Positive mental attitude
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Positive mental attitude (PMA) is a concept first developed and introduced in 1937 by Napoleon Hill in the book Think and Grow Rich. The book never actually uses the term, but develops the importance of positive thinking as a principle to success. Napoleon, along with W. Clement Stone, founder of Combined Insurance, later wrote Success Through a Positive Mental Attitude which defines positive mental attitude as comprising "the 'plus' characteristics symbolized by such words as faith, integrity, hope, optimism, courage, initiative, generosity, tolerance, tact, kindliness and good common sense. 
Positive mental attitude is the philosophy that having an optimistic disposition in every situation in one's life attracts positive changes and increases achievement. Adherents employ a state of mind that continues to seek, find and execute ways to win, or find a desirable outcome, regardless of the circumstances. It opposes negativity, defeatism and hopelessness. Optimism and hope are vital to the development of PMA.
PMA is under the umbrella of positive psychology. In positive psychology high self-efficacy can help someone to gain learned optimism which one ultimately leads to PMA. PMA is considered an internal focus of control that influences external factors. Research has shown that through emotional intelligence training and positive psychology therapy one's attitudes and perceptions can be modified to improve their personal and professional life.
"The term self-help was not coined as a synonym for psychobabble. It has a long and rich tradition of usage in connection with far more reputable practices in the realm of law. Legal self-help refers to a raft of situation-specific remedies available to a complainant directly—that is, without involving lawyers or even courts. This facet of American jurisprudence, in marked contrast to the type of self-help this book mostly tackles, has always been about action, not words. Remedies of this nature are formal step-by-step procedures designed to bring about lawful satisfaction for the individual." Self-help law books have been around since at least 1687.
The modern self-help industry has reached a far larger audience than just those in the legal field. "Self-improvement books now account for at least a $2.5 billion a year industry in the U.S. alone, increasing since 1972 to at least 2.5% of the total number of books in print. Approximately one-third to one-half of adults in the U.S. have purchased a self-improvement book at least once in their lifetime."
The self-help industry was pioneered by Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack and made popular by Napoleon Hill’s books as well as Dale Carnegie and his lectures and books. Now an entire industry of self-help books and motivational speakers such as Og Mandino and Tony Robbins are available. PMA is a main theme in most of the inspirational writings which have influenced the sales industry, especially in door-to-door sales and direct marketing businesses. Self-help material along with self-talk help employers to shape their employees to be more resilient to failure and become more positive and energetic salespeople.
H.R., lead vocalist of the Washington, D.C. based band Bad Brains, has stated in the past that it was Hill's book, which was given to him by his father, that prompted him to advocate and use the phrase as a way to describe the positive message has wanted to expound through his music.
A study of Major League Baseball players indicated that a key component that separates major league players from the minor leagues and all other levels is their ability to develop mental characteristics and mental skills. Among them were mental toughness, confidence, maintaining a positive attitude, dealing with failure, expectations, and positive self-talk.
Many studies have been done regarding PMA and its effects on health, specifically with people of serious illnesses such as cancer and kidney disease. Cancer specifically has received a lot of attention since Lance Armstrong, along with other survivors, have given their stories. People with PMA have a significantly higher chance of survival and recovery. A study comparing people with chronic kidney disease with people kidney disease free showed that there was a significant difference between the groups. The kidney disease free group rated much higher in PMA. There was no difference found in spirituality and females with chronic kidney disease were found to be significantly more superstitious. A study done with HIV-positive individuals found that a high health self-efficacy, a task-oriented coping style, and a positive mental attitude were strong predictors or a health-promoting lifestyle which has a significant effect on overall health (coping and surviving).
Critics of PMA argue that it is not the secret to success but a by-product of success. The "self-help" industry has been criticized as a scam for authors to make money due to its simplistic writing and principles. There is little evidence, however, that self-help books, life coaching, and motivational speaking are harmful; a study of 100 psychotherapy patients found that of the 43 patients reading books (e.g. PMA, religious texts, Alcoholics Anonymous texts, etc.) 4 reported "mild harm or distress" while 34 reported "benefit without harm".
- Hill, Napoleon (1960). Think and grow rich (Rev. ed.). Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Crest. ISBN 0449214923.
- Hill, Napoleon; Stone, W. Clement Stone; preface by Og Mandino; with a new introduction by W. Clement (1987). Success through a positive mental attitude. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 0671743228.
- Chang, edited by Edward C. (2001). Optimism & pessimism implications for theory, research, and practice (1st ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 101–125. ISBN 1-55798-691-6.
- Ellis, Ross; Ryan, J. A. (2005). "Emotional Intelligence and Positive Psychology: Therapist Tools for Training/Coaching Clients to Move Beyond Emotional Relief". Annals of the American Psychotherapy Assn. 8 (3): 42–43.
- "Sham: How the Self-Help Movement Made America Helpless by Steve Salerno". www.randomhouse.com. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
- "Five Things You Need to Know About Self-Help Books". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2015-11-17.
- Schweingruber, David (Winter 2006). "Success through a Positive Mental Attitude?: The Role of Positive Thinking in Door-to-Door Sales". The Sociological Quarterly. 47 (1): 41–68. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2006.00037.x.
- Wagner, Kimberly (2011). "The mental skills and characteristics related to a major league baseball player's performance: A qualitative study". Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 71 (8-B): 5150.
- Rom, S. A.; Miller, L.; Peluso, J. (2009). "Playing the game: Psychological factors in surviving cancer". International Journal of Emergency Mental Health. 11 (1): 25–36.
- Subha, T. G.; Mukherjee, Tilottama (September 2010). "Optimism, superstitious beliefs and spirituality in chronic kidney disease". Indian Journal of Community Psychology. 6 (2): 262–274.
- Larry, R. S. (2010). "Exploring the relationships between perceived health self-efficacy, coping and health-promoting behaviors among non-substance abusing vs. substance abusing patients with HIV disease". Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 71 (1-B): 661.
- Turner, G. (March 1980). "Positive mental bulldust". Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy. 1 (1): 40–44.
- Halliday, G. (1991). "Psychological self-help books--How dangerous are they?". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 28 (4): 678–680. doi:10.1037/0033-3188.8.131.528.