Republic of Negros

The Republic of Negros (Hiligaynon: Republika sang Negros; Cebuano: Republika sa Negros; Spanish: República de Negros) was a short-lived revolutionary entity which had existed on the island of Negros first as a canton of the First Philippine Republic and later as a protectorate of the United States.[3]

Republic of Negros
Hiligaynon: Republika sang Negros
Cebuano: Republika sa Negros
Spanish: República de Negros
1898–1901
Flag of Negros
Flag of the Revolutionary Government (1899)[1][2]
Location of the Republic of Negros in the Philippines
Location of the Republic of Negros in the Philippines
StatusProvisional Revolutionary Government (1898)
Constituent of the Federal State of the Visayas (1898–1899)
US Protectorate (1899–1901)
CapitalBacólod
Common languagesHiligaynon, Cebuano and Spanish
GovernmentRepublican canton
President 
• 1898-1899
Aniceto Lacson
Governor General of the Provinces 
• 1899-1901
Melecio Severino
President of the Chamber of Deputies 
• 1899-1899
José de Luzuriaga
LegislatureChamber of Deputies
Historical eraNew Imperialism
• End of the Negros Revolution
November 27, 1898
• Annexation to the Philippine Islands
April 20, 1901
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Spanish East Indies
Federal State of the Visayas
Federal State of the Visayas
United States Military Government of the Philippine Islands
Today part ofPhilippines

NomenclatureEdit

The entity had gone by multiple names throughout its short existence: the Negros Canton (Hiligaynon: Kanton sg Negros; Cebuano: Kanton sa Negros; Spanish: Cantón de Negros) of the First Philippine Republic,[4] and the Federal Republic of Negros (Hiligaynon: Republikang Federal sg Negros; Cebuano: Republikang Federal sa Negros; Spanish: República Federal de Negros) or Federal State of Negros (Hiligaynon: Estadong Federal sg Negros; Cebuano: Estadong Federal sa Negros; Spanish: Estado Federal de Negros) under US protection.[5][6] According to Gregorio Zaide, the protectorate had been annexed to the Philippine Islands as simply the Republic of Negros.[7]

HistoryEdit

 
Official flag of the Negros Revolution until 1898. The flag was changed when the Negros Republic was established (1898-1901)

From November 3 to 6, 1898, the Negrenses rose in revolt against the Imperial Spanish authorities headed by the politico-military governor, colonel Isidro de Castro. The Spaniards decided to surrender upon seeing armed troops marching in a pincer movement towards Bacólod, the main city of the island. The revolutionaries, led by generals Juan Araneta, from Bago and Aniceto Lacson, from Talisay, were actually carrying fake arms consisting of rifles carved out of palm fronds and cannons of rolled bamboo mats painted black. On 5 November, Spanish officials surrendered themselves to native leaders. A provisional government was then established with Aniceto Lacson as President, and a notice of this was sent by Melecio Severino to Emilio Aguinaldo on Luzón.[4][8] On November 27, 1898, the unicameral Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de Diputados) met in Bacólod and declared the establishment of the Republican Canton of Negros (Spanish: Cantón Republicano de Negros). The Congress of Deputies acted as a constituent assembly to draft a constitution.[4]

Motivated by either economic interests or sheer realpolitik,[4][5][6][9] the hacendero-led cantonal government surrendered to U.S. forces on March 4, 1899,[8][10] following the outbreak of hostilities between the nascent First Philippine Republic and the U.S. military government which had been established during the Spanish–American War, and came under U.S. protection on April 30, 1899 as a territory separate from the Philippine Islands.[5][10][11] A constitution for a Federal Republic of Negros,[5] which proposed two governors, a U.S. military governor and a civil governor elected by the voters of Negros, was framed by a committee sitting in Bacólod and sent to General Otis in Manila and was proclaimed to take effect on October 2, 1899. The Negros government operated smoothly under this constitution until the province of Occidental Negros was established on April 20, 1901,[12] and annexed to the Philippine Islands by the United States as the "Republic of Negros".[7]

LeadersEdit

The leaders of the short-lived republic were:[13]

Aniceto Lacson
(November 5, 1898 - November 27, 1898)
November 5, 1898 - July 22, 1899

(President in Negros Occidental only until November 27, 1898)
President
Demetrio Larena
(November 24, 1898 - November 27, 1898)
November 5, 1898 - July 22, 1899

(President in Negros Oriental only)
Vice-President
José de Luzuriaga
July 22, 1899 - November 6, 1899
President of the Chamber of Deputies
Eusebio Luzurriaga Secretary of the Treasury
Simeón Lizares Secretary of the Interior
Nicolás Gólez Secretary of Public Works
Agustín Amenábar Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
Juan Araneta Secretary of War
Antonio Ledesma Jayme
July 24, 1854 - October 9, 1937
Secretary of Justice
Melecio Severino
November 6, 1899 - April 30, 1901
Governor-General of the Provinces

CommemorationEdit

 
Historical marker commemorating the republic in Bago

November 5, popularly referred to by the Negrenses as Cinco de Noviembre, has been officially observed since 1989 as a special non-working holiday in Negros Occidental.[14] The republic itself has been commemorated in a historical marker in the main square of Bago, on which is inscribed:

REPÚBLICA DE NEGROS

In this plaza of Bago was proclaimed the República de Negros by the revolutionary forces led by general Juan Anacleto Araneta, 5 November 1898. Witnessed by Ananías Diokno, representative of the Central Revolutionary Government. This Republic acknowledged the authority of the First Philippine Republic under Emilio Aguinaldo.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Two Republics of Negros". Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  2. ^ "What is the República Negrénse?". Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  3. ^ http://www.thenewstoday.info/2008/09/12/the.opposition.to.the.americans.and.the.canton.republic.of.negros.html
  4. ^ a b c d Aguilar, F. V. (2000). The Republic of Negros. Philippine Studies, 48(1), 26–52.
  5. ^ a b c d Rodríguez, C. A. (1986). Don Diego de la Viña and the Philippine Revolution in Negros Oriental. Philippine Studies, 34(1), 61–76.
  6. ^ a b Gonzaga, V. L. (1990). Negros in Transition: 1899–1905. Philippine Studies, 38(1), 103–114.
  7. ^ a b Zaide, Gregorio F. (1970). Philippine Constitutional History and Constitutions of Modern Nations: With Full Texts of the Constitutions of the Philippines and Other Modern Nations. Modern Book Co. p. 34.
  8. ^ a b Kalaw 1921, p. 148
  9. ^ https://www.sunstar.com.ph/article/1871064/Bacolod/Opinion/Pacete-The-story-behind-the-Paghimud-os-Monument
  10. ^ a b Two-article series:
  11. ^ "Negros History". Silliman University. The Philippine Revolution.
  12. ^ Victoriano D. Diamonon (1920). The Development of Self-government in The Philippine Islands. University of Iowa. pp. 22-25.
  13. ^ WorldStatesmen. "The Philippines". Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  14. ^ http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1989/02/10/republic-act-no-6709/

Coordinates: 10°N 123°E / 10°N 123°E / 10; 123