The Sultanate of Utetera[1] (1860–1887),[2] also referred as Tippu Tip's state,[3] was one of the Arab sultanates established in eastern Africa. It was a 19th century short-lived state ruled by the infamous Swahili slave trader Tippu Tip (Hamad al Murjebi) and his son Sefu. The capital of the state was the town of Kasongo, located in modern Maniema Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Tippu Tip's controlled territory reached as far to eastern Kasai and to Aruwimi Basin in the west.[4]

Sultanate of Utetera
  Tippu Tip's State in relation to Zanzibar.
Common languagesArabic, Swahili
• 1860–1887
Tippu Tip
• Established
• Disestablish of the state and Appointed as Governor
Succeeded by
Congo Free State

History edit

By the mid 19th century, the Arab traders arrived from the east African coast, in what was under the control of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. While the Arab traders were already engaged in important and different trade activities, they continued searching for ivory, gold and slaves.[5]

Arab settlements in the African interior and trade stations were to be found in many locations, including the most important trade stations at Lualaba, Nyangwe and Kasongo.[1] The Arab traders and explorers were not interested in converting locals to their faith, nor did they seek to bond with local chiefs, but rather to establish trading stations and regular flow of trading goods to Zanzibar.[5]

Tippu Tip's controlled territory ultimately became part of the Congo Free State.[6]

References edit

  1. ^ a b Oliver, Roland; Atmore, Anthony (2005-02-07). Africa since 1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 86. ISBN 9781139443982.
  2. ^ "Tippu Tib | Arab trader". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  3. ^ Reefe, Thomas O.; Reefe, Thomas Q. (1981). The Rainbow and the Kings: A History of the Luba Empire to 1891. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520041400.
  4. ^ Shillington, Kevin (2013-07-04). Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set. Routledge. ISBN 9781135456696.
  5. ^ a b Lemarchand, René (1964). Political Awakening in the Belgian Congo. University of California Press.
  6. ^ Laing, Stuart (2022-12-21), "Tippu Tip in the Late 19th-Century East and Central Africa", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190277734.013.967, ISBN 978-0-19-027773-4, retrieved 2023-06-10