College of Europe
The College of Europe (French: Collège d'Europe) is an independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with the main campus in Bruges, Belgium. It was founded in 1949 by such leading European figures and founding fathers of the European Union as Salvador de Madariaga, Winston Churchill, Paul-Henri Spaak and Alcide De Gasperi in the wake of the Hague Congress of 1948 to promote "a spirit of solidarity and mutual understanding between all the nations of Western Europe and to provide elite training to individuals who will uphold these values" and "to train an elite of young executives for Europe." It has the status of "Institution of Public Interest", operating according to Belgian law. Since 1993 the college also has an additional campus in Warsaw, Poland.
|Students||420 postgraduates from over 50 countries|
|Working languages||English and French|
Students are usually selected in cooperation with their countries' ministries of foreign affairs, and admission is highly competitive. The number of students each year used to be very low—for several decades less than 100—but has increased since the early 1990s. The College of Europe is bilingual, and students must be proficient in English and French. Students receive an advanced master's degree (formerly called Diploma and Certificat) following a one-year programme. Traditionally, students specialise in either European law, international economics (i.e., European economic studies), or European political and administrative studies; in recent years, additional programmes have been created.
According to The Times, the "College of Europe, in the medieval Belgian city of Bruges, is to the European political elite what the Harvard Business School is to American corporate life. It is a hothouse where the ambitious and talented go to make contacts". The Economist describes it as "an elite finishing school for aspiring Eurocrats." The Financial Times writes that "the elite College of Europe in Bruges" is "an institution geared to producing crop after crop of graduates with a lifelong enthusiasm for EU integration." European Commissioner for Education Ján Figeľ described the college as "one of the most emblematic centres of European studies in the European Union". The BBC has referred to it as "the EU's very own Oxbridge". The college has also been described as "the leading place to study European affairs" and as "the elite training center for the European Union's political class". RFE/RL has referred to the college as "a Euro-federalist hot-spot." The Global Mail has described its students as "Europe's leaders-in-waiting."
Each academic year is named for a patron and referred to as a promotion. The academic year is opened by a leading European politician. The College of Europe in Belgium shares several traditions with the École nationale d'administration (ENA) of France, but has a more European focus. Its anciens include the former Prime Minister of Denmark Helle Thorning-Schmidt, the former Prime Minister of Finland Alexander Stubb, the former British Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg as well as the former Minister for Europe of Italy Enzo Moavero Milanesi, several of whom have also been professors at the college. Many of its anciens go on to serve as diplomats and senior civil servants in European institutions.
The College of Europe was the world’s first university institute of postgraduate studies and training in European affairs. It was founded in 1949 by leading European figures, such as Salvador de Madariaga, Winston Churchill, Paul-Henri Spaak and Alcide De Gasperi, in the wake of the Hague Congress of 1948. They imagined a college where Europe's future leaders, some from countries only a short while before at war with each other, could live and study together. The Hague Congress also led to the creation of the European Movement.
A group of Bruges citizens led by the Reverend Karel Verleye succeeded in attracting the college to Bruges. Professor Hendrik Brugmans, one of the intellectual leaders of the European Movement and the President of the Union of European Federalists, became its first Rector (1950–1972).
After the fall of communism, and in the wake of the changes in Central and Eastern Europe, the College of Europe campus at Natolin (Warsaw, Poland), was founded in 1993 with the support of the European Commission and the Polish government. The college now operates as ‘one College – two campuses,’ and what was once referred to as the ‘esprit de Bruges’, is now known as the ‘esprit du Collège’.
The number of enrolled students has increased significantly since the 1990s.
The College of Europe originally had no permanent teaching staff; the courses were taught by prominent academics and sometimes government officials from around Europe. Especially in the last couple of decades, the college has increasingly employed professors and other teaching staff on a permanent basis.
Admission to the College of Europe is highly competitive. Application may be made to national selection committees or by direct application to the College of Europe for individuals from a country where no selection committee exists. As of 2014, there are 28 national selection committees.
The Bruges campus is situated in the centre of Bruges, which was appointed European Capital of Culture in 2002. Bruges is located in the Flemish Region of Belgium, a Dutch-speaking area, although the college does not use Dutch as one of its working languages.
It consists of the following campus buildings:
The college's main administrative building on the Bruges campus, with the reception, offices, classrooms and the library.
Since 2007 the Verversdijk buildings of the College of Europe provide additional auditoria, teaching rooms and offices for academics, research fellows and staff and will allow the college to extend its activities.
The Hotel Portinari in Garenmarkt 15 with its classical façade was formerly home to Tommaso Portinari, the administrator of the Florentine "Loggia de Medici" in the 15th century in Bruges. It contains eleven apartments for professors and forty student rooms, two "salons" in 19th-century style, the "salon du Recteur" with 18th-century wall paintings and a modern "Mensa" for students.
The college has a system of residences in the centre of Bruges and not far from the Dijver where the main administrative and academic building and the library are situated. None of the residences lodges more than 60 students so that each residence in fact has its own small multinational and multicultural environment.
The Natolin Warsaw campus of the college was established in 1992 in response to the revolutions of 1989 and in anticipation of the European Union’s enlargement.
Today, the Natolin campus is part of a 120-hectare historical park and nature reserve—formerly the Royal hunting palace of Natolin—situated in the southern part of Warsaw about 20 minutes by metro from the city centre. The Natolin European Centre Foundation takes care of the complex and has conducted restoration of the former Potocki palace, making it available for the college.
The old historical buildings, including the manor house, the stables and the coach house, were converted to the needs of modern times and new buildings were constructed in a style keeping with the harmony of the palace and its outlying park.
The one-year programme lasts from September until the end of June and is taught in English and French. It includes lectures, research seminars, workshops and meetings with external specialists and various language courses. To be awarded the degree, students must take oral and written examinations at the end of each semester, and submit a 15 ECTS master’s thesis in English or French. The thesis gives students the opportunity to undertake individual research, conducted primarily in the second semester, under the supervision of a faculty member. The programmes are enriched by study trips to the European institutions and, for students at Natolin (Warsaw), also to neighbouring countries. Due to the college’s extensive network of contacts, students have the opportunity to meet and discuss with policy-makers, practitioners and representatives of the business community throughout their year at the college.
From 1949 to the 1990s, students in Bruges enrolled in three programmes:
- European Economic Studies (i.e., studies of international economics with an emphasis on the EU);
- European Legal Studies (i.e., studies of European law);
- European Political and Administrative Studies (i.e., studies of political science and public administration focusing on the EU)
In recent years, other programmes have been created:
- European International Relations and Diplomacy Studies.
At Natolin (Warsaw) campus, the study programme European Interdisciplinary Studies offers four majors: European Public Affairs and Policies, The EU as a Global Actor, European History and Civilisation, and The European Neighbourhood Policy and the EU's Neighbours.
The academic programmes of the College of Europe are accredited by the Dutch-Flemish Accreditation Organisation (NVAO). Each study programme corresponds to a total of 66 credits (ECTS).
Annual intakes are highly selective and student selection takes place in the Spring, usually in association with the foreign affairs ministries of their respective countries of origin. The Bruges programmes typically require a university degree in economics, law, political science or international relations plus advanced knowledge of the working languages of the college.
Since its establishment, the College of Europe in Bruges traditionally awards three degrees, in law, economics and political and administrative studies. The degrees are today known as:
- Master in European Law (LLM)
- Master of Arts in European Economic Studies (MEES)
- Master of Arts in European Political and Administrative Studies (MEPA)
Newer degrees include:
- Master of Arts in EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies
- Master of Arts in European Interdisciplinary Studies
The Master of Arts in Transatlantic Affairs (MATA) programme was inaugurated in 2017. It is the first-ever two-year programme of studies at the College of Europe. Offered together with The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA), the programme leads to a joint diploma. Students spend one year at each institution, and can start the programme on either side of the Atlantic. They can choose to follow one of five study tracks (Economic Studies (Bruges); International Relations and Diplomacy (Bruges); Interdisciplinary Studies (Natolin); Legal Studies (Bruges); Political and Governance Studies (Bruges)). The first year of studies is entirely dedicated to coursework, including multidisciplinary courses on transatlantic affairs. During their second year, students in the MATA programme do a high-level internship as well as one semester of coursework culminating in the submission of a master’s thesis. The MATA programme leads to 120 ECTS points and is offered in English.
Until the 1980s, the master's degree was officially known as the Certificate of Advanced European Studies (French: Certificat de Hautes Études Européennes) followed by the specialisation (law, economics or political and administrative studies). As part of European standardisation, the degree was renamed into the first three master's degrees listed above.
- Administrative Council
The Administrative Council, presided by Mr Íñigo Méndez de Vigo, Spanish Minister for European Affairs and former Member of the European Parliament, includes representatives of the countries hosting the two campuses in Bruges (Belgium) and Natolin (Warsaw) and of European governments. It is the highest decision-making authority, and is responsible for the approval and implementation of the college’s objectives and activities of the college on the rector's proposal.
- The Executive Committee
The Executive Committee exerts the delegations which were entrusted to him by the Administrative Council. Reporting to the Administrative Council, the it ensures the sound financial and administrative management of the College. The Rector & Vice-Rector Rector Jörg Monar directs and coordinates the College’s activities, and is assisted by the Vice-Rector, Ewa Ośniecka-Tamecka, who is responsible for the day-today administration of the campus in Natolin (Warsaw).
- The Academic Council
The Academic Council represents the academic community of the College of Europe and ensures the maintenance and development of high level teaching activities and research. It is chaired by the Rector.
The rector directs and coordinates the college’s activities.
- Hendrik Brugmans (1906–1997) (1949–1971)
- Jerzy Łukaszewski (°1924) (1972–1990)
- Werner Ungerer (°1927) (1990–1993)
- Gabriel Fragnière (°1934) (1993–1995)
- Otto von der Gablentz (1930–2007) (1996–2001)
- Piet Akkermans (1942–2002) (2001–2002)
- Robert Picht (1937–2008) (a.i. 2002–2003)
- Paul Demaret (2003–2013)
- Jörg Monar (2013–present)
The vice rector is responsible for the day-today administration of the Natolin (Warsaw) campus.
Presidents of the Administrative CouncilEdit
Many former students of the College, referred to as anciens (French for alumni), have gone on to serve as government ministers, members of various parliaments, diplomats and high-ranking civil servants and executives.
Alumni of note of the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium (from 1949) include:
- Gaetano Adinolfi, former Deputy Secretary General of the Council of Europe
- Alberto Alemanno, Professor of Law at New York University School of Law and HEC Paris, CEO of eLabEurope
- Frans Alphons Maria Alting von Geusau, Dutch legal scholar and diplomat
- Bernadette Andreosso-O'Callaghan, French-Irish economist, Jean Monnet Professor of Economics at the University of Limerick
- Peter Arbo, Norwegian academic
- Árni Páll Árnason, Icelandic Minister of Economic Affairs. Promotion Mozart.
- Ioanna Babassika, Greek human rights lawyer, member of the Committee for the Prevention of Torture
- Ledi Bianku, judge at the European Court of Human Rights
- Margunn Bjørnholt, Norwegian sociologist
- Iwo Byczewski, former Polish Deputy Foreign Minister (1991–1995), Ambassador to Belgium and Permanent Representative to the European Union
- Geert Van Calster, Belgian lawyer and legal scholar
- Sofie Carsten Nielsen, Danish Minister for Higher Education and Science. Promotion Aristotle
- Franz Ceska, Austrian Ambassador to Belgium and France, Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva
- Poul Skytte Christoffersen, Danish Permanent Representative to the European Institutions, Special Advisor to The Right Honourable Catherine Ashton, Baroness Ashton of Upholland, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
- Nick Clegg, British politician, former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, leader of the Liberal Democrats and member of the European Parliament
- Luc Coene, Belgian economist and Governor of the National Bank of Belgium (NBB)
- Karl Cox, Vice President of the Oracle Corporation
- Martin Donnelly, British civil servant
- Niels Egelund, Danish diplomat, former Permanent Representative to NATO and Ambassador to France
- Jonathan Faull, Director General for the Internal Market and Services
- Mary Finlay Geoghegan, Justice of the Supreme Court of Ireland.
- Nigel Forman, British MP and Minister of Higher Education (1992), a member of the Conservative Party
- Gabriel Fragnière, Swiss academic
- Louise Fréchette, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations
- Francesco Paolo Fulci, former Permanent Representative of Italy to the United Nations (1993–1999), currently serving as President of Ferrero SpA
- Otto von der Gablentz, German diplomat and academic
- Luis Garicano, Professor of Economics and Strategy at the London School of Economics
- Miriam González Durántez, Spanish lawyer and wife of Nick Clegg
- Fiona Hayes-Renshaw, British academic, visiting professor at the college since 2001
- Chris Hoornaert, Ambassador of Belgium to the Netherlands
- Simon Hughes, British politician and Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament
- Marc Jaeger, judge at the General Court of the EU
- Josef Joffe, German editor and publisher of Die Zeit and adjunct professor of political science at Stanford University
- Claudia Kahr, judge at the Austrian Constitutional Court
- Alison Kelly, Irish ambassador to Israel
- Stephen Kinnock, Director at the World Economic Forum
- Berno Kjeldsen, Danish ambassador
- Lars-Jacob Krogh, journalist
- Jo Leinen, German member of the European Parliament, former president of the Union of European Federalists
- Christian Lequesne, Professor of European Politics at Sciences Po, the College of Europe and the London School of Economics
- Leif Terje Løddesøl, former Chair of Statoil
- Sylvie Lucas, Luxembourg's ambassador to the United Nations and president of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2009–2010)
- Aude Maio-Coliche, Ambassador, Head of the EU Delegation to Venezuela
- Manuel Marín, former President of the European Commission
- Thomas Mayr-Harting, Ambassador, Head of the Delegation of the European Union to the United Nations
- Ian McIntyre, British journalist
- David McWilliams, Irish economist, journalist and documentary-maker
- Monique Meche, Vice President, Amazon.com
- Holger Michael, German ambassador
- Enzo Moavero Milanesi, Minister for European Affairs of Italy
- Goenawan Mohamad, Indonesian poet
- Juan Moscoso del Prado, Spanish socialist Member of Parliament, spokesman in the European Union Committee
- Jon Ola Norbom, former Minister of Finance of Norway
- Jim Oberstar, member of the United States House of Representatives
- Mary O'Rourke, barrister
- David O'Sullivan (civil servant), Chief Operating Officer of the European Union's diplomatic corps, former Secretary-General of the European Commission and Director General for Trade
- Valerie Plame, former United States CIA Operations Officer
- Ursula Plassnik, former Foreign Minister of Austria, a member of Austrian People's Party (European People's Party)
- Nikola Poposki, Macedonian Minister for Foreign Affairs and former Ambassador of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Macedonia to the European Union
- Xavier Prats Monné, EU official
- Torolf Raa, former Norwegian ambassador
- Carine Van Regenmortel, Belgian corporate lawyer
- Philippe Régnier, Professor at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies and the University of Ottawa
- Prince Albert Rohan, former Permanent Secretary of the Austrian Foreign Ministry, UN envoy
- Margaritis Schinas, Greek member of the European Parliament
- György Schöpflin, a Hungarian academic and politician, Member of the European Parliament for Fidesz and the European People's Party
- Guy Spitaels, Belgian politician and Minister-President of Wallonia
- Alexander Stubb, Finnish Minister for Foreign Affairs, a member of politician of the National Coalition Party (European People's Party)
- Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Prime Minister of Denmark and leader of the Social Democrats (Denmark)
- Didrik Tønseth, former Norwegian ambassador
- Count Ferdinand Trauttmansdorff, Austria's ambassador to Prague
- Loukas Tsoukalis, Jean Monnet Professor of European Integration at the University of Athens and President of the Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy
- Andrew Tyrie, Member of Parliament (MP) for Chichester and Chairman of the Treasury Select Committee, a member of Conservative Party
- Helmut Türk, judge at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, former Ambassador of Austria to the United States
- Werner Ungerer, German diplomat, Permanent Representative to the European Communities from 1985 to 1990 and rector of the College from 1990 to 1993
- Robert Verrue, Director-General for Employment of the European Commission
- Alexander Walker, British film critic
- Helen Wallace, Lady Wallace of Saltaire, British expert in European studies and Emeritus Professor at the London School of Economics and Political Science
- Bruno de Witte, Professor of EU Law at the European University Institute
- Marc van der Woude, judge at the European Court of Justice
- Adrien Zeller, former French minister in the second Jacques Chirac government (1986–1988), former President of Alsace Regional Council, a member of the Union for a Popular Movement
- Jaap de Zwaan, Dutch diplomat and negotiator of several European treaties, Professor of EU Law at the Erasmus University Rotterdam
Alumni of note of the College of Europe in Natolin, Poland (from 1993) include:
Academic years at the College are known as promotions. Each promotion is named after an outstanding European, referred to as the promotion's patron. The College of Europe shares this tradition with the French École nationale d'administration (ENA).
The opening ceremony each year is presided over by a prominent politician, referred to as the Orateur; they have included Angela Merkel, David Miliband, Jean-Claude Juncker, Javier Solana, José Manuel Barroso, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Juan Carlos I of Spain, Margaret Thatcher and François Mitterrand. Being invited as the college's Orateur is considered a high honour.
Lecturers and professorsEdit
- Dominique Moïsi, co-founder and is a senior advisor of the Paris-based Institut Français des Relations Internationales (IFRI), Pierre Keller Visiting Professor at Harvard University, and the Chairholder for Geopolitics at the College of Europe.
- Bronisław Geremek, Chairholder of the Chair of European Civilisation until his death
- Leszek Balcerowicz, economist, the former chairman of the National Bank of Poland and Deputy Prime Minister in Tadeusz Mazowiecki's government. He is famous for implementing the Polish economic transformation program in the 1990s, a shock therapy commonly referred to as the Balcerowicz Plan
- Andrea Biondi, co-Director of the Centre for European Law at King's College London
- Aleš Debeljak, cultural critic, poet, and essayist
- Alyson Bailes, a former English diplomat and British Ambassador to Finland who lives in Iceland
- Valentine Korah, Emeritus Professor of Competition Law at University College London
- Jacques Rupnik, professor at Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris i.e. Sciences Po
- Stefan Collignon, professor of political economy, International Chief Economist of the Centro Europa Ricerche, founder of Euro Asia Forum at Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy. Previously, he was Centennial Professor of European Political Economy at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) (2001–2005) and Visiting Professor at Harvard University (2005–2007, also taught at University of Hamburg, Institut d’Etudes Politiques, College of Europe and at the Free University of Berlin. Also served as Deputy Director General for Europe in the Federal Ministry of Finance (Germany) 1999–2000.
- John Usher, legal scholar
- Guy Haarscher, legal and political philosopher
- Geoffrey R. Denton, head of economics
- Jan de Meyer (1958–1970)
- Dieter Mahncke
- Léonce Bekemans
- Loukas Tsoukalis
- Fiona Hayes-Renshaw
- Gerhard Stahl
- Christian Lequesne
- Enzo Moavero Milanesi, Italian Minister for Europe and Professor in the Legal Studies Department
- Alexander Stubb, Finnish Minister for Europe, former Foreign Minister, and Professor at the college since 2000
- Norman Davies, Historian; Honorary fellow, St Antony's College, Oxford, Oxford University; Professor, Jagiellonian University; Honorary Citizen of Lublin, Kraków, Warsaw and Wroclaw; Holder of several Polish distinctions including the Order of Merit He teaches at College of Europe | Collège d'Europe.
- Jean de Ruyt, Ambassador; Senior European Policy Advisor, Covington & Burling ; Professor, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL); ex-Belgian Permanent representative to the European Union
Research and developmentEdit
The College houses several academic chairs as well as the Global Competition Law Centre. It publishes several books every year, four series of working papers and an academic journal called Collegium, devoted to the European integration process.
International conferences have been held at the College since it was founded. These events have become fora for informed discussion on topics that are complementary to the academic expertise of the College, like the annual conference on Humanitarian Law, organised in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross. It is also common to have several European prime ministers deliver a speech during the academic year.
Since the early 1980s, the College has developed a relevant consultancy activity, especially in the field of analysis of EC law. Based on the College's first experiences with service contracts, notably in the field of codification of European Law and related to the implementation of the Internal Market, the Development Office was created to participate in tender procedures and to manage the teams of researchers working under these service contracts.
Over the past 10 years, the College of Europe has been organising cooperation projects funded by various EU programmes, either in consortia with academic partners, companies and law firms, or on its own account. Under TEMPUS programmes, projects for curriculum building in European Studies were set up. With the EU’s PHARE, TACIS and CARDS funding the College provided professional training and consultancy in EU affairs in nearly all applicant countries, in Russia and in the CIS. In addition the Office has also involved the College in similar co-operation projects in the framework of the MED-CAMPUS Programme and more recently with EuropeAid funding in Latin America and Asia. The Development Office is now involved in professional training projects and European Studies programmes held in Europe and abroad.
The College has started to organise professional training courses and seminars on European integration issues with partners such as professional, trade and other associations, private companies and administrations. Officials from the European institutions and national administrations have attended tailor-made training programmes.
- "Le rôle du Collège d'Europe" [The role of the College of Europe], Journal de Bruges et de la Province, 7 October 1950, Vol. 114, No. 78, p. 1
- Henri Brugmans, "Former des cadres pour l'Europe" [Training executives for Europe], Fédération, January 1950, No. 60, pp. 42–44
- "College of Europe – College of Europe – Campuses – Natolin (Warsaw)". Coleurope.eu. Retrieved 2012-06-26.
- Jonathan Oliver (25 April 2010). "Which way will Nick Clegg turn?". The Times. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
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- Richard Orange (23 September 2011). "Meet 'Gucci Helle,' slated to be Denmark's first female prime minister". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 29 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
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- Tim Soutphommasane (19 November 2011). "Government by nerds one step from tyranny". The Australian. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
It is no accident that institutes such as the celebrated Ecole Nationale d'Administration in France or the College of Europe in Belgium produce so many political leaders.
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- New York University website
- eLabEurope website
- "College of Europe – College of Europe – History – Opening ceremonies". Coleurop.be. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Opening Ceremony, Bruges Campus | College of Europe". www.coleurope.eu. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
- "Opening Ceremony of the Academic Year 2017-2018 at the Natolin campus of the College of Europe | College of Europe". www.coleurope.eu. Retrieved 2017-07-24.
- Chairholder for Geopolitics at the College of Europe
- "Chair of European Civilisation at the College of Europe". Coleurop.be. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Leszek Balcerowicz at the College of Europe". Coleurope.eu. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Andrea Biondi at King's College London". Kcl.ac.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Aleš Debeljak web page". Old.fdv.uni-lj.si. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Alyson Bailes at College of Europe". Coleurop.be. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Valentine Korah at University College London". Ucl.ac.uk. 25 February 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- "Jacques Rupnik at Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris". Ceri-sciencespo.com. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- Stefan Collignon. "Stefan Collignon web page". Stefancollignon.de. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
- College of Europe | Collège d'Europe Brochure
- Karel Verleye, De stichting van het Europacollege te Brugge, Stichting Ryckevelde, 1989.
- Dieter Mahncke, Léonce Bekemans, Robert Picht, The College of Europe. Fifty Years of Service to Europe, College of Europe, Bruges, 1999. ISBN 9080498319. Includes a list of all graduates 1949–1999.
- Paul Demaret, Inge Govaere, Dominik Hanf (eds), Dynamiques juridiques européennes. Edition revue et mise à jour de 30 ans d'études juridiques européennes au Collège d'Europe, Cahiers du Collège d'Europe, P. I. E. Peter Lang, Brussels, 2007.