List of Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients

This is a partial list of recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, listed chronologically within the aspect of life in which each recipient is or was renowned.

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is awarded by the president of the United States "for especially meritorious contribution to (1) the security or national interests of the United States, or (2) world peace, or (3) cultural or other significant public or private endeavors". Honorees are selected by the president or recommended to them by the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board.[1]

BackgroundEdit

Typically the medal is bestowed upon the recipient by the sitting president who has chosen them. However, the first recipients selected by President John F. Kennedy before his assassination were formally awarded by his successor in office, Lyndon B. Johnson.[2]

President Barack Obama awarded 123 medals, the most ever, followed by President Ronald Reagan with 100 medal recipients.[3][4][5] Two people, Ellsworth Bunker and Colin Powell, are two-time recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Colin Powell received his second award with Distinction,[6] while Ellsworth Bunker was given both of his awards with distinction.

Seven Presidents have themselves received the medal at some point in their life. John F. Kennedy was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963. Lyndon B. Johnson was also posthumously awarded, in 1980. Ronald Reagan became the first living former President to get the award in 1993. Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter were both given the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1999. George H.W. Bush was given the award in 2011, and Bill Clinton in 2013. Joe Biden received the medal in 2017 when he was Vice President and is the first President to receive the medal before their presidency.

In 2015, President Barack Obama stated that there was no precedent to revoke Presidential Medals of Freedom, regarding the award given to Bill Cosby.[7] After being awarded the medal, Cosby was convicted of multiple counts of sexual assault.

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is distinct from the Medal of Freedom, an antecedent award issued prior to 1963 to honor US civilian contributions to World War II.

Declinations of the awardEdit

Bill Belichick, coach of the New England Patriots, turned down the medal after the 2021 storming of the Capitol.[8]

Country musician Dolly Parton turned down the medal twice. Parton said she turned it down the first time because her husband was ill, and the second time because of the COVID-19 pandemic.[9]

ListEdit

Awarded by John F. KennedyEdit

John F. Kennedy selected 31 recipients to be awarded in 1963. After his assassination they were officially awarded by Lyndon B. Johnson.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Marian Anderson 1963 [10]
Ralph Bunche 1963 WD [2]
Ellsworth Bunker 1963 WD [2]
Pablo Casals 1963 [11]
Genevieve Caulfield 1963
James B. Conant 1963 WD
John Franklin Enders 1963
Felix Frankfurter 1963 WD [2]
Karl Holton 1963 [12]
Robert J. H. Kiphuth 1963
Edwin H. Land 1963
Herbert H. Lehman 1963 [a]
Robert A. Lovett 1963 WD
J. Clifford MacDonald 1963
John J. McCloy 1963 WD
George Meany 1963 [2]
Alexander Meiklejohn 1963
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1963 [2]
Jean Monnet 1963 WD
Luis Muñoz Marín 1963 WD
Clarence B. Randall 1963 [14]
Rudolf Serkin 1963
Edward Steichen 1963
George W. Taylor 1963
Alan Tower Waterman 1963
Mark S. Watson 1963 [12]
Annie Dodge Wauneka 1963 [15]
E. B. White 1963
Thornton Wilder 1963
Edmund Wilson 1963
Andrew Wyeth 1963

Awarded by Lyndon B. JohnsonEdit

Lyndon B. Johnson awarded 58 medals between 1963 and 1969, excluding 31 which were selected by John F. Kennedy.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
John XXIII 1963 [12]
John F. Kennedy 1963 [16]
Dean Acheson 1964 WD
Detlev Bronk 1964
Aaron Copland 1964
Willem de Kooning 1964 [17]
Walt Disney 1964 [18]
J. Frank Dobie 1964
Lena Frances Edwards 1964
T. S. Eliot 1964
Lynn Fontanne 1964 [18]
John W. Gardner 1964
Theodore Hesburgh 1964
Clarence Johnson 1964
Frederick Kappel 1964
Helen Keller 1964
John L. Lewis 1964
Walter Lippmann 1964
Alfred Lunt 1964 [18]
Ralph McGill 1964
Samuel Eliot Morison 1964
Lewis Mumford 1964
Edward R. Murrow 1964 WD
Reinhold Niebuhr 1964
Leontyne Price 1964
A. Philip Randolph 1964
Carl Sandburg 1964
John Steinbeck 1964
Helen B. Taussig 1964
Carl Vinson 1964 WD
Thomas Watson Jr. 1964
Paul Dudley White 1964
Ellsworth Bunker 1967 WD
Robert Komer 1967
Eugene M. Locke 1967
Robert McNamara 1968
James E. Webb 1968 [19]
Eugene R. Black Sr. 1969
McGeorge Bundy 1969
Clark Clifford 1969 WD
Michael DeBakey 1969
David Dubinsky 1969
Ralph Ellison 1969
Henry Ford II 1969
W. Averell Harriman 1969 WD
Bob Hope 1969 [20]
Edgar Kaiser 1969
Mary Lasker 1969
John Macy 1969
Gregory Peck 1969
Laurance Rockefeller 1969
Dean Rusk 1969 WD
Walt Whitman Rostow 1969
Merriman Smith 1969 [21]
Cyrus Vance 1969
William S. White 1969
Roy Wilkins 1969 [21]
Whitney Young 1969

Awarded by Richard NixonEdit

Richard Nixon awarded 28 medals between 1969 and 1974.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Buzz Aldrin 1969 WD
Neil Armstrong 1969 WD [22]
Michael Collins 1969 WD [22]
Duke Ellington 1969
Earl Charles Behrens 1970 [23]
Edward T. Folliard 1970
Fred Haise 1970 [24]
William Henry 1970 [23]
Arthur Krock 1970 [23]
David Lawrence 1970 [23]
G. Gould Lincoln 1970 [23]
Jim Lovell 1970 [24]
Mission Operations Team 1970 [25]
Raymond Moley 1970 [23]
Eugene Ormandy 1970
Adela Rogers St. Johns 1970 [23]
Jack Swigert 1970 [24]
Manlio Brosio 1971
Samuel Goldwyn 1971
William J. Hopkins 1971
John Paul Vann 1972
Lila Acheson Wallace 1972
DeWitt Wallace 1972
John Ford 1973
William P. Rogers 1973
Paul G. Hoffman 1974
Melvin Laird 1974
Charles Lowman 1974 [26]

Awarded by Gerald FordEdit

Gerald Ford awarded 26 medals between 1974 and 1977.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
David K. E. Bruce 1976 WD
Martha Graham 1976 WD [27]
Jesse Owens 1976 [28]
Arthur Rubinstein 1976 WD [29]
Iorwith Wilbur Abel 1977
John Bardeen 1977
Irving Berlin 1977 [29]
Norman Borlaug 1977
Omar Bradley 1977 [29]
Arleigh Burke 1977
Alexander Calder 1977 [30]
Bruce Catton 1977
Joe DiMaggio 1977 [29]
Ariel Durant 1977
Will Durant 1977 [30]
Arthur Fiedler 1977 [29]
Henry Friendly 1977
Lady Bird Johnson 1977 [31]
Henry Kissinger 1977
Archibald MacLeish 1977 [30]
James A. Michener 1977 [30]
Georgia O'Keeffe 1977 [32]
Nelson Rockefeller 1977 [30]
Norman Rockwell 1977 [30]
Donald Rumsfeld 1977 WD
Catherine Filene Shouse 1977
Lowell Thomas 1977 [30]
James Watson 1977

Awarded by Jimmy CarterEdit

Jimmy Carter awarded 34 medals between 1977 and 1981.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Martin Luther King Jr. 1977
Jonas Salk 1977
Arthur Goldberg 1978
Margaret Mead 1979 [33]
Ansel Adams 1980 [34]
Horace M. Albright 1980 [35]
Rachel Carson 1980 [34]
Lucia Chase 1980 [34]
Hubert Humphrey 1980 [34]
Iakovos 1980 [34]
Lyndon B. Johnson 1980 [34]
Clarence Mitchell Jr. 1980 [34]
Roger Tory Peterson 1980 [34]
Hyman G. Rickover 1980 [34]
Beverly Sills 1980 [34]
Robert Penn Warren 1980 [34]
John Wayne 1980 [34]
Eudora Welty 1980 [34]
Tennessee Williams 1980 [34]
Roger Nash Baldwin 1981 [36]
Harold Brown 1981
Zbigniew Brzezinski 1981 [36]
Warren Christopher 1981
Walter Cronkite 1981 [36]
Kirk Douglas 1981 [36]
Margaret McNamara 1981 [36]
Karl Menninger 1981
Edmund Muskie 1981
Esther Peterson 1981 [36]
Gerard C. Smith 1981 [36]
Robert S. Strauss 1981 [36]
Elbert Tuttle 1981 [36]
Earl Warren 1981 [36]
Andrew Young 1981 [36]

Awarded by Ronald ReaganEdit

Ronald Reagan awarded 86 medals between 1981 and 1989.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Eubie Blake 1981
Ella Grasso 1981
Bryce Harlow 1981
Walter Judd 1981
Morris I. Leibman 1981
Tex Thornton 1981
Philip Habib 1982
Kate Smith 1982
George Balanchine 1983 [37]
Clare Boothe Luce 1983 [29]
Bear Bryant 1983
James Burnham 1983 [29]
James E. Cheek 1983
Buckminster Fuller 1983 [38]
Billy Graham 1983
Eric Hoffer 1983
Jacob Javits 1983 [29]
Dumas Malone 1983
Mabel Mercer 1983
Simon Ramo 1983
Howard Baker 1984 [39]
James Cagney 1984 [39]
Whittaker Chambers 1984 [40][41]
Leo Cherne 1984 [29]
Terence Cooke 1984
Denton Cooley 1984 [39]
Tennessee Ernie Ford 1984 [39]
Hector Garcia 1984 [39]
Andrew Goodpaster 1984 [42]
Henry M. Jackson 1984
Lincoln Kirstein 1984 [39]
Louis L'Amour 1984 [39]
Joseph Luns 1984
Norman Vincent Peale 1984 [39]
Jackie Robinson 1984 [39]
Carlos P. Romulo 1984
Anwar el-Sadat 1984 [43]
Eunice Kennedy Shriver 1984 [39]
Count Basie 1985
Albert Coady Wedemeyer 1985
Jacques Cousteau 1985
Jerome H. Holland 1985
Sidney Hook 1985 [29]
Jeane Kirkpatrick 1985
George Low 1985
Paul Nitze 1985
Frank Reynolds 1985
Frank Sinatra 1985
James Stewart 1985
Mother Teresa 1985
Juan Trippe 1985
Albert Wohlstetter 1985
Roberta Wohlstetter 1985
Chuck Yeager 1985
Walter Annenberg 1986
Earl Blaik 1986
Barry Goldwater 1986
Helen Hayes 1986
Vladimir Horowitz 1986
Matthew Ridgway 1986
Joseph Rochefort 1986
Vermont C. Royster 1986
Albert Sabin 1986
An Wang 1986
Anne Armstrong 1987
Justin Whitlock Dart Sr. 1987
Irving Kaufman 1987
Danny Kaye 1987
Lyman Lemnitzer 1987
John A. McCone 1987
Frederick Patterson 1987
Mstislav Rostropovich 1987
William B. Walsh 1987
Caspar Weinberger 1987 WD
Meredith Willson 1987
Pearl Bailey 1988
Malcolm Baldrige Jr. 1988
Irving Brown 1988
Warren E. Burger 1988
Peter Carington 1988
Edward DeBartolo 1988
Milton Friedman 1988
Jean MacArthur 1988
J. Willard Marriott 1988
David Packard 1988
Roger L. Stevens 1988

Awarded by George H. W. BushEdit

George H. W. Bush awarded 42 medals between 1989 and 1993.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Lucille Ball 1989
C. Douglas Dillon 1989
Jimmy Doolittle 1989
George F. Kennan 1989
Mike Mansfield 1989
Claude Pepper 1989
George Shultz 1989
Margaret Chase Smith 1989
Lech Wałęsa 1989
Walker Hancock 1990 [44]
James Baker 1991
William F. Buckley Jr. 1991
Dick Cheney 1991 [45]
Luis A. Ferré 1991
Betty Ford 1991 [46]
Hanna Holborn Gray 1991
Friedrich Hayek 1991
Tip O'Neill 1991
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar 1991
Colin Powell 1991
Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. 1991
Brent Scowcroft 1991
Leon Sullivan 1991
Margaret Thatcher 1991
Russell E. Train 1991
Vernon A. Walters 1991
William Webster 1991
Ted Williams 1991
David Brinkley 1992
Johnny Carson 1992
Ella Fitzgerald 1992
Audrey Hepburn 1992
Richard Petty 1992
Harry W. Shlaudeman 1992
Isaac Stern 1992
John W. Vessey 1992
Sam Walton 1992
Elie Wiesel 1992
I. M. Pei 1993 [47]
Ronald Reagan 1993 WD [48]
Strom Thurmond 1993

Awarded by Bill ClintonEdit

Bill Clinton awarded 110 medals between 1993 and 2001.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Arthur Ashe 1993
William J. Brennan Jr. 1993
Marjory Stoneman Douglas 1993
J. William Fulbright 1993
Thurgood Marshall 1993
Colin Powell 1993 WD [6]
Joseph L. Rauh Jr. 1993
Martha Raye 1993 [5]
John Minor Wisdom 1993
Herbert L. Block 1994
Cesar Chavez 1994
Arthur Sherwood Flemming 1994
James P. Grant 1994
Dorothy Height 1994
Barbara Jordan 1994
Lane Kirkland 1994
Robert H. Michel 1994
Sargent Shriver 1994
Peggy Charren 1995 [5]
William T. Coleman Jr. 1995
John Hope Franklin 1995
Joan Ganz Cooney 1995 [5]
A. Leon Higginbotham Jr. 1995
Frank Minis Johnson 1995
C. Everett Koop 1995
Gaylord Nelson 1995
Walter Reuther 1995
James Rouse 1995
Willie Velasquez 1995
Lew Wasserman 1995 [5]
Joseph Bernardin 1996
James Brady 1996
Millard Fuller 1996
David A. Hamburg 1996
John H. Johnson 1996
Eugene Lang 1996
Jan Nowak-Jeziorański 1996
Antonia Pantoja 1996
Rosa Parks 1996
Ginetta Sagan 1996
Mo Udall 1996
Bob Dole 1997
William Perry 1997
John Shalikashvili 1997
Arnold Aronson 1998
Brooke Astor 1998
Robert Coles 1998
Justin Dart Jr. 1998
James Farmer 1998
Dante Fascell 1998
Zachary Fisher 1998
Frances Hesselbein 1998
Fred Korematsu 1998
Sol Linowitz 1998
Wilma Mankiller 1998 [49]
Margaret Murie 1998
Mario G. Obledo 1998
Elliot Richardson 1998
David Rockefeller 1998
Albert Shanker 1998
Elmo Zumwalt 1998
Lloyd Bentsen 1999
Edgar Bronfman Sr. 1999
Jimmy Carter 1999 [5]
Rosalynn Carter 1999 [5]
Evelyn Dubrow 1999
Isolina Ferré 1999 [5]
Gerald Ford 1999 [5]
Oliver Hill 1999
Max Kampelman 1999
Helmut Kohl 1999
George J. Mitchell 1999
Edgar Wayburn 1999
James E. Burke 2000
John Chafee 2000
Wesley Clark 2000
William J. Crowe 2000
Marian Wright Edelman 2000 [50]
John Kenneth Galbraith 2000
George G. Higgins 2000
Jesse Jackson 2000
Mildred Jeffrey 2000
Mathilde Krim 2000
George McGovern 2000
Daniel Patrick Moynihan 2000
Cruz Reynoso 2000
Aung San Suu Kyi 2000
Gardner C. Taylor 2000 [5]
Simon Wiesenthal 2000

Awarded by George W. BushEdit

George W. Bush awarded 85 medals between 2001 and 2009.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Hank Aaron 2002
Bill Cosby 2002 [5]
Plácido Domingo 2002
Peter Drucker 2002
Katharine Graham 2002
Donald Henderson 2002
Irving Kristol 2002
Nelson Mandela 2002
Gordon Moore 2002 [51]
Nancy Reagan 2002 [5]
Fred Rogers 2002 [5]
A. M. Rosenthal 2002
Robert Bartley 2003
Jacques Barzun 2003
Julia Child 2003
Roberto Clemente 2003
Van Cliburn 2003
Václav Havel 2003
Charlton Heston 2003 [5]
George Robertson 2003
Edward Teller 2003
Dave Thomas 2003
Byron White 2003 [52]
James Q. Wilson 2003
John Wooden 2003
Paul Bremer 2004
Edward Brooke 2004
Doris Day 2004 [5]
Tommy Franks 2004
Vartan Gregorian 2004
Gilbert Melville Grosvenor 2004
Gordon B. Hinckley 2004 [5]
John Paul II 2004 WD [5]
Estée Lauder 2004
Rita Moreno 2004 [5]
Arnold Palmer 2004
Arnall Patz 2004
Norman Podhoretz 2004
George Tenet 2004
Walter Wriston 2004
Muhammad Ali 2005
Carol Burnett 2005 [5]
Vint Cerf 2005 [53]
Robert Conquest 2005
Aretha Franklin 2005
Alan Greenspan 2005
Andy Griffith 2005 [5]
Paul Harvey 2005 [5]
Bob Kahn 2005 [54]
Sonny Montgomery 2005
Richard Myers 2005
Jack Nicklaus 2005
Frank Robinson 2005
Paul Rusesabagina 2005
Ruth Johnson Colvin 2006 [55]
Norman Francis 2006 [55]
Paul Johnson 2006 [55]
B.B. King 2006 [55]
Joshua Lederberg 2006 [55]
David McCullough 2006 [55]
Norman Mineta 2006 [55]
Buck O'Neil 2006 [55]
William Safire 2006 [55]
Natan Sharansky 2006 [55]
Gary Becker 2007
Óscar Elías Biscet 2007
Francis Collins 2007
Benjamin Hooks 2007
Henry Hyde 2007
Brian Lamb 2007 [5]
Harper Lee 2007
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf 2007
Ben Carson 2008 [56]
Anthony Fauci 2008 [56]
Tom Lantos 2008 [56]
Peter Pace 2008 [56]
Donna Shalala 2008 [56]
Laurence Silberman 2008 [56]
Tony Blair 2009 [57]
Ryan Crocker 2009 [58]
John Howard 2009
Álvaro Uribe 2009

Awarded by Barack ObamaEdit

Barack Obama awarded 118 medals between 2009 and 2017.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Nancy Brinker 2009 [59]
Joe Medicine Crow 2009 [60]
Pedro José Greer 2009 [60]
Stephen Hawking 2009 [60]
Jack Kemp 2009 [60]
Ted Kennedy 2009 [60]
Billie Jean King 2009 [60]
Joseph Lowery 2009 [60]
Harvey Milk 2009 [60]
Sandra Day O'Connor 2009 [61]
Sidney Poitier 2009 [5]
Chita Rivera 2009 [60]
Mary Robinson 2009 [60]
Janet Rowley 2009 [60]
Desmond Tutu 2009 [60]
Muhammad Yunus 2009
John H. Adams 2011 [4]
Maya Angelou 2011 [4]
Warren Buffett 2011 [4]
George H. W. Bush 2011 [4]
Robert Gates 2011
Jasper Johns 2011 [4]
John Lewis 2011 [4]
Tom Little 2011 [4]
Yo-Yo Ma 2011 [4]
Sylvia Mendez 2011 [4]
Angela Merkel 2011 [4]
Stan Musial 2011 [4]
Bill Russell 2011 [4]
Jean Kennedy Smith 2011 [4]
John J. Sweeney 2011 [4]
Gerda Weissmann Klein 2011 [4]
Madeleine Albright 2012 [62]
Bob Dylan 2012 [62]
William Foege 2012 [62]
John Glenn 2012 [62]
Juliette Gordon Low 2012 [62]
Gordon Hirabayashi 2012 [62]
Dolores Huerta 2012 [62]
Jan Karski 2012 [62]
Toni Morrison 2012 [62]
Shimon Peres 2012 [62]
John Paul Stevens 2012 [62]
Pat Summitt 2012 [62]
Patricia Wald 2012 [62]
Ernie Banks 2013 [63]
Ben Bradlee 2013 [64]
Bill Clinton 2013 [64]
John Doar 2013 [64]
Daniel Inouye 2013 [64]
Daniel Kahneman 2013 [64]
Richard Lugar 2013 [64]
Loretta Lynn 2013 [64]
Mario J. Molina 2013 [64]
Sally Ride 2013 [65]
Bayard Rustin 2013 [64]
Arturo Sandoval 2013 [64]
Dean Smith 2013 [64]
Gloria Steinem 2013 [64]
C. T. Vivian 2013 [64]
Oprah Winfrey 2013 [64]
Alvin Ailey 2014 [66]
Isabel Allende 2014 [66]
Tom Brokaw 2014 [66]
James Chaney 2014 [66]
John Dingell 2014
Mildred Dresselhaus 2014
Andrew Goodman 2014 [66]
Ethel Kennedy 2014 [66]
Abner Mikva 2014
Patsy Mink 2014
Edward Roybal 2014
Michael Schwerner 2014 [66]
Suzan Shown Harjo 2014 [66]
Charlie Sifford 2014 [66]
Robert Solow 2014 [67]
Meryl Streep 2014 [66]
Marlo Thomas 2014 [66]
Stevie Wonder 2014 [66]
Steven Spielberg 2015 [68]
Emilio Estefan 2015 [68]
Gloria Estefan 2015 [68]
Itzhak Perlman 2015 [68]
Stephen Sondheim 2015 [68]
Barbra Streisand 2015 [68]
James Taylor 2015 [68]
Minoru Yasui 2015 [68]
Billy Frank Jr. 2015 [68]
Shirley Chisholm 2015 [68]
Lee H. Hamilton 2015 [68]
Barbara Mikulski 2015 [68]
William Ruckelshaus 2015 [68]
Katherine Johnson 2015 [68]
Yogi Berra 2015 [68]
Bonnie Carroll 2015 [68]
Willie Mays 2015 [68]
Frank Gehry 2016 [69]
Richard Garwin 2016 [69]
Maya Lin 2016 [69]
Robert Redford 2016 [69]
Robert De Niro 2016 [69]
Tom Hanks 2016 [69]
Cicely Tyson 2016 [69]
Diana Ross 2016 [69]
Bruce Springsteen 2016 [70]
Grace Hopper 2016 [69]
Margaret Hamilton 2016 [69]
Eduardo J. Padrón 2016 [69]
Newton N. Minow 2016 [69]
Lorne Michaels 2016 [69]
Ellen DeGeneres 2016 [69]
Bill Gates 2016 [69]
Melinda Gates 2016 [69]
Elouise P. Cobell 2016 [69]
Vin Scully 2016 [69]
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar 2016 [69]
Michael Jordan 2016 [69]
Joe Biden 2017 WD [71][72]

Awarded by Donald TrumpEdit

Donald Trump awarded 24 medals between 2017 and 2021.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.
Miriam Adelson 2018 [73]
Orrin Hatch 2018 [73]
Alan Page 2018 [73]
Elvis Presley 2018 [73]
Babe Ruth 2018 [73]
Antonin Scalia 2018 [73]
Roger Staubach 2018 [73]
Bob Cousy 2019 [74]
Arthur Laffer 2019 [75]
Edwin Meese 2019 [76]
Roger Penske 2019 [77]
Mariano Rivera 2019 [78]
Jerry West 2019 [79]
Tiger Woods 2019 [80]
Dan Gable 2020 [81]
Lou Holtz 2020 [82]
Jack Keane 2020 [83]
Rush Limbaugh 2020 [b] [85]
Jim Ryun 2020 [86]
Babe Didrikson Zaharias 2021 [87]
Devin Nunes 2021 [88]
Jim Jordan 2021 [89]
Gary Player 2021 [87]
Annika Sörenstam 2021 [87]

Awarded by Joe BidenEdit

Joe Biden has not awarded any medals since his term began on January 20, 2021.

Recipient Year Notes Ref.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Lehman died the day before the ceremony.[13]
  2. ^ Awarded during 2020 State of the Union Address.[84]

BibliographyEdit

  • Wetterau, Bruce (1996). The Presidential Medal of Freedom: Winners and Their Achievements. p. 513. ISBN 978-1-56802-128-7. – contains a list of awardees from 1963 to approximately 1995

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Executive Order 11085 The Presidential Medal of Freedom, retrieved July 30, 2009 Archived May 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d e f Woolley, John T; Peters, Gerhard. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963,". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  3. ^ "Medal of Freedom Ceremony" (August 12, 2009) Archived August 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, a news release, August 12, 2009, from the White House Press Secretary at whitehouse.gov, the White House's official website. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". whitehouse.gov. November 17, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010 – via National Archives.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Secretary of the Senate, United States Congress. "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Official Website of the United States Senate. United States Senate (Government of the United States). Retrieved November 14, 2011.
  6. ^ a b Clinton, W. J. (September 30, 1993). "Remarks on the Retirement of General Colin Powell in Arlington, Virginia". University of California, Santa Barbara: The American Presidency Project. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
  7. ^ "Obama asked if Bill Cosby's Medal of Freedom will be revoked". PBS NewsHour.
  8. ^ Ruiz-Grossman, Sarah (January 11, 2021). "New England Patriots Coach Bill Belichick Refuses Medal Of Freedom". HuffPost. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  9. ^ Pengelly, Martin (February 2, 2021). "Dolly Parton turned down presidential medal of freedom twice from Trump". The Guardian. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  10. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Marian Anderson (1897–1993)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received December 6, 1963
  11. ^ "Distinguished Cellists in the White House". WHHA (en-US). Retrieved March 20, 2020.
  12. ^ a b c Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  13. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Remarks With Under Secretary of State George W. Ball at the Presentation of the Medal of Freedom Awards, December 6, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  14. ^ "Clarence B. Randall, 76, Dies". Chicago Tribune. August 6, 1967. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  15. ^ The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Annie Wauneka (1910–1997)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received December 6, 1963
  16. ^ "Presidential Medal of Freedom – John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". Jfklibrary.org. December 6, 1963. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
  17. ^ "30 Receive Freedom Medal at the White House". www.nytimes.com. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  18. ^ a b c Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Lyndon B. Johnson, XXXVI President of the United States: 1963–1969, Remarks at the Presentation of the 1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards, March 26, 1964". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
  19. ^ "Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1968, James Webb". March 14, 2016.
  20. ^ "Public Service – Bob Hope and American Variety | Exhibitions (Library of Congress)". www.loc.gov. May 10, 2000. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  21. ^ a b Judy Muhlberg (June 14, 1976). "Medal of Freedom" (PDF). Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum. p. 43. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  22. ^ a b "Richard Nixon: Remarks at a Dinner in Los Angeles Honoring the Apollo 11 Astronauts". The American Presidency Project. August 13, 1969. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Nixon, Richard (April 22, 1970). "Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Eight Journalists". Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on December 25, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2011.
  24. ^ a b c "3 Astronauts get Heroes' Welcome to Hawaii". The Philadelphia Enquirer. Associated Press. April 19, 1970. p. 14 – via Newspapers.com.
  25. ^ Nixon, Richard (April 18, 1970). Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team in Houston (Speech). Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas: The American Presidency Project.
  26. ^ M, Nixon, Richard (January 1, 1975). Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Richard M. Nixon, 1974. Best Books on. ISBN 978-1-62376-923-9.
  27. ^ Woolley, John T; Gerhard Peters. "Gerald R. Ford, XXXVIII President of the United States: 1974–1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Martha Graham, October 14, 1976". The American Presidency Project. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  28. ^ Koren, Marina (September 29, 2016). "White House Finally Honors the African-American Athletes of the 1936 Olympics".
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nordlinger, Jay (December 17, 2007). "Medals of Freedom". National Review. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Wolley, John T.; Gerhard Peters (January 10, 1977). "Gerald R. Ford, 38th President of the United States: 1974 ‐ 1977, Remarks Upon Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom". The American Presidency Project. www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  31. ^ "Lady Bird Johnson Biography". Lbjlib.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2011., for date of award see The National First Ladies Library (November 16, 2010). Heroes of the Presidential Medal of Freedom (PDF). Canton Ohio. p. 3. Retrieved February 11, 2011. Lady Bird Johnson (1912–2007)...Presidential Medal of Freedom received January 10, 1977
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