Laurence Silberman

Laurence Hirsch Silberman (October 12, 1935 – October 2, 2022) was an American lawyer, diplomat, jurist, and government official who served as a United States circuit judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit from 1985 until his death. He was appointed in October 1985 by President Ronald Reagan and took senior status on November 1, 2000. On June 11, 2008, President George W. Bush awarded Silberman the Presidential Medal of Freedom.[1]

Laurence Silberman
Laurence Hirsch Silberman crop.jpg
Chair of the Iraq Intelligence Commission
In office
February 6, 2004 – March 31, 2005
Serving with Chuck Robb
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Judge of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review
In office
June 18, 1996 – May 18, 2003
Nominated byWilliam Rehnquist
Preceded byRobert W. Warren
Succeeded byRalph K. Winter Jr.
Senior Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
In office
November 1, 2000 – October 2, 2022
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
In office
October 28, 1985 – November 1, 2000
Nominated byRonald Reagan
Preceded bySeat established by 98 Stat. 333
Succeeded byBrett Kavanaugh
United States Ambassador to Yugoslavia
In office
May 8, 1975 – December 26, 1976
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byMalcolm Toon
Succeeded byLawrence Eagleburger
14th United States Deputy Attorney General
In office
January 20, 1974 – April 6, 1975
President
Preceded byWilliam Ruckelshaus
Succeeded byHarold R. Tyler Jr.
United States Under Secretary of Labor
In office
1970–1973
PresidentRichard Nixon
Preceded byJames Day Hodgson
Succeeded byRichard F. Schubert
United States Solicitor of Labor
In office
1969–1970
PresidentRichard Nixon
Preceded byCharles Donahue
Succeeded byPeter Nash
Personal details
Born
Laurence Hirsch Silberman

(1935-10-12)October 12, 1935
York, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedOctober 2, 2022(2022-10-02) (aged 86)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouses
  • (died 2007)
  • Patricia Winn
    (m. 2008)
Children3, including Robert
Education
AwardsPresidential Medal of Freedom (2008)
Silberman (right) with President George W. Bush and Chuck Robb announcing the formation of the Iraq Intelligence Commission in 2004
Silberman and President George W. Bush in 2008

Early life and educationEdit

Silberman was born to a Jewish family in York, Pennsylvania in 1935. He graduated from Dartmouth College with a Bachelor of Arts in history in 1957. After serving six months of active duty in the US Army (five-and-a-half years in reserve), he attended Harvard Law School and graduated in 1961 with a Bachelor of Laws degree.[2]

CareerEdit

Silberman worked in the private sector as a partner at the law firms Moore, Silberman & Schulze in Honolulu and Morrison & Foerster and Steptoe & Johnson in Washington, D.C. He also served as Executive Vice President of Crocker National Bank in San Francisco. His government service included stints as an attorney in the National Labor Relations Board's appellate section, as Solicitor of Labor from 1969 to 1970, and as Undersecretary of Labor from 1970 to 1973. As Solicitor, he was largely responsible for developing the requirement of goals and timetables as an enforcement device for the affirmative action order. He subsequently regretted his stance and wrote, "Our use of numerical standards in pursuit of equal opportunity has led to the very quotas guaranteeing equal results that we initially wished to avoid."[3]

He also led the development of legislation to implement "final offer selection" as a means of resolving labor disputes.[4] As Undersecretary, he repeatedly clashed with Charles "Chuck" Colson and tendered his resignation to compel the hiring of a black regional director in New York in 1972.[5]

President Richard Nixon nominated Silberman to be Deputy Attorney General of the United States in January 1974.[6] Silberman was tasked with reviewing J. Edgar Hoover's secret files, which he described as "the single worst experience of my long governmental service."[7] Silberman stated that "this country – and the Federal Bureau of Investigation – would be well served if [Hoover's] name were removed from the bureau's building. It is as if the Defense Department were named for Aaron Burr. Liberals and conservatives should unite to support legislation to accomplish this repudiation of a very sad chapter in American history."[8] Silberman also served briefly as Acting Attorney General during the Watergate crisis.[9] Silberman's resignation was accepted by President Gerald Ford, pending the confirmation of his successor.[10]

Ford nominated Silberman as ambassador to Yugoslavia in April 1975.[11] He served in the role until he resigned during the presidential transition of Jimmy Carter.[12] At the same time, Silberman also served as the Presidential Special Envoy for International Labor Organization Affairs. As ambassador, he succeeded in freeing an American, Laszlo Toth, who had been falsely imprisoned by the regime as a CIA agent, by putting pressure on both the Yugoslav regime and the State Department.[13] During the campaign for the 1980 presidential election, he was co-chairman of Ronald Reagan's foreign policy advisors. From 1981 to 1985, he served as a member of the General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament and the Defense Policy Board.[14]

In total, Silberman has held six Senate-confirmed positions and never received a dissenting vote.[15]

Federal judicial serviceEdit

Silberman was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on September 11, 1985, to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, to a new seat created by 98 Stat. 333. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on October 25, 1985, and received commission on October 28, 1985. He assumed senior status on November 1, 2000.[2]

Silberman was on the short list of potential nominees to the U.S. Supreme Court on three separate occasions in 1987, 1990, and 1991.[16] However, after the rejection of Robert Bork with whom Silberman had served on the District of Columbia Circuit, he was regarded as controversial.[17] Unlike fellow conservatives Pasco Bowman II and John Clifford Wallace, Silberman even drew some opposition from Republican senators[18] because although he was a judicial conservative and thus was likely against Roe v. Wade as a legal matter, he was thought to be personally pro-choice.[19] Meanwhile, some criticized him for having an explosive temper while he was Deputy Attorney General,[20] and at the same time, others noted that "he expect[ed] people to pound the table and shout right back" and uniquely possessed "the interest, talent and capacity for administration."[21] It was also reported Silberman faced criticism over legal issues arising from his time at Crocker National Bank at which he had been executive vice-president between 1979 and 1983,[22] but that appears to have been pretextual given the FBI had cleared him of any wrongdoing and he had since been confirmed to the D.C. Circuit unanimously.[15]

He was a member of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review at the time of its first ever session in 2002.[23][2]

On February 6, 2004, Silberman was appointed co-chairman of the Iraq Intelligence Commission, an independent blue-ribbon panel created to investigate U.S. intelligence surrounding the United States' 2003 invasion of Iraq and Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. In the wake of the resignation of Alberto Gonzales as United States Attorney General in 2007, Silberman was mentioned as a possible successor.[24]

In 2008, Judge Silberman, joined by five other senior judges, initiated a suit against the United States, "claiming that when Congress refused to authorize statutory cost-of-living raises for federal judges, it violated the Compensation Clause [of the Constitution]".[25][26] The Federal Judges Association opposed bringing the suit.[26] The suit was ultimately successful, leading to a nationwide rise in pay for all federal judges as of January 1, 2014.[27]

In 2015, Silberman wrote an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal, writing that the charge that "President Bush deceived the American people about the threat from Saddam" reminded him of "a similarly baseless accusation that helped the Nazis come to power in Germany."[28]

In October 2021, Silberman won the first annual Justice Clarence Thomas First Principles Award for his judicial service. The Wall Street Journal editorial board called him "one of the all-time giants of the federal bench" and perhaps "the most influential judge never to have sat on the Supreme Court."[29]

Legal opinionsEdit

As a judge, Silberman authored a number of noteworthy opinions:

  • In In re Sealed Case, 838 F.2d 476 (1988), Silberman held that the procedures for appointing independent counsels violated the Appointments Clause of the U.S. Constitution and the separation of powers, because they interfered with the President's ability to ensure that the laws are "faithfully executed".[30] This decision was subsequently reversed by the Supreme Court in Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988), over a vigorous dissent by Justice Antonin Scalia.[31]
  • In a later per curiam decision captioned In re: Sealed Case No. 02-001, 310 F.3d 717 (2002), the court upheld a provision of the Patriot Act that made it easier for law enforcement officers and intelligence officers to share information with each other.[32] This was an important decision involving interpretation of the Patriot Act, the use of foreign intelligence, and the role of the FISA Court. Silberman subsequently disclosed that he had in fact written the opinion.[15]
  • In Parker v. District of Columbia, 478 F.3d 370 (2007), Silberman held that the District of Columbia's flat ban on the registration and carrying of firearms violated the Second Amendment right "to keep and bear arms".[33] The case was subsequently upheld by the Supreme Court in District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008).[34]
  • In Seven-Sky v. Holder, 661 F.3d 1 (2011), Silberman authored an opinion upholding the Affordable Care Act as a constitutional exercise of the Commerce Power, on the grounds that individuals' decisions to remain uninsured, in the aggregate, have a substantial effect on interstate commerce.[35] At the time, a number of commentators viewed Judge Silberman's opinion as an important bellwether of how the Supreme Court might decide the case.[36][37] The Supreme Court ultimately rejected Judge Silberman's reasoning in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 132 S. Ct. 2566 (2012), by a vote of 5 to 4, upholding the Affordable Care Act instead as an exercise of the taxing power.[38] Some commentators praised Silberman, a Reagan appointee, for his "judicial restraint" in upholding the signature statute of a Democratic administration. Writing in Slate, Simon Lazarus described Silberman as a "conservative icon" and noted that "despite intense short-term political pressures and long-term ideological stakes, leading conservative jurists appear likely to stick to their traditional judicial restraint canon when deciding the fate of the Affordable Care Act".[39]
  • Dissenting vigorously in Tah v. Global Witness Publishing, Inc. Silberman called on the Supreme Court to overturn New York Times v. Sullivan, and claimed that The New York Times and The Washington Post are "virtually Democratic Party broadsheets," and labeled "[n]early all television—network and cable—a Democratic Party trumpet." His dissent also accused big tech companies of censoring conservatives and warned that "Democratic Party ideological control" of the media may be a prelude to an "authoritarian or dictatorial regime" that constitutes "a threat to a viable democracy".[40]

CriticismEdit

"October Surprise"Edit

Some commentators have speculated that Silberman may have been involved in the so-called "October Surprise" with respect to the Iran hostage crisis prior to the 1980 presidential election, alleging that Silberman and others had attended meetings to negotiate the delayed release of the hostages by the Iranian government.[41]

Silberman publicly responded as follows to the allegations:

In the early fall of 1980 when I was Co-Chairman of Governor Reagan's foreign policy advisors and then a San Francisco banker, I came back to Washington for a meeting of Governor Reagan's advisors. Dick Allen, who subsequently became President Reagan's National Security Advisor, was playing a similar role in the campaign. As our session ended (I recall it dealt with Arab-Israeli issues), Dick asked me if I could accompany him to a meeting at the L'Enfant Hotel. He explained that Bud McFarlane, then working for Senator Tower, wished him to see someone who had information on the hostage crisis—which, of course, was a matter of great political consequence to both campaigns. He asked me to join him, as an ex-Deputy Attorney General, because he was a bit apprehensive. At about noon McFarlane walked into the lobby with a gentleman whom I remembered as a Moroccan. But, as Dick Allen's contemporaneously-written memorandum had it, the man was a Malaysian named Mohammed (at least I got the "M" right). He was a fervent supporter of the Shah and an adversary of the Iranian revolution, but he was definitely not an Iranian, still less a representative of the Iranian government [the contrary of which assertion being the essence of the allegations of inappropriate contact with the Iranian government]. He was also hostile to the Carter Administration for having abandoned the Shah. It was his plan to contact someone with influence in Iran to propose that the hostages be released before the election to Governor Reagan, thereby embarrassing President Carter. I was shocked and responded spontaneously that we Americans have only one President at a time, and although Dick asked him for any actual information he might have on the hostages—which he did not have—we left after only a few minutes. I advised Dick to write a memo of the meeting, which he did. Unfortunately the memo, subsequently authenticated by the FBI, was mislaid for years. Ironically, it was I who unwittingly initiated the so-called "October Surprise" story, which grew into an utterly fantastic tale, even including George H. W. Bush's alleged secret trips to Paris to meet with Iranian emissaries. Bill Safire heard something of the L'Enfant Plaza meeting when he was doing a rather critical story on McFarlane, who had been Reagan's National Security Advisor. He called me (I was by then on the bench), and I told him what occurred. He made brief mention of it in a column raising, perhaps, unfair questions about McFarlane's judgment—it may well be that McFarlane was acting for Senator Tower.[42]

On January 3, 1993, the bipartisan Joint Report of the Task Force to Investigate Certain Allegations Concerning the Holding of American Hostages by Iran in 1980, also known as the "October Surprise Task Force," was released. The Task Force, led by Rep. Lee H. Hamilton (D) and Rep. Henry J. Hyde (R), specifically concluded that "there is wholly insufficient evidence of any communications by or on behalf of the 1980 Reagan Presidential campaign with any persons representing or connected with the Iranian government or with those holding Americans as hostages during the 1979-1981 period" and that "there is no credible evidence supporting any attempt or proposal to attempt, by the Reagan Presidential Campaign – or persons representing or associated with the campaign – to delay the release of the American hostages in Iran."[43]

Iran–Contra affairEdit

Silberman served on a panel of the D.C. Circuit in U.S. vs. Oliver L. North, 910 F.2d 843 (1990), in which a per curiam opinion was issued that overturned the conviction of Oliver North, who had been a key figure in perpetrating the Iran–Contra affair.[44][45][46]

In his memoir, Firewall, published seven years after the case in 1997, Lawrence Walsh, the Independent Counsel appointed by President Reagan to investigate the Iran Contra Affair, he mused that in retrospect, he wished that he had moved for Silberman's recusal from the panel:

Yet I was reluctant to request that Silberman disqualify himself. Prior government service or political activity did not bar him from serving on the panel. His unfavorable view of independent counsel, if it arose in the course of litigation rather than outside the courtroom, was not a basis for disqualification. Too late, I learned that he had a personal animus: He despised Judge Gerhardt Gesell [who presided over the North case in the lower court]. Indeed, Silberman had stopped having lunch in the judges' lunchroom because of his antipathy for Gesell. Had I known that, the scales certainly would have tipped in favor of my seeking his recusal.[47][48]

Silberman also observed that David Brock, latterly a Silberman critic (see below), published a refutation of Lawrence Walsh's characterization of Judge Silberman's involvement in the North case:

I am still gratified, however, by Brock's review of Lawrence Walsh's book, which he has never (or at least, not yet) repudiated. In that review, Brock, by interviewing federal judges, demolished Walsh's bizarre and unique claim that I should have recused myself from sitting on the North case because of my supposed hostility to the federal district judge who decided the case. As Brock established, that assertion—which no one ever heard of as a ground for recusal—was untrue.[8]

Yale Law School protestEdit

On March 17, 2022, several news outlets published an email that Silberman had sent to all Article III federal judges regarding a protest at Yale Law School.[49] In the email, Silberman suggested that students who disrupted a Federalist Society event by shouting down a speaker should be barred from consideration for potential clerkships because they clearly do not respect free speech principles.[50] The panel discussion, which focused on remedies for First Amendment violations, featured Monica Miller, the legal director of the American Humanist Association, and Kristen Waggoner, general counsel for Alliance Defending Freedom.[51] Several outlets criticized Silberman's characterization of the event, while others praised it.[52][53]

Academic careerEdit

Silberman was a lecturer at the University of Hawaiʻi from 1962 to 1963. He was an Adjunct Professor of Administrative Law at Georgetown University Law Center from 1987 to 1994 and from 1997 to 1999, at NYU from 1995 to 1996, and at Harvard in 1998. He held the position of Distinguished Visitor from the Judiciary at Georgetown University Law Center from 2000 to 2019 and taught both administrative law and labor law. Silberman received the Charles Fahy Distinguished Adjunct Professor Award for the 2002–2003 academic year. He has also received a Lifetime Service Award (2006) and a Distinguished Service Award (2007) from the Federalist Society chapters of Georgetown and Harvard, respectively.[54][55]

Personal life and deathEdit

Silberman's first wife, Rosalie "Ricky" Gaull Silberman, co-founder of the Independent Women's Forum, died on February 17, 2007. Together, they had three children, Robert S. Silberman, Kate Fischer,[56] and Anne Otis.[57] His eight grandchildren include the screenwriter and film producer Katie Silberman.[58] Silberman married Patricia Winn Silberman in 2008.[59]

Silberman was a close friend of Justice Antonin Scalia since he had recruited Scalia into the Ford administration.[60] Silberman was also a friend of Justice Clarence Thomas and in 1989 encouraged a young and reluctant Thomas to accept a federal judgeship on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.[61] Several of his former law clerks have become federal judges, including US Supreme Court justice Amy Coney Barrett.[62]

Silberman died on October 2, 2022, ten days before his 87th birthday.[63]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Statement by the Press Secretary". georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c "Silberman, Laurence Hirsch - Federal Judicial Center". www.fjc.gov. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
  3. ^ Silberman, Laurence (August 11, 1977). "The Road to Racial Quotas". Wall Street Journal.
  4. ^ Silberman, Laurence (Spring 2012). "The Development of 'Final Offer Selection'". The Green Bag.
  5. ^ Hersh, Seymour (July 1, 1973). "Colson Is Accused of Improper Use of His Influence". The New York Times.
  6. ^ "10 Jan 1974, 1 - Alabama Journal at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com.
  7. ^ "Opinion & Reviews - Wall Street Journal". www.opinionjournal.com. Archived from the original on February 27, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2006.
  8. ^ a b "Judge Silberman's response to David Brock's book". U.S. News & World Report. August 18, 2006. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
  9. ^ "14 Jun 1974, 63 - Corpus Christi Times at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  10. ^ "13 Mar 1975, Page 24 - St. Louis Post-Dispatch at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  11. ^ "19 Apr 1975, 2 - Star-Gazette at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  12. ^ "13 Mar 1977, Page 3 - Valley Morning Star at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  13. ^ Malcolm W. Browne, "Tito Attacks U.S. Envoy for 'Pressure Campaign,'" New York Times August 1, 1976.
  14. ^ "7 Feb 2004, Page A15 - The Baltimore Sun at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  15. ^ a b c "Interview with Hon. Laurence H. Silberman (2017)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved March 22, 2021.
  16. ^ "He's Always on the Short List," Charley Roberts, Los Angeles Daily Journal, 1992.
  17. ^ "Baker, GOP Senators Discuss High Court Candidates". The Minneapolis Star-Tribune. October 27, 1987. p. 3A.
  18. ^ "List of high-court picks meets GOP objections". The Billings Gazette. October 28, 1987. p. 8-A.
  19. ^ "Religion and the Court". Wall Street Journal. October 11, 2005. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on March 19, 2021. Retrieved March 22, 2021.
  20. ^ "Reagan to meet with senators on next Supreme Court nominee". The Atlanta Constitution. October 26, 1987. p. 2A.
  21. ^ Kelly, Orr (June 26, 1974). "Silberman: A 'Tough Cookie' Ramrods Justice". Washington Star-News.
  22. ^ Freedman, Dan (October 28, 1987). "White House Busy on New Court List; Two Women Reportedly Among 9 Names of Possible Supreme Court Candidates". San Francisco Examiner. p. A-4.
  23. ^ "www.thememoryhole.org / server maintenance". www.thememoryhole.org. Archived from the original on October 10, 2002. Retrieved January 20, 2006.
  24. ^ Patterson, Thom. "Job opening for attorney general with credibility". www.cnn.com. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007. Retrieved August 30, 2007.
  25. ^ Frankel, Alison. "Federal Circuit: Congress can't renege on pay promises to judges". Archived from the original on October 14, 2012.
  26. ^ a b https://reason.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/2022-08-03-Silberman-Reply-OCR.pdf Archived August 5, 2022, at the Wayback Machine[bare URL PDF]
  27. ^ "Federal judges in cost-of-living suit collect a 14 percent raise after years of legal battles". Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
  28. ^ Brendan James, Federal Appeals Judge Compares People Who Say Bush Lied To Rise Of Nazis Archived February 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Talking Points Memo February 9, 2015
  29. ^ A Judge for First Principles Wall Street Journal October 24, 2021
  30. ^ In re SEALED CASE (Three Cases), 838 F.2d 476 (D.C. Cir. 1988).
  31. ^ Morrison v. Olson, 457 U.S. 654 (1988).
  32. ^ In re: Sealed Case No. 02-001, 310 F.3d 717 (United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review 2002).
  33. ^ Parker v. District of Columbia, 478 F.3d 370 (D.C. Cir. 2007).
  34. ^ District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), 128 S. Ct. 2783, 171 L. Ed. 2d 637 (2008).
  35. ^ Seven-Sky v. Holder, 661 F.3d 1, 14–20 (D.C. Cir. 2011).
  36. ^ Simon Lazarus (2011-11-09)."May It Please the Court Archived August 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Slate (magazine). Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  37. ^ Noah Feldman (2011-11-13), Conservative Health-Care Split Offers Court a Path Archived February 24, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Bloomberg. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  38. ^ National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. 519 (2012), 132 S. Ct. 2566 (2012)
  39. ^ Lazarus, Simon (November 9, 2011). "Why the Supreme Court May Pay Special Attention to This Week's Decision Upholding Obamacare". slate.com. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  40. ^ Marcus, Ruth (March 19, 2021). "Reagan-Appointed Circuit Judge Issues Scathing Dissent Calling NYT and WaPo 'Democratic Party Broadsheets,' Praising Fox News". Archived from the original on March 19, 2021. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
  41. ^ "SURPRISING LOOK AT HOSTAGE SCANDAL". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on November 27, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  42. ^ [32 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 503. See also Dartmouth Alumni Magazine (Nov./Dec. 2008), at pp. 49-50.]
  43. ^ United States. (July 31, 1993). Joint report of the Task Force to Investigate Certain Allegations Concerning the Holding of American Hostages by Iran in 1980 ("October Surprise Task Force"). October Surprise Task Force. [U.S. G.P.O.] : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs. Archived from the original on July 14, 2019. Retrieved July 14, 2019 – via Hathi Trust.
  44. ^ "NORTH ASKS APPEALS COURT TO OVERTURN HIS CONVICTION". Sun Sentinel. Archived from the original on July 1, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  45. ^ Johnston, David; Times, Special To the New York (July 21, 1990). "NORTH CONVICTION REVERSED IN PART; REVIEW IS ORDERED". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 29, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  46. ^ "Ex-judge on Iraq inquiry 'involved in cover-up'". the Guardian. February 10, 2004. Archived from the original on November 28, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  47. ^ [Firewall, by Lawrence Walsh, pp. 249-50.]
  48. ^ "American Spectator American Spectator - Insanity or Vanity? The Case Against Lawrence Walsh". search.opinionarchives.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  49. ^ Charonsky, Christine (March 17, 2022). "Federal Appeals Judge Suggests Yale Law Protesters 'Should Be Disqualified for Potential Clerkships'". Law.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  50. ^ Evans, Zachary (March 17, 2022). "D.C. Judge Suggests Yale Students Who Shouted Down Speakers Should Be Barred from Clerkships". National Review. Archived from the original on March 17, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  51. ^ Aker, Eda (March 15, 2022). "Yale Law students protest anti-LGBTQ speaker, armed police presence triggers backlash". Yale Daily News. Archived from the original on March 16, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  52. ^ Stern, Mark (March 18, 2022). "The Truth About the Yale Law Protest That Prompted a Federal Judge to Threaten a Clerkship Blacklist". Slate.com. Archived from the original on March 18, 2022. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  53. ^ Charonsky, Christine (March 18, 2022). "Appalling or Absolutely Correct? Divided Reaction to Judge's Call to Block Yale Law Protesters from Clerkships". Law.com. Archived from the original on March 19, 2022. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  54. ^ "Hon. Laurence H. Silberman". fedsoc.org. Archived from the original on October 4, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  55. ^ https://www.eba-net.org/assets/1/6/EBAAuthoredArticle_SIlberman_Interview_Jan20201.pdf Archived October 4, 2022, at the Wayback Machine[bare URL PDF]
  56. ^ "Board of Trustees". St. Stephen's School. Archived from the original on October 26, 2021. Retrieved October 26, 2021.
  57. ^ "WEDDINGS; Anne Silberman, Nathaniel Otis". The New York Times. June 28, 1998. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  58. ^ "Constitution Day Event with Laurence Silberman '57". Nelson A. Rockefeller Center for Public Policy. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  59. ^ "Laurence Silberman, titan of conservative jurisprudence, dies at 86". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  60. ^ "Judge Silberman's Tribute at Justice Scalia's Memorial Service". C-SPAN. Archived from the original on July 23, 2021. Retrieved July 22, 2021.
  61. ^ "Part VI: Becoming a Judge - and perhaps a Justice". ABC News. October 1, 2007. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  62. ^ "Sprinkle: Justice Amy Coney Barrett: The conservative woman liberals love to hate | COMMENTARY". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved October 3, 2022.
  63. ^ Wolfe, Jess Bravin, James R. Hagerty and Jan (October 3, 2022). "Judge Laurence Silberman Shaped Second Amendment Jurisprudence". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 3, 2022. Retrieved October 3, 2022.

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by United States Under Secretary of Labor
1970–1973
Succeeded by
Legal offices
Preceded by United States Deputy Attorney General
1974–1975
Succeeded by
New seat Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
1985–2000
Succeeded by
Preceded by Judge of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review
1996–2003
Succeeded by
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by United States Ambassador to Yugoslavia
1975–1976
Succeeded by
Government offices
New office Chair of the Iraq Intelligence Commission
2004–2005
Served alongside: Chuck Robb
Position abolished