Kingdom of Haiti
The Kingdom of Haiti (French: Royaume d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Wayòm an Ayiti) was the state established by Henri Christophe on 28 March 1811 when he was self-proclaimed as King Henri I after having previously ruled as president of the State of Haiti, in the northern part of the country. This was Haiti's second attempt at monarchical rule, as Jean-Jacques Dessalines had previously ruled over the First Empire of Haiti as Emperor Jacques I from 1804 until his assassination in 1806.
Kingdom of Haiti
Wayòm an Ayiti
Motto: Ex cineribus nascitur (Latin)
"Reborn from the ashes"
The Kingdom of Haiti in the northwest of Hispaniola
|Common languages||French, Haitian Creole|
|Henri II (not proclaimed)|
• Upper Chamber
• Lower Chamber
|Chamber of Deputies|
|Historical era||19th century|
• Proclamation of Henri Christophe as King Henri I
|28 March 1811|
• Death of King Henri I
|8 October 1820|
|Currency||Haitian livre, Haitian gourde (as of 1813)|
|ISO 3166 code||HT|
|Today part of||Haiti|
During his reign, Henri built six castles, eight palaces (including the Sans-Souci Palace) and the Citadelle Laferrière fortress, built to protect the Kingdom from possible French invasions. He created a noble class and appointed four princes, eight dukes, 22 counts, 37 barons and 14 chevaliers.
After suffering a stroke and with support for his rule waning, Henri I committed suicide on 8 October 1820. He was buried at the Citadelle Laferrière. His 16 year old son and heir, the Jacques-Victor Henry, Prince Royal of Haiti, was assassinated 10 days later at the Sans-Souci Palace by rebels.
Following the assassination of Emperor Jacques I, the country was split. Parallel with the government of Christophe in the north, Alexandre Pétion, a free person of color, ruled over the south of the country as President of the Republic of Haiti until his death in 1818. He was succeeded by Jean-Pierre Boyer, who reunited the two parts of the nation after the deaths of Henri I and his son in 1820.