Lebanon State||1979–1984||Now part of Lebanon||In 1976, as a result of the ongoing civil war, the Lebanese army began to break up. Major Saad Haddad, commanding an army battalion in the south which had been part of the Army of Free Lebanon, broke away and founded a group known as the Free Lebanon Army (FLA). The FLA fought against various groups including the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the Amal Movement and (after the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon) the emerging Hezbollah. The 1978 Israeli invasion allowed the Free Lebanon Army to gain control over a much wider area in southern Lebanon. On April 18, 1979 Haddad proclaimed the area controlled by his force "Independent State of Free Lebanon" (Dawlet Lebnaan El Horr El Mest’ell) with the capital Beirut, though his actual headquarters were in Marjayoun. In May 1980, " Free Lebanon Army" was renamed "South Lebanon Army". The statehood claim was downplayed following the death of Haddad in 1984, though his successor Antouan Lahed continued to exercise some authority in Southern Lebanon until the year 2000. On 24 May 2000, following Israeli withdrawal and final collapse of the SLA, Lebanese forces occupied the small town Marjayoun, which was the "capital" of southern Lebanon.|
| People's Republic of Kampuchea
State of Cambodia
|1979–1993||Now part of Cambodia||Khmer Rouge was ousted by Vietnam in 1979. Not recognized by the People's Republic of China, North Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States, ASEAN countries and the UN.|
|Democratic Republic of Yemen||1994||Now part of Yemen||Breakaway state formed during the 1994 civil war in Yemen. It only lasted six weeks before being reconquered.|
|Tamil Eelam||2004–2009||Recaptured by Sri Lanka||After a 26-year Failed military campaign. Sri Lanka Military Starting their Offensive from 2005. Until Their 2008–09 Sri Lankan Army Northern offensive by the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and Till their Last Day on May 18, 2009, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam self-declared Tamil Eelam ceased to exist.|
|Bangsamoro Republik||2013||Now part of the Philippines||Following their defeat in Zamboanga City by the Armed Forces of the Philippines on September 28, 2013, the Moro National Liberation Front self-declared Bangsamoro Republic ceased to exist.|
10th through 19th centuriesEdit
|Couto Misto||10th century – 1868||Part of Spain and Portugal||De facto independent microstate on the border between Galicia (Spain) and Northern Portugal. By the 1864 Treaty of Lisbon, its territory was partitioned between Spain and Portugal.|
|Kingdom of Corsica||1736||Part of France||Seceded from Republic of Genoa.|
|Corsican Republic||1755–1769||Part of France||Seceded from Republic of Genoa; annexed by France. Recognized only by Bey of Tunis.|
|Republic of Liège||1789–1791||Part of Belgium||Republic formed following the Liège Revolution.|
|Anglo-Corsican Kingdom||1794–1796||Part of France||Independent kingdom under British King George III, formed on the Irish model.|
|The Gozitan Nation||1798–1801||Part of Malta||Independent kingdom under Neapolitan King Ferdinand III. It was actually ruled by a provisional government set up by Saverio Cassar, after French troops on the island capitulated to rebels. It became part of the British protectorate of Malta in 1801.|
|Republic of Connacht||1798||Part of Ireland||French client republic.|
|Kingdom of Norway||1814||Part of Denmark-Norway, then United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway||Norway declared its independence, as a result of the refusal of the Treaty of Kiel after the Napoleonic Wars, adopted a Constitution and elected Danish Prince Christian Frederik as its own king. Resulting to a short war with Sweden, leading to Norway accepting entering into a personal union with Sweden at the Convention of Moss.|
|Republic of Goust||1827||Part of France||A French hamlet which was considered for a long time independent due to it never being formally annexed by France.|
|Kingdom of Tavolara||1836–1962?||Part of Italy||The Bertoleoni family claimed to be monarchs of an island off the northeast coast of Sardinia.|
|Repubblica di San Marco||1848–1849||Part of Italy||Following 1848 unrests, the republic was proclaimed in 1848 in the territories of Venetia with the capital Venice. Allied with the other Italian states against Austrian Empire, it eventually voted to federate under Kingdom of Sardinia, but it went back to independence after piedmontese defeat. Remaining only Venice and its lagoon under control, the republic surrendered after almost 5 months of siege and after 17 months of existence.|
|Canton of Cartagena||1873–1874||Part of Spain||In 1873 Cartagena was proclaimed as an independent canton, called the Canton of Cartagena. This proclamation started the Cantonal Revolution in Spain, during the First Spanish Republic. It was the beginning of the cantonalism, a movement that tried Spain become a federal state composed by cantons. Some cities and territories joined the cantonal cause and were declared independents too, but they surrendered a few days later. The only canton with an organized government as state, control on its territory and military power was Cartagena, which declared war and faced the Spanish central government during six months, until it was invaded.|
|Republic of Tamrash||1878–1886||Part of Bulgaria||The Republic of Tamrash was a self-governing administrative structure of the Pomaks, living in the Tamrash region of the Rhodope Mountains.|
20th and 21st centuriesEdit
|Kruševo Republic||1903||Part of North Macedonia||Republic established in Kruševo, Macedonia at the start of the Ilinden Uprising. It lasted solely 10 days, from the third to the thirteenth of August. It can be considered as one of the first modern governments with leftist views, as both the president, Nikola Karev and his co-writer of the Kruševo Manifesto, Nikola Kirov, were socialists and members of the Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers' Party.|
|Chita Republic, Krasnoyarsk Republic, Novorossiysk Republic, Sochi Republic, Starobuyanskaya Republic||1905–1906||Part of Russia||The Chita Republic was a workers and peasants' dictatory republic in Chita during the Russian Revolution of 1905, installed by actual seizure of power in Chita RSDLP Committee and the Council of Soldiers 'and Cossacks' Deputies in November 1905 – January 1906. The Krasnoyarsk Republic – government, organized by the Joint Board of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies in Krasnoyarsk during the First Russian Revolution. Lasted from 9 to 27 December 1905. The Novorossiysk Republic – the worker-peasant self-government established by the Council of Workers' Deputies in Novorossiysk December 12, 1905 lasted until 26 December of the same year. The Sochi Republic – political education social democratic sense, arising from the modern city of Sochi as a result of the revolutionary uprisings of 1905. Lasted from December 28, 1905 to January 5, 1906 (i.e., about 9 days). The Starobuyanskaya Republic – peasant self-government established during the First Russian Revolution in the village of Stary Buyan. Lasted from 12 to 26 November 1905.|
|Gurian Republic||1905–1906||Part of Georgia||The Gurian Republic or the Gurian peasant republic was an insurrection that took place in the western Georgian province Guria (then part of the Imperial Russia) prior to and during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Republic existed from the November 1905 to January 10, 1906.|
|Liubotyn Republic and Shuliavka Republic||1905||Part of Ukraine||The Lyubotinskaya Republic – proclaimed in December 1905, independent workers' state in the armed insurrection of the workers and railwaymen in Lyubotin during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Republic existed from the December 26 to 30, 1905. The Shuliavka Republic was an early 20th-century worker-based quasi-government organization in the city of Kiev, Ukraine, whose main task was self-defence. The uprising lasted a total of four days, from December 12–16 (o.s., in the Gregorian Calendar, 26–29), 1905.|
|Markovo Republic||1905–1906||Part of Russia||Markovo Republic was a self-proclaimed peasant state, located in Russia, in the Volokolamsk area. It was proclaimed on October 18, 1905, when during the Russian Revolution of 1905 peasants took control of the local government in the village Markovo and 5 other villages. It had existed until July 18, 1906.|
|Republic of Ostrowiec||1905–1906||Part of Poland||Republic of Ostrowiec (Republika Ostrowiecka) – government set December 27, 1905 during the First Russian Revolution in cities Ostrowiec, Iłżę, Ćmielów and locality. Republic fell in the middle of January 1906.|
|Republic of Zagłębie and Republic of Sławków||1905||Part of Poland||Polish towns Zagłębie Dąbrowskie and Sławków taken over by revolutionary during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Both republics existed in November–December 1905, each about 10–12 days.|
|Provisional Government of Western Thrace||1913||Part of Greece||A small, short-lived republic from August 31 to October 25, 1913, at the end of the Second Balkan War when Western Thrace was then occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It was founded as a state with Ottoman support, in order to avoid Bulgarian rule after the Treaty of Bucharest, in which the Ottomans had not taken part. Under British pressure, the Balkan powers and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of Constantinople, which satisfied the Turkish claims to recognition of Eastern Thrace. The Ottomans withdrew their forces and by 25 October, the area was annexed by Bulgaria.|
|Republic of Central Albania||1913–1914||Part of Albania||The Republic of Central Albania was a republic declared following the pullout of Ottoman forces from the former Albanian Vilayet. Declared by Essad Pasha Toptani, the republic's existence came to an end when the troops of Wilhelm of Wied took control of the country.|
|Irish Republic||1916||The Republic of Ireland and part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||An independent republic covering the entire island of Ireland declared on 24 April 1916; sent out a radio broadcast to the nations of Europe: "Irish Republic declared in Dublin today. Irish troops have captured city and are in full possession. Enemy cannot move in city. The whole country rising." The rebels surrendered on 29 April.|
|Soviet Republic of Soldiers and Fortress-Builders of Naissaar||1917–1918||Now part of Estonia||In December 1917, a group of Russian sailors commandeered Naissaar and proclaimed an independent "socialist republic", under the leadership of Stepan Petrichenko.|
|Ukrainian People's Republic||1917–1920||Part of Ukraine||An independent republic and direct predecessor of modern Ukraine established right after the Bolshevik coup-d'etat against the Russian Republic government. During 1918 due to own coup-d'etat had its government swapped between socialists and conservatives while officially referred to as the Ukrainian State. In 1919 by the Unification Act, Ukraine united with the West Ukrainian People's Republic. At that time Ukraine was recognized by numerous countries in Europe.|
|Idel-Ural State||1917–1918||Part of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan (Russia)||Suppressed by the Red Army.|
|Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic||1917–1922||Part of Russia||Revolutionary soviet state led by Vladimir Lenin during the Russian civil war.|
|State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs||1918||Part of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbia (Vojvodina) and Montenegro (Boka Kotorska)||Temporary state of the Austro-Hungarian South Slavs, declared on October 29, 1918, and merged with the Kingdom of Serbia on December 1, 1918, into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia)|
|Odessa Soviet Republic||1918||part of Ukraine and Moldova||Odessan Soviet Republic was a short-lived Soviet republic formed on January 31, 1918. It was disestablished on 13 March 1918. It was not recognized by any country.|
|Republic of Tarnobrzeg||1918–1919||Part of Poland||The Republic of Tarnobrzeg was proclaimed November 6, 1918 in the Polish town of Tarnobrzeg. Disestablished Spring 1919.|
|Kuban People's Republic||1918–1920||Part of Russia||A territory in Russia, it was declared by Kuban Cossacks in 1918. It supported the White Movement and was overrun by the Bolsheviks in 1920.|
|West Ukrainian People's Republic||1918–1919||Part of Ukraine||Established in eastern Galicia it controlled cities once part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and with large numbers of ethnic Poles leading to a losing war with Poland after which it was partitioned by Poland, the Kingdom of Romania, Czechoslovakia, and the Ukrainian People's Republic.|
|Komancza Republic||1918–1919||Part of Ukraine||An association of 30 pro-Ukrainian villages, it planned to merge with the West Ukrainian People's Republic but was suppressed by Poland during the Polish-Ukrainian War|
|Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic||1918||Part of Finland and Russia||Lasted only three months during the Finnish Civil War, but was recognized by Soviet Russia.|
|Republic of Vorarlberg||1918||Part of Austria||Amidst the chaos in collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire the Vorarlbergers proclaimed themselves a separate non-Austrian, Germanic people and declared on 3 November 1918 the independence as Republic of Vorarlberg. The secession was blocked by the alies and the new Austrian republican government. In April 1919, over 80% of the Vorarlbergers voted to secede from Austria and attach themselves to Switzerland, but they were again blocked.|
|Alsace Soviet Republic (Republic of Alsace-Lorraine)||1918||Part of France||The Soviet Republic, existed in Alsace from 10 to 22 November 1918.|
|Banat Republic||1918||Part of Romania, Serbia, and Hungary||Established in the Banat region of modern Serbia by members of ethnic groups in the region, it was only recognized by Hungary. It was invaded by Serbia and in 1919 partitioned between Hungary, Romania, and the newly created Yugoslavia.|
|Republic of Venezia-Giulia||1918||Part of Italy and Slovenia||Centered on the port of Fiume, now called Rijeka by the Croatian inhabitants, Venezia-Giulia was an important staging area for the Austro-Hungarian Empire's Adriatic trade. After the war, both Yugoslavia and Italy claimed the area. The inhabitants refused to join either nation, preferring to remain independent and retain the cosmopolitan, multi-ethnic nature of the area. After Fiume's seizure by Italian nationalists in 1919, the Republic was partitioned.|
|Don Republic||1918–1920||Part of Russia (Rostov Oblast)||Republic that was recognized by the Ukrainian State. In 1919 it was part of the Armed Forces of South Russia and eventually overran by Bolsheviks with its annexation to the Soviet Russia.|
|Belarusian People's Republic||1918||Independent Belarus||Attempt by Belarusian nationalists but conquered by Soviet Union. Still exists today as a government-in-exile.|
|Republic of German-Austria||1918–1919||Austria and part of the Czech Republic||Brief state declared following the collapse of Austria-Hungary. The Allies of World War I opposed it and it was succeeded by the First Austrian Republic.|
|Republic of Perloja||1918–1923||Part of Lithuania||In the chaos after World War I, responding to such situation the locals established a self-governing parish committee, often called the Republic of Perloja. The Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.|
|The Republic of North Ingria||1919–1920||Part of Russia||The Republic of North Ingria was a state of Ingrian Finns in the southern part of the Karelian Isthmus, which seceded from Bolshevist Russia after the October Revolution. Its aim was to be incorporated into Finland. It ruled parts of Ingria from 1919 until 1920. With the Peace Treaty of Tartu it was re-integrated into Russia. Established -January 23, 1919. Disestablished – December 5, 1920.|
|Hutsul Republic||1919||Part of Ukraine||A state formed from territory in the former Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, it was invaded by the Hungarian Soviet Republic in June 1919 and then became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic. It originally intended to join the Western Ukrainian National Republic|
|Bavarian Soviet Republic and Bremen Soviet Republic||1919||Part of Germany||The Bavarian Soviet Republic, also known as the Munich Soviet Republic was, as part of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the attempt to establish a socialist state in the form of a democratic workers' council republic in the Free State of Bavaria. Another Republic that existed was the Bremen Soviet Republic.|
|Slovak Soviet Republic||1919||Part of Slovakia||A pro-Hungarian puppet state set up by Red Guards from the Hungarian Soviet Republic in Upper Hungary. After a brief war it was returned to the authority of Czechoslovakia as promised by early peace agreements.|
|Republic of Prekmurje||1919||Part of Slovenia||Existed for six days.|
|Limerick Soviet||1919||Part of Ireland||The Limerick Soviet (republic) was a self-declared Soviet Republic that existed from 15 to 27 April 1919.|
|Free State Bottleneck||1919–1923||Part of Germany||The Free State Bottleneck (German: Freistaat Flaschenhals) was a short-lived quasi-state that existed from 10 January 1919 until 25 February 1923. It was formed out of part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau as a consequence of the occupation of the Rhineland following World War I.|
|Monarchy of the North||1919||Part of Portugal||A stated that established by monarchists trying to restore the monarchy. It was crushed by the Portuguese Army.|
|Irish Republic||1919–1922||The Republic of Ireland and part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||An unrecognized Irish nationalist state during the Irish War for Independence it ceased to exist following the Anglo-Irish Treaty which gave Southern Ireland independence as the Irish Free State while keeping Northern Ireland under British control. These terms caused much of the victorious Irish Republican Army to reject the treaty, leading to the Irish Civil War (1922–1923) between pro-treaty Free State forces and Anti-Treaty IRA, who viewed the dissolution of the Republic as illegal.|
|Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic||1919||Now part of Ukraine||The Soviet Republic Ukrainian SSR existed from 1919 to 1991. It was not until the Peace of Riga in 1920 when it was officially recognized. It was created as an opposition to the Ukrainian government. With the fall of the Soviet Union transitioned to Ukraine.|
|Galician Soviet Socialist Republic||1920||Now part of Ukraine||The Soviet Republic Galician SSR existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920, during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the south-western front of the Red Army.|
|Lajtabánság||1921||Part of Austria and Hungary||State declared in the Burgenland state of Austria by ethnic Hungarians following the Treaty of Trianon, where Hungary was forced to surrender the territory. It was ceased to exist after a month when Austria annexed it.|
|Labin Republic||1921||Part of Croatia||Republic established in Labin, Croatia.|
|Serbian-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic||1921||Part of Hungary and Croatia||A Soviet-minded[vague] state set up by Hungarian communists fleeing the white terror following the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. It was supported by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes but was quickly re-conquered by Hungary.|
|Republic of Mirdita||1921||Part of Albania||Set up by Albanian Catholics trying to break away from Albania which is a mainly Muslim country. It was backed by Yugoslavia but only lasted three months.|
|Munster Republic||1922||Part of the Republic of Ireland||Though never independent it was the informal name given to Munster which was the base of Irish republicans aiming to create a United Ireland during the Irish Civil War.|
|Carpatho-Ukraine||1939||Part of Ukraine||Carpatho-Ukraine was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939. It declared itself an independent republic on March 15, 1939, but was occupied and annexed by Hungary between March 15 and March 18, 1939. On June 29, 1945, after the Soviet occupation of Hungary, a treaty was signed under pressure of USSR between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding fCarpathian Ruthenia officially to the Soviet Union. In 1946 the area was forced to become part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the Zakarpattia Oblast (Transcarpathian Region).|
|Finnish Democratic Republic||1939–1940||Part of Russia||Puppet state of the Soviet Union led by Otto Wille Kuusinen. Finnish Democratic Republicwas diplomatically recognised by USSR, Mongolia and Tuva, latter two being Soviet satellite states. The League of Nations never recognized the Finnish Democratic Republic. Finnish Democratic Republic was merged in 1940 with the Karelian ASSR within the RSFSR to form the Karelo-Finnish SSR, a Soviet republic in its own right, after Finland had ceded the areas to the Soviet Union in the Moscow Peace Treaty.|
|First Slovak Republic||1939–1945||Part of Slovakia||Between 1939 and 1945, First Slovak Republic was a puppet state of Nazi Germany.|
|Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic||1940–1991||Part of Estonia||A puppet state which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into Soviet Union. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.|
|Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic||1940–1991||Part of Latvia||A puppet state which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into Soviet Union. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.|
|Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic||1940–1991||Part of Lithuania||A puppet state which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into Soviet Union. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.|
|Independent State of Croatia||1941–1945||Now two independent states, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina||Affiliated with the Third Reich.|
|Republic of Užice||1941||Part of Serbia||Area briefly liberated by Yugoslav partisans after the Invasion of Yugoslavia; it was retaken by the German Army during the First anti-Partisan offensive.|
|Bihac Republic||1942–1943||Part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia||Area liberated by Yugoslav partisans before being recaptured by the German Army.|
|Italian Social Republic||1943–1945||Part of Italy||German-dominated puppet state under Benito Mussolini, formed in the North of Italy after the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III signed an armistice with the Allies.|
|Free Republic of Vercors||1944||Part of France||On 3 July 1944 the Free Republic of Vercors was proclaimed, the first democratic territory in France since the beginning of the German occupation in 1940. The republic ceased to exist before the end of the month.|
|Gagauzia||1990–1994||Part of Moldova||Region in Moldova that declared its independence on 19 August 1991 following the attempted August coup in Moscow. Gagauzia was uncomfortable with the potential unification between Moldova and Romania. It was later reintegrated into Moldova as an autonomous region in 1994.|
|Chechen Republic of Ichkeria||1991–2000||Part of Russia||Reintegrated into the Russian Federation as the Chechen Republic|
|Republic of Serbian Krajina||1991–1995||Part of Croatia||Suppressed by Croatia.|
|Dubrovnik Republic (1991)||1991–1992||Part of Croatia||Suppressed by Croatia.|
|Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia||1992–1996||Part of Bosnia & Herzegovina||Suppressed by Bosnia & Herzegovina.|
|Republika Srpska||1992–1995||One of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina||Transformed into an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, covering 50% of the land with 90%+ ethnic Serbs.|
|Republic of Western Bosnia||1993–1995||Part of Bosnia and Herzegovina||The Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia, existed during the Bosnian War. Its leader was later convicted of war crimes.|
|Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia||1995–1998||Part of Croatia||The UN gives Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia to Croatia.|
|Novorossiya ( Donetsk People's Republic/ Luhansk People's Republic)||2014–2015||Part of Ukraine||Due to non-resolution to the war in Donbass, although Minsk Protocol/Minsk II are in effect. Both states attempted to form an unrecognised Confederation-like union known as Novorossiya based on a historical Russian region of the same name. This project was suspended however in 2015, and reverted as allied rebellious separatist People's Republics from Ukraine as since.|
|Republic of Crimea||2014||Disputed (Part of Russia, Internationally recognised as part of Ukraine)||As part of the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, on 17 March 2014 following the official announcement of the Crimean status referendum results, the Supreme Council of Crimea declared the formal independence of the Republic of Crimea, comprising the territories of both the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol. Russia officially recognised the Republic of Crimea 'as a sovereign and independent state' by decree before approving the admission of Crimea and Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia.|
|Catalan Republic||2017||Part of Spain
Declaration of independence suspended shortly after
|The Autonomous Community of Catalonia, today part of the Kingdom of Spain, historically have demanded Independence. After an unrecognized referendum resulting in a dubious “yes” majority, a declaration of independence was passed in parliament, but it was suspended by parliament itself 8 seconds later to allow negotiations. The Spanish government has effectively since disbanded the self-proclaimed republic, and announced a new regional election instead. Some of the Catalan leadership went to jail according to the Spanish Constitution of 1978.|
|United Tribes of New Zealand||1835–1840||New Zealand||Independence declared by British Resident James Busby and northern Māori tribal leaders as an attempt to safeguard British claims against French territorial expansion. Led to a formal treaty (the Treaty of Waitangi) between Māori leaders and the British crown in 1840.|
|Independent Commune of Franceville||1889–1890||Part of Vanuatu||Its independence guaranteed by France, this community of Melanesian natives and European settlers experimented with universal suffrage until France and Britain intervened in the New Hebrides.|
|Republic of Minerva||1972||Part of Tonga, but claim disputed by Fiji and a Minerva "principality" group||Several previously unclaimed reefs that were occupied and raised in a minor way by a group of libertarian establishmentarians until Tonga laid claim to the territory.|
|Tanna Nation||1974||Part of Vanuatu||Declared independence but was suppressed by the Anglo-French condominium.|
|Republic of the North Solomons||1975–1976||Part of Papua New Guinea||Seceded twice and returned after peace negotiations both times.|
|Tafea Nation||1980||Part of Vanuatu||Opposed to the Anglo-French condominium that ruled it but which ended the secessionist state.|
|Republic of Vemerana||1980||Part of Vanuatu||Central power of Vanuatu restored with assistance of army from Papua New Guinea.|
|Republic of Rotuma||1987–1988||Dependency of Fiji||Following the second coup, when Fiji left the British Commonwealth of Nations, a segment of the Rotuman population, known as the "Mölmahao Clan" of Noa’tau rejected the council's decision to remain with the newly declared republic. Arguing that Rotuma had been ceded to Great Britain and not to Fiji, these rebels declared in 1987 independence of Republic of Rotuma and were charged with sedition. It did not have any substantive support, majority opinion appears to favor remaining with Fiji, but rumblings of discontent remain.|
|Bougainville Interim Government||1990–1998||Part of Papua New Guinea||Signed a peace deal with Papua New Guinea giving the island autonomy pending an independence referendum within a decade.|
- Dambisa Moyo (2009). Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa. Farrar, Straus and Giroux
- "Africa's crisis is of modern socialist making and stems from the misrule, mismanagement and corruption of the elite." "Betrayal: Why Socialism Failed in Africa," adapted from a speech economist George Ayittey delivered at “Evenings at FEE” in April 2005; accessed 01 January 2017
- Crellin, Zac (4 August 2016). "The conspiracy of Katangese nationalism". Pambazuka. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- Minahan, James (1 January 2002). "Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: L-R". Greenwood Publishing Group – via Google Books.
- "Footnotes to History- U to Z". Archived from the original on 2012-03-09.
- Wolters, W.G. (2004), "Philippine War of Independence", in Keat Gin Ooi (ed.), Southeast Asia: A historical encyclopedia from Angkor Wat to East Timor, II, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-770-5
- "Presidential Proclamation No. 173 S. 2002". Official Gazette. April 9, 2002.
- Kalaw, Maximo Manguiat (1921). The Present Government of the Philippines. Oriental commercial. p. 148. ISBN 1-4067-4636-3.(Note: 1. The book cover incorrectly lists author as "Maximo M Lalaw", 2. Originally published in 1921 by The McCullough Printing Co., Manila)
- Two-article series:
- "Pacete: The fate of the Federal Republic of Negros". Sun-Star Philippines.
- "Pacete: The fate of the Federal Republic of Negros 2". Sun-Star Philippines.
- "Negros History". Sillman University. The Philippine Revolution.
- "Tibet Justice Center – Legal Materials on Tibet – Tibet – Proclamation Issued by His Holiness the Dalai Lama XIII (1913) ".
- Udo B. Barkmann, Geschichte der Mongolei, Bonn 1999, p380ff
- Phurbu Thinley (2008-11-12). "Tibet – Mongolia Treaty of 1913, a proof of Tibet's independence: Interview with Prof. Elliot Sperling". Phayul.com. Retrieved 2008-11-13.
- Smith, Warren, "Tibetan Nation", p. 186: "The validity is often questioned, mainly on grounds of the authority of Dorjiev to negotiate on behalf of Tibet...the fact that Dorjiev was a Russian citizen while ethnically Tibetan somewhat compromises his role; the treaty had some advantages to Russia in that it could be interpreted as extending Russia's protectorate over Mongolia to encompass Tibet."
- "Tibet Justice Center – Legal Materials on Tibet – Treaties and Conventions Relating to Tibet – Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, Simla (1914) ".
- Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, pp812-813, saying: "After a lengthy discussion...the assembly recommended to the Dalai Lama that the agreement be approved. On 24 October, the Dalai Lama sent an official confirmation to Mao Tse-tung."
- Dr. Andrew Andersen, Ph.D. Atlas of Conflicts: Armenia: Nation Building and Territorial Disputes: 1918–1920
- "Հայկական էլեկտրոնային գրադարան - Նոյյան տապան - On line books". Archived from the original on 2014-10-21. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- Dallin, David J. Soviet Russia and the Far East, Yale University Press, 1948, p. 87
- Paine, S.C.M. Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier, M.E. Sharpe, 1996, p. 329.
- Kotkin, Stephen; Elleman, Bruce A. (ed.), Mongolia in the Twentieth Century: Landlocked Cosmopolitan, p139
- Purushotham, Sunil (2015). "Internal Violence: The "Police Action" in Hyderabad". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 57 (2): 435–466. doi:10.1017/s0010417515000092.
- Kuipers, Ludo. "'Republic of Timor', 1961 – Flag – Timor-Leste".
- Thrasher, Peter Adam (1970). Pasquale Paoli: An Enlightened Hero 1725–1807. Hamden, CT: Archon Books. p. 117. ISBN 0-208-01031-9.
- Thrasher, Peter Adam (1970). Pasquale Paoli: An Enlightened Hero 1725–1807. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books. p. 282. ISBN 0-208-01031-9.
- Gregory, Desmond (1985). The ungovernable rock: a history of the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom and its role in Britain's Mediterranean strategy during the Revolutionary War, 1793–1797. London: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 81–82. ISBN 0-8386-3225-4.
- "Goust by Jean M. Ollivier".
- Geremia, Ernesto Carlo, and Gino Ragnetti (2005), Tavolara – l'Isola dei Re, ISBN 88-425-3441-2
- Constantinos Vacalopoulos (2004). Ιστορία της Μείζονος Θράκης, από την πρώιμη Οθωμανοκρατία μέχρι τις μέρες μας, History of Greater Thrace, from early Ottoman rule until nowadays. Thessaloniki: Publisher Antonios Stamoulis. p. 282. ISBN 960-8353-45-9.
- Koçak, Yalçın; Özyiğit, Ertan (2014). Batı Trakya Türk Cumhuriyeti – 100. Yıl Anısına (Western Thrace Turkish Republic – In Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary). WizArt. ISBN 9786056466717.
- Minahan, James (1 January 2002). "Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z". Greenwood Publishing Group – via Google Books.
- "Footnotes to History- U to Z". Archived from the original on 2012-03-09.
- Magocsi, Paul Robert; Pop, Ivan I. (June 2002). Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture (book). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 237–238. ISBN 978-0-8020-3566-0. Retrieved 3009-06-23. Check date values in:
- "Глава 4. КРАСНАЯ АРМИЯ В ВОЕННЫХ КОНФЛИКТАХ В 1939–1940 гг / Июнь. 1941. Запрограммированное поражение".
- Marek, Krystyna (1954). Identity and Continuity of States in Public International Law. Librairie Droz. p. 475. ISBN 9782600040440.
- Постановление ГС РК № 1745-6/14 - О независимости Крыма [Resolution State Council Republic of Crimea № 1745-6/14 – On the independence of Crimea] (in Russian). rada.crimea.ua. 17 March 2014. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- "Executive Order on recognising Republic of Crimea". Kremlin. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
- "Распоряжение Президента Российской Федерации от 17 March 2014 № 63-рп "О подписании Договора между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов"". Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. Retrieved 31 October 2017. at http://www.pravo.gov.ru (in Russian)
- "El referéndum ilegal del 1-O también fue 'fake news'". Retrieved 7 December 2018. at https://www.elmundo.es/ (in Spanish)
- "Puigdemont suspende la declaración de independencia para buscar el diálogo". Retrieved 7 December 2018. at https://www.eldiario.es/ (in Spanish)
- "The "Jordis" are not political prisoners – here's why". Retrieved 7 December 2018. at https://www.elpais.com (in English)
- "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government", Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1895, p 1