Kingdom of Haiti

The Kingdom of Haiti (French: Royaume d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Wayòm an Ayiti) was the state established by Henri Christophe on 28 March 1811 when he was self-proclaimed as King Henri I after having previously ruled as president of the State of Haiti, in the northern part of the country. This was Haiti's second attempt at monarchical rule, as Jean-Jacques Dessalines had previously ruled over the First Empire of Haiti as Emperor Jacques I from 1804 until his assassination in 1806.

Kingdom of Haiti

Royaume d'Haïti
Wayòm an Ayiti
1811–1820
Motto: Ex cineribus nascitur (Latin)
"Reborn from the ashes"
The Kingdom of Haiti in the northwest of Hispaniola
The Kingdom of Haiti in the northwest of Hispaniola
CapitalCap-Henri
Common languagesFrench, Haitian Creole
Religion
Roman Catholic
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
• 1811–1820
Henri I
• 1820
Henri II (not proclaimed)
LegislatureParliament
• Upper Chamber
Senate
• Lower Chamber
Chamber of Deputies
Historical era19th century
• Proclamation of Henri Christophe as King Henri I
28 March 1811
• Death of King Henri I
8 October 1820
CurrencyHaitian livre, Haitian gourde (as of 1813)
ISO 3166 codeHT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
State of Haiti
Republic of Haiti (1820–1849)
Today part of Haiti
San-Souci Palace.
Citadelle Laferrière.

During his reign, Henri built six castles, eight palaces (including the Sans-Souci Palace) and the Citadelle Laferrière fortress, built to protect the Kingdom from possible French invasions. He created a noble class and appointed four princes, eight dukes, 22 counts, 37 barons and 14 chevaliers.

After suffering a stroke and with support for his rule waning, Henri I committed suicide on 8 October 1820. He was buried at the Citadelle Laferrière. His 16 year old son and heir, the Jacques-Victor Henry, Prince Royal of Haiti, was assassinated 10 days later at the Sans-Souci Palace by rebels.

Following the assassination of Emperor Jacques I, the country was split. Parallel with the government of Christophe in the north, Alexandre Pétion, a free person of color, ruled over the south of the country as President of the Republic of Haiti until his death in 1818. He was succeeded by Jean-Pierre Boyer, who reunited the two parts of the nation after the deaths of Henri I and his son in 1820.

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