Kingdom of Haiti

The Kingdom of Haiti (French: Royaume d'Haïti, Haitian Creole: Wayòm an Ayiti) was the state established by Henri Christophe on 28 March 1811 when he was self-proclaimed as King Henri I after having previously ruled as president of the State of Haiti, in the northern part of the country. This was Haiti's second attempt at monarchical rule, as Jean-Jacques Dessalines had previously ruled over the First Empire of Haiti as Emperor Jacques I from 1804 until his assassination in 1806.

Kingdom of Haiti

Royaume d'Haïti
Wayòm an Ayiti
Motto: Ex cineribus nascitur (Latin)
"Reborn from the ashes"
The Kingdom of Haiti in the northwest of Hispaniola
The Kingdom of Haiti in the northwest of Hispaniola
Common languagesFrench, Haitian Creole
Roman Catholic
• 1811–1820
Henri I
• 1820
Henri II (not proclaimed)
• Upper Chamber
• Lower Chamber
Chamber of Deputies
Historical era19th century
• Proclamation of Henri Christophe as King Henri I
28 March 1811
• Death of King Henri I
8 October 1820
CurrencyHaitian livre, Haitian gourde (as of 1813)
ISO 3166 codeHT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
State of Haiti
Republic of Haiti (1820–1849)
Today part of Haiti
San-Souci Palace.
Citadelle Laferrière.

During his reign, Henri built six castles, eight palaces (including the Sans-Souci Palace) and the Citadelle Laferrière fortress, built to protect the Kingdom from possible French invasions. He created a noble class and appointed four princes, eight dukes, 22 counts, 37 barons and 14 chevaliers.

After suffering a stroke and with support for his rule waning, Henri I committed suicide on 8 October 1820. He was buried at the Citadelle Laferrière. His 16 year old son and heir, the Jacques-Victor Henry, Prince Royal of Haiti, was assassinated 10 days later at the Sans-Souci Palace by rebels.

Following the assassination of Emperor Jacques I, the country was split. Parallel with the government of Christophe in the north, Alexandre Pétion, a free person of color, ruled over the south of the country as President of the Republic of Haiti until his death in 1818. He was succeeded by Jean-Pierre Boyer, who reunited the two parts of the nation after the deaths of Henri I and his son in 1820.

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