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The Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic[1] (Russian: Крымская Социалистическая Советская Республика or Крымская Советская Социалистическая Республика;[2] Crimean Tatar: Qırım Şuralar Sotsialistik Cumhuriyeti) or the Soviet Socialist Republic of the Crimea[3] was a state allied with Soviet Russia that existed in Crimea for several months in 1919 during the Russian Civil War. It was the second Bolshevik government in Crimea[3] and its capital was Simferopol.[2]

Crimean Socialist Soviet Republic

Крымская Социалистическая Советская Республика
Krymskaja Socialističeskaja Sovetskaja Respublika
Common languagesRussian · Crimean Tatar
Ukrainian · German
GovernmentSocialist republic
• 1919
Dmitry Ulyanov
LegislatureRevolutionary committee
Historical eraRussian Civil War
• Bolshevik invasion of Crimea · Fall of the Second Crimean Regional Government
Mar–Apr 1919
• Republic established
May 1919
• White Movement Volunteer army offensive

June 1919
• Republic defeated and White Movement control established
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Second Crimean Regional Government
General Command of the Armed Forces of South Russia
Today part of



In April 1919, the Bolsheviks invaded Crimea for the second time (the first was in March 1918 and led to the creation of the short-lived Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic). After the conquest of Crimea (with the exception of the Kerch Peninsula) by the 3rd Ukrainian Red Army, a Crimean Regional Party Conference at Simferopol from 28–29 April adopted a resolution forming the Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic and a revolutionary committee government.[2]

By 30 April, the Bolsheviks had occupied the entire peninsula and, on 5 May, the government was formed with Dmitry Ilyich Ulyanov, Vladimir Lenin's brother, as chairman.[2][3] On 1 June, the Crimean SSR joined in military union with soviet republics in Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Lithuania, and Latvia.[3]

The republic was declared to be a non-national entity based on the equality of all nationalities.[2] Nationalization of industry and confiscation of the land of landlords, kulaks, and the church were implemented.[2] The Crimean SSR was more friendly toward the interests of Crimean Tatars than the Taurida SSR had been and leftist Tatars were allowed to take positions in the government.[3]

Starting in late May, Anton Denikin's White Volunteer Army, which had been gaining strength, threatened seizure of Crimea.[2] On 18 June, White forces under Yakov Slashchov (Яков Слащёв) landed in the area Koktebel and, as a result, the authorities of the Crimean SSR were evacuated from Crimea from 23–26 June and the Whites assumed control of the peninsula.[2] Crimea did not have its own government again until the formation of the South Russian Government by the Whites in February 1920.

Soviet governmentEdit


  1. ^ Harold Henry Fisher. The Famine in Soviet Russia, 1919-1923: The Operations of the American Relief Administration. Ayer Publishing, 1971. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-8369-5650-4
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h «Крымская ССР» Xронос: Историческая Энциклопедия. ("Crimean SSR". Chronos: Historical Encyclopedia.) Retrieved 20 April 2011. (in Russian)
  3. ^ a b c d e Alan W. Fisher. The Crimean Tatars. Hoover Press, 1978. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-8179-6662-1

See alsoEdit