Katharine Meyer Graham (June 16, 1917 – July 17, 2001) was an American publisher and the second female publisher of a major American newspaper, following Eliza Jane Nicholson's ownership of the New Orleans Daily Picayune (1876-1896). She led her family's newspaper, The Washington Post, for more than two decades, overseeing its most famous period: the Watergate coverage that eventually led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon. Her memoir, Personal History, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1998.
Graham in 1975
June 16, 1917
|Education||University of Chicago|
|Spouse(s)||Philip Graham (1940–1963, his death)|
Donald E. Graham
William Welsh Graham
Stephen Meyer Graham
|Parent(s)||Agnes Ernst Meyer|
|Family||Marc Eugene Meyer (grandfather)|
Joseph Newmark (great-grandfather)
Early life, education, early careerEdit
Katharine Meyer was born in 1917 into a wealthy family in New York City, to Agnes Elizabeth (née Ernst) and Eugene Meyer. Her father was a financier and, later, Chairman of the Federal Reserve. Her grandfather was Marc Eugene Meyer, and her great-grandfather was rabbi Joseph Newmark. Her father bought The Washington Post in 1933 at a bankruptcy auction. Her mother was a bohemian intellectual, art lover, and political activist in the Republican Party, who shared friendships with people as diverse as Auguste Rodin, Marie Curie, Thomas Mann, Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, John Dewey and Saul Alinsky. She worked as a newspaper reporter at a time when journalism was an uncommon profession among women. Katharine's father was of Alsatian Jewish descent, and her mother was a Lutheran whose parents were German immigrants. Along with her four siblings, Katharine was baptized as a Lutheran but attended an Episcopal church. Her siblings included Florence, Eugene III (Bill), Ruth and Elizabeth Meyer.
Meyer's parents owned several homes across the country, but primarily lived between a veritable "castle" on a large estate near Mount Kisco, N.Y., and a mansion in Washington, D.C. Meyer often did not see much of her parents during her childhood, as both traveled and socialized extensively; she was raised in part by nannies, governesses and tutors. Katharine endured a strained relationship with her mother. Agnes was reportedly very negative and condescending towards Katharine, which had a negative impact on Katharine's self-confidence.
Meyer was an alumna of The Madeira School (to which her father had donated much land) and attended Vassar College before transferring to the University of Chicago. In Chicago, she became quite interested in labor issues and shared friendships with people from walks of life very different from her own.
After graduation, she worked for a short period at a San Francisco newspaper where, among other things, she helped cover a major strike by wharf workers. Meyer began working for the Post in 1938. While in Washington, D.C., she met a former schoolmate, Will Lang Jr. The two dated, but broke off the relationship due to conflicting interests.
On June 5, 1940, she was married in a Lutheran ceremony, to Philip Graham, a graduate of Harvard Law School and a clerk for Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter. They had a daughter, Lally Morris Weymouth (born 1943), and three sons: Donald Edward Graham (born 1945), William Welsh Graham (1948-2017) and Stephen Meyer Graham (born 1952). She was affiliated as a Lutheran.
Leadership of The Washington PostEdit
Philip Graham became publisher of the Post in 1946, when Eugene Meyer handed over the newspaper to his son-in-law. Katharine recounts in her autobiography, Personal History, how she did not feel slighted by the fact her father gave the Post to Philip rather than her: "Far from troubling me that my father thought of my husband and not me, it pleased me. In fact, it never crossed my mind that he might have viewed me as someone to take on an important job at the paper." Meyer went on to become the head of the World Bank, but left that position only six months later. He was Chairman of the Washington Post Company until his death in 1959, when Philip Graham took that position and the company expanded with the purchases of television stations and Newsweek magazine.
Social life and politicsEdit
The Grahams were important members of the Washington social scene, becoming friends with John F. Kennedy and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Robert F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Robert McNamara, Henry Kissinger, Ronald Reagan, and Nancy Reagan among many others.
In her 1997 autobiography, Graham comments several times about how close her husband was to politicians of his day (he was instrumental, for example, in getting Johnson to be the Democratic vice presidential nominee in 1960), and how such personal closeness with politicians later became unacceptable in journalism. She tried to push lawyer Edward Bennett Williams into the role of Washington D.C.'s first commissioner mayor in 1967. The position went to Howard University-educated lawyer Walter Washington.
Philip Graham's illness and deathEdit
Philip Graham dealt with alcoholism and mental illness throughout his marriage to Katharine. He had mood swings and often belittled her. On Christmas Eve in 1962, Katharine found out her husband was having an affair with Robin Webb, an Australian stringer for Newsweek. Philip declared that he would divorce Katharine for Robin, and he made motions to divide up the couple's assets.
At a newspaper conference in Phoenix, Arizona, Philip apparently had a nervous breakdown. He was sedated, flown back to Washington, and placed in the Chestnut Lodge psychiatric facility in nearby Rockville. On August 3, 1963, he committed suicide with a shotgun at the couple's "Glen Welby" estate near Marshall in the Virginia horse country. (One of their sons met a similar fate.) Katharine Graham never remarried.
Leadership of the PostEdit
Katharine Graham assumed the reins of the company and of the Post after Philip Graham's suicide. She held the title of president and was de facto publisher of the paper from September 1963. She formally held the title of publisher from 1969 to 1979, and that of chairwoman of the board from 1973 to 1991. She became the first female Fortune 500 CEO in 1972, as CEO of the Washington Post company. As the only woman to be in such a high position at a publishing company, she had no female role models and had difficulty being taken seriously by many of her male colleagues and employees. Graham outlined in her memoir her lack of confidence and distrust in her own knowledge. The convergence of the women's movement with Graham's control of the Post brought about changes in Graham's attitude and also led her to promote gender equality within her company.
Graham hired Benjamin Bradlee as editor, and cultivated Warren Buffett for his financial advice; he became a major shareholder and something of an eminence grise in the company. Her son Donald was publisher from 1979 until 2000.
Graham presided over the Post at a crucial time in its history. The Post played an integral role in unveiling the Watergate conspiracy which ultimately led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
Graham and editor Bradlee first experienced challenges when they published the content of the Pentagon Papers. When Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein brought the Watergate story to Bradlee, Graham supported their investigative reporting and Bradlee ran stories about Watergate when few other news outlets were reporting on the matter.
In conjunction with the Watergate scandal, Graham was the subject of one of the best-known threats in American journalistic history. It occurred in 1972, when Nixon's attorney general, John Mitchell, warned reporter Carl Bernstein about a forthcoming article: "Katie Graham's gonna get her tit caught in a big fat wringer if that's published." The Post published the quote, although Bradlee cut the words her tit. Graham later observed that it was "especially strange of [Mitchell] to call me Katie, which no one has ever called me."
In November 1988, in the middle of the Iran–Contra affair, Graham said in a speech to the senior CIA employees: "We live in a dirty and dangerous world. There are some things the general public does not need to know, and shouldn't. I believe democracy flourishes when the government can take legitimate steps to keep its secrets and when the press can decide whether to print what it knows."
Other accomplishments and recognitionEdit
Graham had strong links to the Rockefeller family, serving both as a member of the Rockefeller University council and as a close friend of the Museum of Modern Art, where she was honored as a recipient of the David Rockefeller Award for enlightened generosity and advocacy of cultural and civic endeavors (see External links below).
In 1979, Deborah Davis published a book titled Katharine the Great about Graham.
In 1987, Graham won the Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Journalism.
|Booknotes interview with Graham on Personal History, February 16, 1997, C-SPAN|
Graham published her memoirs, Personal History, in 1997. The book was praised for its honest portrayal of Philip Graham's mental illness and received rave reviews for her depiction of her life, as well as a glimpse into how the roles of women have changed over the course of Graham's life. The book won the Pulitzer Prize in 1998.
In 1997, she received the Freedom medal.
|Katharine Graham Funeral Service, July 23, 2001, C-SPAN|
On July 14, 2001, Graham fell and struck her head while visiting Sun Valley, Idaho; she died three days later. Her funeral took place at the Washington National Cathedral. Graham is buried in historic Oak Hill Cemetery, across the street from her former home in Georgetown.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5.
- Sanford D. Horwitt (1989). Let Them Call Me Rebel: Saul Alinsky, His Life and Legacy. Knopf. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-394-57243-7.
- Hodgson, Godfrey (July 18, 2001). "Obituary: Katharine Graham". The Guardian. London.
- Smith, J. Y. & Epstein, Noel (July 18, 2001). "Katharine Graham Dies at 84." Washpostco.com, Washington Post Company website. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- "'Washington Post' icon Katharine Graham, 84, dies". USA Today. July 18, 2001.
- USA Today: "Personal History" By Katharine Graham July 17, 2001
- Zweigenhaft, Richard L. and G. William Domhoff The New CEOs : Women, African American, Latino, and Asian American Leaders of Fortune 500 Companies Published: 2014-03-18 |Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
- "Florence Meyer Blumenthal". Jewish Women's Archive, Michele Siegel.
- Silbiger, Steve (May 25, 2000). The Jewish Phenomenon: Seven Keys to the Enduring Wealth of a People. Taylor Trade Publishing. p. 190. ISBN 9781589794900.
- Graham, Katharine. Personal History. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1997. Print.
- Rich, Frank. "Frank Rich - Latest Columns and Features on NYMag.com - New York Magazine". Nymag.com. Retrieved 2015-07-31.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved 9 Sep 2018.
- "Berkshire Hathaway to swap stock for TV station in deal with Graham Holdings". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved 9 Sep 2018.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved 9 Sep 2018.
- Graham, K., Personal History, Vintage Books 1998
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved 9 Sep 2018.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved 9 Sep 2018.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved 9 Sep 2018.
- "Philip Graham, 48, Publisher, A Suicide". The New York Times. 1963-08-04. Retrieved 15 Sep 2018.
- Sanders, Linley (2017-12-26). "Who Is William Graham? Former Washington Post Publisher's Son Dies In Suicide Similar To Father". Newsweek. Retrieved 15 Sep 2018.
- Carol Felsenthal (4 January 2011). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5. Retrieved 9 Sep 2018.
- Tasler, Nick (2012-12-11). The Impulse Factor. ISBN 9781471109812. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Firsts for U.S. Women Archived March 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Graham, Katharine (28 January 1997). "The Watergate Watershed: A Turning Point for a Nation and a Newspaper". Washington Post. p. D01. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- "WashingtonPost.com: Mitchell Controlled Secret GOP Fund". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- "Kill The Messenger: How The Media Destroyed Gary Webb". The Huffington Post. October 10, 2014.
- "Yasmin Alibhai-Brown: Sometimes government plots are actually worth believing in". The Independent. May 8, 2011.
- "Teachers' Guide - A Hidden Life". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
- "How the Mainstream Media Kept the Lid on CIA-Contra Drug Story". The Baltimore Chronicle. October 28, 1996.
- "Jefferson Awards". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Wulf, Steve (2015-03-23). "Supersisters: Original Roster". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- Arizona State University. "Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication". Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter G" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
- "World Press Freedom Heroes: Symbols of courage in global journalism". International Press Institute. 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- "Graham, Katharine - National Women's Hall of Fame".
- Berger, Marilyn (July 18, 2001). "Katharine Graham, Former Publisher of Washington Post, Dies at 84". NY Times.
- "Final Farewell To Katharine Graham". cbsnews.com. Associated Press. July 23, 2001. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
- Van Dyne, Larry (August 1, 2007). "Into the Sunset: Arrangements and Options for the Afterlife". The Washingtonian. washingtonian.com. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
- Carol Felsenthal (1993). Power, Privilege and the Post: The Katharine Graham Story. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1-60980-290-5.
- Graham, Katharine (1997). Personal History. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-58585-7.
- Bradlee, Ben (1995). A Good Life: Newspapering and Other Adventures. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80894-9.
- Gerber, Robin (2005). Katharine Graham: The Leadership Journey of an American Icon. New York: Portfolio. ISBN 978-1-59184-104-3.