The Chita Republic (Russian: Читинская республика) was a worker's republic in Chita, under control of the Soviet of Workers’, Soldiers’ and Cossaks’ from 1905-1906. Chita, a city in eastern Siberia, Russia, and a place of exile for early revolutionaries and combatants of the Russo-Japanese War, was a center for worker unrest in the early 1900s. During the Russian Revolution of 1905 armed revolutionaries under the leadership of the RSDLP headed by Viktor Kurnatovsky took control over the city and declared the Chita Republic in December 1905.
The leaders of the republic tried to organize and establish administration in the city and its outskirts, and the new periodical Zabaykalsky Rabochy was issued in Chita on December 7, 1905, but the republic was fated to fail after the suppression of the uprisings in Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Troops loyal to the regime, led by Paul von Rennenkampf and general Miller-Zakomelsky, were sent to suppress the rebellious territory; it was quickly subjugated and Chita was occupied by government troops on 22 January 1906.
"At the beginning of 1906 Kurnatovsky was again arrested and sentenced to death. General Rennenkampf, the pacifier of Siberia, carried the condemned man in his train so that he might witness with his own eyes the executions of workers at every railway station."
The six leaders of the Chita Republic were shot on the slope of Titovsky sopka. Kurnatovsky's death sentence was later commuted to life-long exile to Siberia. In the memory of the leaders of the Chita Republic, several central streets of Chita were named after them (Babushkina street, Kurnatovsky street, etc.).