Jean Monnet

Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (French: [ʒɑ̃ mɔnɛ]; 9 November 1888 – 16 March 1979) was a French entrepreneur, diplomat, financier, administrator, and political visionary.[1] An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.

Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet.jpg
President of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community
In office
10 August 1952 – 3 June 1955
Preceded byOffice created
Succeeded byRené Mayer
Commissioner of the French Plan Commission
In office
3 January 1946 – 1952
Preceded byOffice created
Succeeded byÉtienne Hirsch
Deputy Secretary-General of the League of Nations
In office
10 June 1919 – 31 January 1923
Preceded byOffice created
Succeeded byJoseph Avenol
Personal details
Born
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet

(1888-11-09)9 November 1888
Cognac, Charente, France
Died16 March 1979(1979-03-16) (aged 90)
Houjarray, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, France
Resting placePanthéon, Paris, France
48°50′46″N 2°20′45″E / 48.84611°N 2.34583°E / 48.84611; 2.34583Coordinates: 48°50′46″N 2°20′45″E / 48.84611°N 2.34583°E / 48.84611; 2.34583
NationalityFrench
Spouse(s)
Silvia de Bondini
(m. 1934)
ProfessionCognac trader, diplomat, banker, public administrator, activist

Jean Monnet has been called "The Father of Europe" by those who see his innovative and pioneering efforts in the 1950s as the key to establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, the predecessor of today's European Union.[2] Although Monnet was never elected to public office, he worked behind the scenes of American and European governments as a well-connected "pragmatic internationalist".[3]

He was the first-ever individual to be bestowed Honorary Citizenship of Europe in 1976, and remained the only one for a generation until Helmut Kohl received the same distinction in 1998.

Early yearsEdit

Monnet was born in Cognac, a commune in the department of Charente in France, into a family of cognac merchants. According to Jacques-René Rabier, the values of laicism and republicanism as well as a strong Catholic tradition co-existed in Monnet's family.[4] His mother was deeply religious and his sister Marie-Louise was a founder of the French branch of Action Catholique, to which Monnet contributed financially, she would later introduce her brother to Pope Paul VI.[5]

At the age of sixteen, Monnet abandoned his university entrance examinations part way through and moved to the United Kingdom, where he spent several years in London learning business with Mr Chaplin, an agent of his father's company. Subsequently, he travelled widely – to Scandinavia, Russia, Egypt, Canada, and the United States – for the family business.[6]

World War IEdit

Monnet firmly believed that the only path to an Allied victory lay in combining the war efforts of Britain and France, and he reflected on a concept that would coordinate war resources. In 1914, a friend of the family, Fernand Benon, arranged for young Monnet to meet French Premier René Viviani in Bordeaux to talk about this issue; Monnet managed to convince the French government to agree with him, in principle.[7]

However, during the first two years of the war, Monnet did not have much success pressing for a better organization of the allied economic cooperation. It was not until two years later that stronger combines like the Wheat Executive (end of 1916) and the Allied Maritime Transport Council (end of 1917) were set into motion, adding to the overall war effort.

Inter-war yearsEdit

 
Advertisement for Monnet Cognac, 1927

At the Paris Peace Conference, Monnet was an assistant to the French minister of commerce and industry, Étienne Clémentel, who proposed a "new economic order" based on European cooperation. The scheme was officially rejected by the Allies in April 1919.[8]

Due to his contributions to the war effort, Monnet, at the age of thirty-one, was named Deputy Secretary-General of the League of Nations by French premier Georges Clemenceau and British statesman Arthur Balfour, upon the League's creation in 1919.

Soon disillusioned with the League because of its laborious and unanimous decision-making processes, Monnet resigned in 1923 and devoted himself to managing the cognac family business, which was experiencing difficulties. In 1925, Monnet moved to America to accept a partnership in Blair & Co., a New York bank which merged with Bank of America in 1929, forming Bancamerica-Blair Corporation which was owned by Transamerica Corporation. He returned to international politics and, as an international financier, proved to be instrumental to the economic recovery of several Central and Eastern Europe nations. He helped stabilise the Polish złoty in 1927 and the Romanian leu in 1928. In November 1932, the Chinese Minister of Finance invited Jean Monnet to act as chairman of an east–west non-political committee in China for the development of the Chinese economy where he lived until 1936.[9] During his time in China, Monnet's task of partnering Chinese capital with foreign companies led to the formal inauguration of the Chinese Development Finance Corporation (CDFC) as well as the reorganization of the Chinese railroads.[10]

In 1935, when Monnet was still in Shanghai, he became a business partner of George Murnane (a former colleague of Monnet at Transamerica) in Monnet, Murnane & Co. Murnane was connected to the Wallenberg family in Sweden, the Bosch family in Germany, the Solvays and Boëls in Belgium, and John Foster Dulles, André Meyer, and the Rockefeller family in the United States.[11] He was considered among the most connected persons of his time.[12]

World War IIEdit

 
The agreement on lend-lease and reverse lend-lease. Jean Monnet, representative of the French Provisional Government signing agreements. Left to right: Henri Bonnet, French Ambassador, Joseph C. Grew, Undersecretary of State and Jean Monnet.

In December 1939, Monnet was sent to London to oversee the collectivization of the British and French war industries. In his memoirs, Monnet claims that his influence inspired Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill to agree on an Anglo-French union, ostensibly in an attempt to rival the alliance between Germany and Italy,[13] an event, however, not mentioned in de Gaulle's or Churchill's memoirs on the war.

 
Memory plaque at the Willard Hotel where Monnet had his wartime office in Washington DC

De Gaulle dined with Monnet on his first evening in Britain after his flight with Winston Churchill's envoy Edward Spears (17 June).[14] Monnet broke with de Gaulle on 23 June, as he thought the general's appeal was "too personal" and that de Gaulle had broken "too far" with the collaborationist Pétain government. Monnet believed that French opinion would not rally to a man who was seen to be operating from British soil. He claimed to have shared his concerns about de Gaulle with the Foreign Office mandarins Alexander Cadogan and Robert Vansittart, and Spears.

In August 1940, Monnet resigned as head of the Inter-Allied Commission[15] and was sent to the United States by the British Government, as a member of the British Supply Council, to ask for rapid and massive increases in the flow of American weapons so Britain could turn the tide against Germany.[16] Soon after his arrival in Washington, D.C., he became an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[17] Convinced that America could serve as "the great arsenal of democracy", he persuaded the President to launch a massive arms production program, both as an economic stimulus and to supply the Allies with military resources.[18] Unlike De Gaulle, Monnet was popular with the Americans and the English. A co-worker of his claims that sometimes he would help Churchill to write a message to Roosevelt and then on the next day help Roosevelt to compose the response. According to Edward R. Kantowicz, Monnet was impressed by the American organizational energy and saw cooperation with the new superpower as Europe's only chance to reorganize and recover itself.[19] In 1941, Roosevelt, with Churchill's agreement, launched the Victory Program, which represented the involvement of the United States in the war effort. After the war, British economist John Maynard Keynes stated that Monnet, through his coordination work, had probably shortened World War II by a year.[20]

While in Washington, Monnet and his family lived in a comfortable house built in 1934 at 2415 Foxhall Road NW,[21] which was later home to Adlai Stevenson III[22] and James Baker.[23] He worked from an office of the British Mission at the Willard Hotel.[24]

In 1943, Monnet became a member of the National Liberation Committee, De Gaulle's French government-in-exile, stationed in Algiers, being designated Commissaire à l'Armement (Minister of Armaments).[25] During a meeting on 5 August of that year, Monnet declared to the Committee:

There will be no peace in Europe if the states are reconstituted on the basis of national sovereignty... The countries of Europe are too small to guarantee their peoples the necessary prosperity and social development. The European states must constitute themselves into a federation...[26]

The Monnet PlanEdit

 
Plaque at 18, rue de Martignac, the office of the Plan

Following World War II, France was in severe need of reconstruction and completely dependent on coal from Germany's main remaining coal-mining areas, the Ruhr and the Saar. (The German coal fields in Upper Silesia had been handed over to Polish administration by the Allies in 1945, see Oder-Neisse line.)

In 1945, Monnet proposed the Monnet Plan, also known as the "Theory of l'Engrenage" (not to be confused with the Schuman plan). It included taking control of the remaining German coal-producing areas and redirecting the production away from the German industry and into the French, thus permanently weakening Germany and raising the French economy considerably above its pre-war levels. The plan was adopted by Charles de Gaulle in early 1946.[27]

Later that year, Monnet successfully negotiated the Blum–Byrnes agreement with the United States, which cleared France from a $2.8 billion debt (mostly World War I loans) and provided the country with an additional low-interest loan of $650 million. In return, France opened its cinemas to American movies.[28]

European Coal and Steel CommunityEdit

 
Monnet visiting Konrad Adenauer in Bonn, December 1953

In 1947 France removed the Saar from Germany, with U.S. support, and turned it into the Saar Protectorate, which was essentially a French vassal state. The area returned to German political administration in 1957 (economic reunification would take many years longer), but France retained the right to mine from its coal mines until 1981. (See: The Europeanisation of the Saarland)

 
Former seat of the ECSC on Place de Metz in Luxembourg, now Banque et Caisse d'Épargne de l'État

The Ruhr Agreement was imposed on the Germans as a condition for permitting them to establish the Federal Republic of Germany.[29] The IAR controlled production levels, pricing, and the sales markets, thus ensuring that France received a considerable portion of the Ruhr coal production at low prices.

When tensions between France and Germany rose over the control of the then vital coal and steel industries, Monnet and his associates conceived the idea of a European Community. On 9 May 1950, with the agreement of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer of West Germany, French Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Schuman made a declaration in the name of the French government. This landmark pronouncement, prepared by Monnet for Schuman and known as the Schuman Declaration, proposed integration of the French and German coal and steel industries under joint control, a so-called High Authority, open to the other countries of Europe. Schuman declared:

Through the consolidation of basic production and the institution of a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and the other countries that join, this proposal represents the first concrete step towards a European federation, imperative for the preservation of peace.[30]

The date of the Schuman Declaration, 9 May, has been adopted as Europe Day by the European Union. It is generally viewed as the starting point of development of the Union and its institutions.

When Germany agreed to join the European Coal and Steel Community according to the Schuman Plan in 1951, the ongoing dismantling of German industry was halted and some of the restrictions on German industrial output were lifted.[31] West Germany joined the ECSC, alongside Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, while Britain refused, on grounds of national sovereignty.

In 1952, Jean Monnet became the first president of the High Authority and with the opening of the common market for coal under the ECSC in 1953, the last civilian production limitations placed on German industry were lifted, and the role of the IAR was taken over by the ECSC.[32]

Action Committee for the United States of EuropeEdit

 
Plaque at 83, Avenue Foch in Paris, where the Action Committee had its secretariat

In 1955, Monnet founded the Action Committee for the United States of Europe in order to revive European construction following the failure of the European Defence Community (EDC). It brought political parties and European trade unions together to become a driving force behind the initiatives which laid the foundation for the European Union as it eventually emerged: first, the European Economic Community (EEC) (1958) (known commonly as the "Common Market"), which was established by the Treaty of Rome of 1957; later the European Communities (1967) with its corresponding bodies, the European Commission and the European Council of Ministers, British membership of the Communities (1973), the European Council (1974), the European Monetary System (1979), and a directly elected European Parliament (1979). This process reflected Monnet's belief in a gradualist approach for constructing European unity.[33]

Monnet resigned and ended the Committee's activity on 9 May 1975, the 25th anniversary of the Schuman Declaration.

MemoirsEdit

Writing about his life and the principles which drove his action was a longstanding project which Monnet delayed for years as he gave higher priority to his other projects. In the early 1970s, François Fontaine was instrumental in bringing the endeavor to fruition and drafted much of the text, even as Monnet retained ultimate control. The Memoirs were published by Fayard in 1976, and an English translation by Richard Mayne by Doubleday in 1978.[34]

Private lifeEdit

In August 1929, during a dinner party in Paris, the 41-year-old Monnet met 22-year-old Italian painter Silvia Giannini (17 August 1907[35] – 22 August 1982)[36][37][38] who had recently married Francisco Giannini, an employee of Monnet when he was a representative in Italy. In April 1931, Silvia gave birth to a daughter, Anna, whose legal father was Giannini.

Since divorce wasn't allowed in most European countries, Silvia and Jean Monnet met in Moscow, as it was possible there to obtain citizenship and residence qualifications rapidly, and to divorce and remarry at once. In 1934, he returned from China via the Trans-Siberian railway, she from Switzerland.[27] He arranged for Silvia to obtain Soviet citizenship; she immediately divorced her husband and married Jean Monnet.[39] The idea for the Moscow marriage came from Dr. Ludwik Rajchman, whom Monnet had met during his time at the League of Nations (Rajchman was connected to the Soviet Ambassador to China, Dmitrij Bogomołow). It seems that the American and French ambassadors in Moscow, William Bullitt and Charles Alphand, also played a role.[39] The custody of Anna was a problem; in 1935 Silvia took refuge with Anna in the Soviet consulate in Shanghai, where they were living at the time because Francisco Giannini was trying to obtain custody of the child. The legal battle was decided in favour of Silvia in 1937 in New York, but the ruling wasn't recognized by some other countries.

In 1941 Monnet and Silvia had another daughter, Marianne. The Monnet family returned to France in 1945 and, after the death of Francisco Giannini in 1974, the couple married canonically in the cathedral of Lourdes.[39] Silvia Monnet was very important to her husband throughout their forty-five years of marriage, according to Louis Joxe, Monnet "would spend hours writing to his wife, whose opinion mattered more to him than that of anyone else".[39]

Death and LegacyEdit

 
Tomb in the Panthéon. From left to right: Jean Moulin, André Malraux, Simone and Antoine Veil, Monnet, and René Cassin

On 16 March 1979, Jean Monnet died at the age of 90 in his home in Houjarray, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne.

BurialEdit

Monnet was initially buried at the local cemetery of Bazoches-sur-Guyonne.

In 1988, on the hundredth anniversary of his birth, he was reburied in the Panthéon in Paris in a ceremony attended by numerous European heads of state and government.[40][41]

HonorsEdit

 
German stamp (1977)

In 1953 Monnet was awarded the Karlspreis by the city of Aachen in recognition of his achievements.

He received numerous other prizes and honorary degrees, including Doctor Honoris Causa from the universities of Cambridge (8 June 1961), Dartmouth (11 June 1961), Yale (12 June 1961), and Oxford (26 June 1963).

On 6 December 1963, he was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with Special Distinction, by United States President Lyndon Johnson. The decision had been made by President Kennedy before his assassination.[42]

In 1972, Queen Elizabeth II made him an honorary Companion of Honour.[43]

He was the first to be bestowed Honorary Citizen of Europe by the European Council of the European Union, for extraordinary work to promote European cooperation on 2 April 1976. Following this, he became the first person then living to be pictured on a Federal Republic of Germany stamp who was not a German head of state.

Shortly after his death, he was named patron of the 1980–1981 academic year at the College of Europe.[44]

Jean Monnet House at HoujarrayEdit

 
Jean Monnet House, 2012
 
Plaque at the Jean Monnet House

The Jean Monnet House is located in Houjarray, a hamlet of Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, Yvelines, 80 kilometres (50 miles) outside Paris. This old farm became Jean Monnet's property in 1945, upon his return to France. It was there that Jean Monnet and his advisors, in the last days of April 1950, drew up the historic declaration that Robert Schuman used to address Europe on 9 May 1950, proposing the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community.
In the house, Robert Schuman, Walter Hallstein, Paul-Henri Spaak, Konrad Adenauer, René Pleven, Helmut Schmidt, and many others exchanged their views with Jean Monnet on Europe's common future. On Sundays, he had friends passing by come to his house; among them were Dwight Eisenhower, George Ball, and Edward Heath.
Monnet liked fireside conversations with journalists such as Walter Lippman, Hubert Beuve-Méry, or his neighbour Pierre Viansson-Ponté. This house was also where Jean Monnet died on 16 March 1979.

The European Parliament acquired the house in 1982 and entrusted its restoration, management, and organization to the Jean Monnet Association. A multimedia conference room was added in 2000. The Jean Monnet Association organizes about 250 conferences on European history and current events each year.[45]

Jean Monnet Foundation for EuropeEdit

The Jean Monnet Foundation for Europe in Lausanne supports initiatives dedicated to the construction of European unity. Its origins date from a meeting between Jean Monnet and Henri Rieben in 1955. It is located on the campus of the University of Lausanne and houses the personal archives of Jean Monnet as well as those of Robert Schuman, Robert Marjolin, François Fontaine, Jacques Van Helmont, Paolo Emilio Taviani, Robert Triffin, and the Earl of Perth.

Other places and institutions named after Jean MonnetEdit

 
Jean-Monnet Bridge over the Moselle in Metz
 
Lycée Jean-Monnet in Yzeure
 
Lycée Français Jean-Monnet in Brussels
 
The now demolished first Jean Monnet building, in Luxembourg. Its replacement, the Jean Monnet 2 building, is currently under construction.
 
Tribute to the Founding Fathers of Europe monumnent in front of Robert Schuman's house in Scy-Chazelles: Alcide de Gasperi, Robert Schuman, Jean Monnet and Konrad Adenauer.

Numerous streets, squares, and avenues have been named after Jean Monnet in France and elsewhere in Europe, including the Place Jean-Monnet in the 16th arrondissement of Paris and the Jean-Monnet-Strasse in the Moabit neighborhood of Berlin.

Many educational institutions are also named after him, including numerous Lycées and Jean Monnet University (Université Jean Monnet de Saint-Étienne), situated on two campuses in Saint-Étienne.

Several other European universities honour Monnet and his accomplishments: the University of Limerick, Ireland, has a lecture theatre named after him, and British educational institutions which honour Monnet include the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence at King's College London, the East Midlands Euro-Centre at Loughborough University, the European Research Institute at the University of Bath,[46] the Jean Monnet Centre at the University of Birmingham,[47] the Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence at Cambridge,[48] the Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence at the University of Essex,[49] the Centre for European Union Studies at the University of Hull,[50] the Kent Centre for Europe at the University of Kent,[51] the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence,[52] a partnership between the University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University and the University of Salford, the Jean Monnet Centre at Newcastle University,[53] the Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies at the University of Wales[54] and the Jean Monnet High School in Bucharest, Romania.[55]

Named after Monnet, the Jean Monnet building was the principal location of the European Commission's activities in Luxembourg between 1975 and 2016.[56] Its replacement, the Jean Monnet 2 building, will become operational from February 2023.[56]

Jean Monnet PrizesEdit

Several prizes also seek to honour Jean Monnet's life and achievements. The Jean Monnet Prize for European Literature [fr], set up in 1995 by the department of Charente, rewards European authors for books written in, or translated to, French.[57] The Jean Monnet Prize for European Integration, given by EuropeanConstitution.eu, a French association, rewards projects contributing to the promotion of European integration.[58] Several universities and research centres also award prizes named after Jean Monnet.[59][60][61]

Jean Monnet Programme and ChairsEdit

The European Union maintains Monnet's memory with the Jean Monnet Activities, under the Erasmus+ programme of the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA).[62] These activities promote knowledge on European integration and European studies on a worldwide scale, especially at the university level, through the Jean Monnet Centres of Excellence, as well as chairs, policy debates, and support to associations.

Jean Monnet Actions aim to build bridges between academics, researchers and EU policymakers. There is an emphasis on the study of and research on EU integration and in understanding Europe's place in a globalised world. Jean Monnet Actions are organised and applied for via higher education institutions.[63]

Jean Monnet Chairs are teaching posts with a specialisation in European Union studies for university professors or senior lecturers. Jean Monnet Chairs can:

  • enhance the teaching of EU studies at your institution through the curriculum
  • conduct, monitor and supervise research on EU matters at all education levels
  • be a mentor and advisor to the next generation of teachers and researchers
  • provide expert guidance to future professionals about European matters

Jean Monnet Chairs are encouraged to:

  • publish books within their university press during the grant period. The grant will cover part of the publication and, if need be, part of the translation costs
  • participate in dissemination and information events in your country and around Europe
  • organise events (lectures, seminars, workshops, etc.) with policymakers, civil society and schools
  • network with other academics and institutions supported by Jean Monnet
  • apply open educational resources, and publish the summaries, content, schedule and expected outcomes of your activities

Jean Monnet chairs have been established, for example, at the following universities (alphabetically):

In September 2016, Prof. Dr Sebastian Bersick was awarded a Jean Monnet Chair by the European Commission under the Erasmus+ Programme. The funding enables the Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB), the Faculty of East Asian Studies, and the Department of International Political Economy of East Asia to intensify teaching and research activities and to organize new initiatives.

CinemaEdit

In April 2011, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Paris, a new documentary, "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe" was produced.[65] The documentary includes interviews with colleagues of Monnet such as Georges Berthoin [fr], Max Kohnstamm and Jacques-René Rabier, as well as former member of the European Court of Justice David A.O. Edward of the United Kingdom.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Alden Whitman, "Jean Monnet, 90, Architect of European Unity, Dies", New York Times, 17 March 1979
  2. ^ Denver, Educational Technology, Sturm College of Law, University of. "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe - Sturm College of Law". www.law.du.edu. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  3. ^ Times obituary
  4. ^ Frederic J. Fransen 2001, p. 10.
  5. ^ Sylvain Schirmann 2008, p. 88.
  6. ^ Jean Monnet 1988, p. 77.
  7. ^ Jean Monnet 1988, p. 96.
  8. ^ MacMillan, Margaret. "Paris 1919". Random House, 2002, p. 183
  9. ^ Jean Monnet 1988, p. 260.
  10. ^ "Le Cercle member: Jean Monnet". Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  11. ^ ""Europe's founder" Jean Monnet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  12. ^ 2003, Charles D. Ellis, James R. Vertin, 'Wall Street People: True Stories of the Great Barons of Finance', Volume 2, pp. 28–30 (biography of Andre Meyer)
  13. ^ Monnet, Jean (1 January 1976), Memoires, Paris: Arthème Fayard, pp. 20–21, ISBN 2-213-00402-1
  14. ^ Lacouture 1991, pp219-23
  15. ^ Lacouture 1991, pp236-7
  16. ^ Douglas Brinkley 1991, p. 68.
  17. ^ Jean Monnet 1988, p. 248.
  18. ^ Jean Monnet 1988, p. 254.
  19. ^ Kantowicz, Edward R. (2000). Coming Apart, Coming Together. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 38. ISBN 9780802844569. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  20. ^ Ivan T. Berend (2016). An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-316-54628-4.
  21. ^ Clifford P. Hackett, ed. (1995). Monnet and the Americans: The father of a united Europe and his U.S. supporters. Washington D.C.: Jean Monnet Council. p. 43.
  22. ^ "Active Members: The Ladies of the Senate (Mrs. Ford's copy)" (PDF). Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum.
  23. ^ Richard Halloran; David Binder (29 December 1988), "Washington Talk: Briefing; A House for Baker", The New York Times
  24. ^ Clifford P. Hackett, ed. (1995). Monnet and the Americans: The father of a united Europe and his U.S. supporters. Washington D.C.: Jean Monnet Council. p. 41.
  25. ^ "Le Comité français de la libération nationale". Digithèque MJP. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  26. ^ Talbott, Strobe (7 February 2014). "Opinion | What Would Jean Monnet Have Done?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  27. ^ a b "Mr Jean Monnet", The Times, 16 November 1979
  28. ^ Irwin M. Wall (1991). The United States and the Making of Postwar France, 1945–1954. Cambridge U.P. p. 55. ISBN 9780521402170.
  29. ^ Amos Yoder, "The Ruhr Authority and the German Problem", The Review of Politics, Vol. 17, No. 3 (July 1955), pp. 345–358
  30. ^ Declaration of 9 May 1950 EUROPA – The official website of the European Union
  31. ^ "The British foreign ministers' 1949 letter to Schuman". Cvce.eu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  32. ^ "Information bulletin Frankfurt, Germany: Office of the US High Commissioner for Germany Office of Public Affairs, Public Relations Division, APO 757, US Army, January 1952 "Plans for terminating international authority for the Ruhr" , pp. 61–62". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  33. ^ Douglas Brinkley 1991, p. 86.
  34. ^ Clifford P. Hackett (2016). Who Wrote the Memoirs of Jean Monnet? An Intimate Account of an Historic Collaboration. Peter Lang.
  35. ^ France (1942). "Journal officiel de la République française".
  36. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1982/08/28/obituaries/silvia-monnet.html
  37. ^ http://gw.geneanet.org/garric?lang=fr&p=silvia&n=de+bondini
  38. ^ http://www.uniset.ca/naty/maternity/monnet.htm
  39. ^ a b c d François Duchêne 1994, p. 54-56.
  40. ^ "Le transfert des cendres de Jean Monnet L'Europe au Panthéon "Le plus beau métier des hommes..."". Le Monde. 10 November 1988.
  41. ^ Lewis, Flora (13 November 1988). "Opinion | FOREIGN AFFAIRS; Quiet Power Endures". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  42. ^ "President Kennedy's Executive Order 11085: Presidential Medal of Freedom | JFK Library". www.jfklibrary.org.
  43. ^ "Companion of Honour Recipients". IMDb.
  44. ^ College of Europe, "Promotions and Patrons"
  45. ^ http://www.ajmonnet.eu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=75&Itemid=21&lang=en
  46. ^ European Research Institute Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ "Jean Monnet Centre". Jeanmonnet.bham.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  48. ^ "Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence". Archived from the original on 1 June 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  49. ^ Ariadni. "Jean Monnet European Centre of Excellence". Essex.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  50. ^ "Centre for European Union Studies". Hull.ac.uk. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  51. ^ Kent Centre for Europe Archived 5 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ Welcome Events Details of our events (2 October 2013). "Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence". Socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  53. ^ Jean Monnet Centre Archived 26 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies Archived 13 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  55. ^ "Liceul Teoretic "Jean Monnet" - Site-ul Liceului Teoretic "Jean Monnet" Bucure;ti". jmonnet.ro. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  56. ^ a b "Commission staff eye new home for 2024". Delano. 5 June 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  57. ^ "Prix Jean Monnet - LEC". Littératures Européennes Cognac. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  58. ^ "Jean Monnet Prize for European Integration". EuropeanConstitution.eu. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  59. ^ "Jean Monnet Student Research Paper Prize for EU Law". Stanford-Vienna Transatlantic Technology Law Forum. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  60. ^ "Jean Monnet Awards". Jean Monnet Centre Montréal. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  61. ^ "Jean Monnet Award for EU in Global Dialogue". Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence EU in Global Dialogue. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  62. ^ "Erasmus+ Programme Guide" (PDF). European Commission. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  63. ^ Smith, John (19 January 2016). "Jean Monnet". Erasmus+ - European Commission.
  64. ^ Lehrstuhl für Volkswirtschaftslehre
  65. ^ "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe". Law.du.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit