Washington, D.C.

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Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia, also known as just Washington or simply D.C., is the capital city and federal district of the United States.[9] It is located on the east bank of the Potomac River, which forms its southwestern and southern border with the U.S. state of Virginia, and it shares a land border with the U.S. state of Maryland on its remaining sides. The city was named for George Washington, a Founding Father and the first president of the United States,[10] and the federal district is named after Columbia, a female personification of the nation. As the seat of the U.S. federal government and several international organizations, the city is an important world political capital.[11] It is one of the most visited cities in the U.S. with over 20 million visitors as of 2016.[12][13]

Washington, D.C.
District of Columbia
Aerial view of the Lincoln Memorial, reflecting pool, and Washington Monument
U.S. Capitol dome
The Gothic Washington National Cathedral
Aerial view of Logan Circle
Colorful rowhouses in Adams Morgan
View of the Jefferson Memorial from across the Tidal Bason
Manicured South Lawn of the White House
Nickname(s): 
D.C., The District
Motto(s): 
Justitia Omnibus
(English: Justice for All)
Anthem: "Washington"
"Our Nation's Capital" (march)[1]
Interactive map of Washington D.C.
Coordinates: 38°54′17″N 77°00′59″W / 38.90472°N 77.01639°W / 38.90472; -77.01639 (District of Columbia)Coordinates: 38°54′17″N 77°00′59″W / 38.90472°N 77.01639°W / 38.90472; -77.01639 (District of Columbia)
Country United States
Residence Act1790
Organized1801
Consolidated1871
Home Rule Act1973
Named forGeorge Washington, Christopher Columbus
Government
 • MayorMuriel Bowser (D)
 • D.C. Council
List
 • U.S. HouseEleanor Holmes Norton (D),
Delegate (At-large)
Area
 • Federal capital city and federal district68.34 sq mi (177.0 km2)
 • Land61.05 sq mi (158.1 km2)
 • Water7.29 sq mi (18.9 km2)
Highest elevation
409 ft (125 m)
Lowest elevation
0 ft (0 m)
Population
 • Federal capital city and federal district689,545
 • Rank20th in the United States
 • Density11,294.76/sq mi (4,361.45/km2)
 • Metro6,385,162 (6th)
DemonymWashingtonian[4][5]
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
20001–20098, 20201–20599, 56901–56999
Area code(s)202, 771 (overlay)[6][7]
International airports
Commuter railMARC train.svg Virginia Railway Express.svg
Rapid transitWMATA Red.svg WMATA Blue.svg WMATA Orange.svg WMATA Yellow.svg WMATA Green.svg WMATA Silver.svg
WebsiteOfficial website
Washington, D.C., state symbols
Living insignia
BirdWood Thrush
CrustaceanHay's spring amphipod
FishAmerican shad
FlowerAmerican Beauty rose
MammalLittle brown bat
TreeScarlet Oak
Inanimate insignia
BeverageRickey[8]
DinosaurCapitalsaurus
FoodCherry
RockPotomac bluestone
SloganFederal City
State route marker

District of Columbia Route 295 marker

State quarter
Washington, D.C., quarter dollar coin
Released in 2009
Lists of United States state symbols

The U.S. Constitution provides for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of Congress; the district is therefore not a part of any U.S. state (nor is it one itself). The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River near the country's East Coast. The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the national capital, and Congress held its first session there in 1800. In 1801, the territory, formerly part of Maryland and Virginia (including the settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria), officially became recognized as the federal district. In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia, including the city of Alexandria; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the district. There have been efforts to make the city into a state since the 1880s, a movement that has gained momentum in recent years, and a statehood bill passed the House of Representatives in 2021.[14]

The city is divided into quadrants centered on the Capitol, and there are as many as 131 neighborhoods. According to the 2020 Census, it has a population of 689,545,[2] which makes it the 23rd most populous city in the U.S. as of 2020, the third most populous city in the Mid-Atlantic, and gives it a population larger than that of two U.S. states: Wyoming and Vermont.[15] Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek.[16] Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest (including parts of Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia), had a 2020 estimated population of 6.3 million residents.[17]

The three branches of the U.S. federal government are centered in the district: Congress (legislative), the president (executive), and the Supreme Court (judicial). Washington is home to many national monuments and museums, primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profits, lobbying groups, and professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, the AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, and the American Red Cross.

A locally elected mayor and a 13-member council have governed the district since 1973. Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. The District of Columbia does not have representation in Congress, although D.C. residents elect a single at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives who has no vote. District voters choose three presidential electors in accordance with the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961.

History

 
The city's historical coat of arms, recorded in 1876
 
Following their victory at the Battle of Bladensburg in 1814, the British Army entered Washington, D.C., burning down buildings, including the White House.
 
As Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861, the U.S. Captiol dome was still under construction. Shortly after, on April 12, the Civil War commenced with the Battle of Fort Sumter.

Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people (also known as the Conoy) inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank (also called the Nacostines by Catholic missionaries) maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland.[18]

On October 6, forced by the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783 to Princeton, New Jersey, Congress resolved itself into a committee of the whole, to take into consideration, respecting a place for the permanent residence of Congress.[19] The following day, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved "that buildings for the use of Congress be erected on the banks of the Delaware near Trenton, or of the Potomac, near Georgetown, provided a suitable district can be procured on one of the rivers as aforesaid, for a federal town".[20]

In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.[21] The Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security.[22]

Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States".[23] However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson agreed that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the Southern United States.[24][a]

Foundation

On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16. Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (259 km2).[25][b]

Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751,[26] and the port city of Alexandria, Virginia, founded in 1749.[27] During 1791–92, a team under Andrew Ellicott, including Ellicott's brothers Joseph and Benjamin and African-American astronomer Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point.[28] Many of the stones are still standing.[29]

A new federal city was then constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington. The same day, the federal district was named Columbia (a feminine form of "Columbus"), which was a poetic name for the United States commonly in use at that time.[30][31] Congress held its first session there on November 17, 1800.[32][33]

Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 which officially organized the district and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal government. Further, the area within the district was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east (or north) of the Potomac and the County of Alexandria to the west (or south).[34] After the passage of this Act, citizens living in the district were no longer considered residents of Maryland or Virginia, which therefore ended their representation in Congress.[35]

Burning during the War of 1812

On August 24–25, 1814, in a raid known as the Burning of Washington, British forces invaded the capital during the War of 1812. The Capitol, Treasury, and White House were burned and gutted during the attack.[36] Most government buildings were repaired quickly; however, the Capitol was largely under construction at the time and was not completed in its current form until 1868.[37]

Retrocession and the Civil War

In the 1830s, the district's southern territory of Alexandria went into economic decline partly due to neglect by Congress.[38] The city of Alexandria was a major market in the domestic slave trade, and pro-slavery residents feared that abolitionists in Congress would end slavery in the district, further depressing the local economy. Alexandria's citizens petitioned Virginia to take back the land it had donated to form the district, through a process known as retrocession.[39]

The Virginia General Assembly voted in February 1846 to accept the return of Alexandria. On July 9, 1846, Congress agreed to return all the territory that Virginia had ceded. Therefore, the district's area consists only of the portion originally donated by Maryland.[38] Confirming the fears of pro-slavery Alexandrians, the Compromise of 1850 outlawed the slave trade in the District, although not slavery itself.[40]

The outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 led to the expansion of the federal government and notable growth in the district's population, including a large influx of freed slaves.[41] President Abraham Lincoln signed the Compensated Emancipation Act in 1862, which ended slavery in the district of Columbia and freed about 3,100 enslaved persons, nine months prior to the Emancipation Proclamation.[42] In 1868, Congress granted the district's African American male residents the right to vote in municipal elections.[41]

Growth and redevelopment

By 1870, the district's population had grown 75% from the previous census to nearly 132,000 residents.[43] Despite the city's growth, Washington still had dirt roads and lacked basic sanitation. Some members of Congress suggested moving the capital further west, but President Ulysses S. Grant refused to consider such a proposal.[44]

Congress passed the Organic Act of 1871, which repealed the individual charters of the cities of Washington and Georgetown, abolished Washington County, and created a new territorial government for the whole District of Columbia.[45]

After the reorganization, President Grant appointed Alexander Robey Shepherd to the position of Governor of the District of Columbia in 1873. Shepherd authorized large-scale projects that greatly modernized the City of Washington, but ultimately bankrupted the district government. In 1874, Congress replaced the territorial government with an appointed three-member Board of Commissioners.[46]

The city's first motorized streetcars began service in 1888. They generated growth in areas of the district beyond the City of Washington's original boundaries. Washington's urban plan was expanded throughout the district in the following decades.[47] Georgetown's street grid and other administrative details were formally merged to those of the legal City of Washington in 1895.[48] However, the city had poor housing conditions and strained public works. The district was the first city in the nation to undergo urban renewal projects as part of the "City Beautiful movement" in the early 1900s.[49]

Increased federal spending as a result of the New Deal in the 1930s led to the construction of new government buildings, memorials, and museums in the district,[50] though the chairman of the House Subcommittee on District Appropriations Ross A. Collins from Mississippi justified cuts to funds for welfare and education for local residents, saying that "my constituents wouldn't stand for spending money on niggers."[51]

World War II further increased government activity, adding to the number of federal employees in the capital;[52] by 1950, the district's population reached its peak of 802,178 residents.[43]

Civil rights and home rule era

The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1961, granting the district three votes in the Electoral College for the election of president and vice president, but still no voting representation in Congress.[53]

After the assassination of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., on April 4, 1968, riots broke out in the district, primarily in the U Street, 14th Street, 7th Street, and H Street corridors, centers of black residential and commercial areas. The riots raged for three days until more than 13,600 federal troops and D.C. Army National Guardsmen stopped the violence. Many stores and other buildings were burned; rebuilding was not completed until the late 1990s.[54]

In 1973, Congress enacted the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, providing for an elected mayor and thirteen-member council for the district.[55] In 1975, Walter Washington became the first elected and first black mayor of the district.[56]

Geography

 
The Washington Monument, which honors American Founding Father, Revolutionary War general, and first president George Washington, is the world's tallest predominantly stone structure.
 
The Jefferson Memorial, as seen from across the Tidal Basin, honors Thomas Jefferson, a Founding Father, primary author of the Declaration of Independence, and the nation's third president.

Washington, D.C., is located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. East Coast. Due to the District of Columbia retrocession, the city has a total area of 68.34 square miles (177 km2), of which 61.05 square miles (158.1 km2) is land and 7.29 square miles (18.9 km2) (10.67%) is water.[57] The district is bordered by Montgomery County, Maryland to the northwest; Prince George's County, Maryland to the east; Arlington County, Virginia to the west; and Alexandria, Virginia to the south. Washington, D.C., is 38 miles (61 km) from Baltimore, 124 miles (200 km) from Philadelphia, 227 miles (365 km) from New York City, 242 miles (389 km) from Pittsburgh, 384 miles (618 km) from Charlotte and 439 miles (707 km) from Boston.

The south bank of the Potomac River forms the district's border with Virginia and has two major tributaries: the Anacostia River and Rock Creek.[58] Tiber Creek, a natural watercourse that once passed through the National Mall, was fully enclosed underground during the 1870s.[59] The creek also formed a portion of the now-filled Washington City Canal, which allowed passage through the city to the Anacostia River from 1815 until the 1850s.[60] The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal starts in Georgetown and was used during the 19th century to bypass the Little Falls of the Potomac River, located at the northwest edge of Washington at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line.[61]

The highest natural elevation in the district is 409 feet (125 m) above sea level at Fort Reno Park in upper northwest Washington.[62] The lowest point is sea level at the Potomac River.[63] The geographic center of Washington is near the intersection of 4th and L Streets NW.[64][65][66]

The district has 7,464 acres (30.21 km2) of parkland, about 19% of the city's total area and the second-highest percentage among high-density U.S. cities.[67] This factor contributed to Washington, D.C., being ranked as third in the nation for park access and quality in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the park systems of the 100 most populous cities in the United States, according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land.[68]

The National Park Service manages most of the 9,122 acres (36.92 km2) of city land owned by the U.S. government.[69] Rock Creek Park is a 1,754-acre (7.10 km2) urban forest in Northwest Washington, which extends 9.3 miles (15.0 km) through a stream valley that bisects the city. Established in 1890, it is the country's fourth-oldest national park and is home to a variety of plant and animal species, including raccoon, deer, owls, and coyotes.[70] Other National Park Service properties include the C&O Canal National Historical Park, the National Mall and Memorial Parks, Theodore Roosevelt Island, Columbia Island, Fort Dupont Park, Meridian Hill Park, Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, and Anacostia Park.[71] The D.C. Department of Parks and Recreation maintains the city's 900 acres (3.6 km2) of athletic fields and playgrounds, 40 swimming pools, and 68 recreation centers.[72] The U.S. Department of Agriculture operates the 446-acre (1.80 km2) U.S. National Arboretum in Northeast Washington.[73]

Climate

 
Blizzards impact Washington, D.C. about once every four to six years.

Washington is in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen: Cfa).[74] The Trewartha classification is defined as an oceanic climate (Do).[75] Winters are cool to cold with light snow more common but heavy snow not uncommon, and summers are hot and humid. The district is in plant hardiness zone 8a near downtown, and zone 7b elsewhere in the city, indicating a humid subtropical climate.[76]

Spring and fall are mild to warm, while winter is cool to cold with annual snowfall averaging 15.5 inches (39 cm).[77]

Summers are hot and humid with a July daily average of 79.8 °F (26.6 °C) and average daily relative humidity around 66%, which can cause moderate personal discomfort. Heat indices regularly approach 100 °F (38 °C) at the height of summer.[78] The combination of heat and humidity in the summer brings very frequent thunderstorms, some of which occasionally produce tornadoes in the area.[79]

Blizzards affect Washington, on average, once every four to six years. The most violent storms are called "nor'easters", which often affect large sections of the East Coast.[80] From January 27 to 28, 1922, the city officially received 28 inches (71 cm) of snowfall, the largest snowstorm since official measurements began in 1885.[81] According to notes kept at the time, the city received between 30 and 36 inches (76 and 91 cm) from a snowstorm in January 1772.[82]

Hurricanes (or their remnants) occasionally track through the area in late summer and early fall. However, they are often weak by the time they reach Washington, partly due to the city's inland location.[83] Flooding of the Potomac River, however, caused by a combination of high tide, storm surge, and runoff, has been known to cause extensive property damage in the neighborhood of Georgetown.[84]

Precipitation occurs throughout the year.[85]

The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on August 6, 1918, and on July 20, 1930.[86] The lowest recorded temperature was −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 11, 1899, right before the Great Blizzard of 1899.[80] During a typical year, the city averages about 37 days at or above 90 °F (32 °C) and 64 nights at or below the freezing mark (32 °F or 0 °C).[87] On average, the first day with a minimum at or below freezing is November 18 and the last day is March 27.[88][89]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 79
(26)
84
(29)
93
(34)
95
(35)
99
(37)
104
(40)
106
(41)
106
(41)
104
(40)
98
(37)
86
(30)
79
(26)
106
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 66.7
(19.3)
68.1
(20.1)
77.3
(25.2)
86.4
(30.2)
91.0
(32.8)
95.7
(35.4)
98.1
(36.7)
96.5
(35.8)
91.9
(33.3)
84.5
(29.2)
74.8
(23.8)
67.1
(19.5)
99.1
(37.3)
Average high °F (°C) 44.8
(7.1)
48.3
(9.1)
56.5
(13.6)
68.0
(20.0)
76.5
(24.7)
85.1
(29.5)
89.6
(32.0)
87.8
(31.0)
80.7
(27.1)
69.4
(20.8)
58.2
(14.6)
48.8
(9.3)
67.8
(19.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 37.5
(3.1)
40.0
(4.4)
47.6
(8.7)
58.2
(14.6)
67.2
(19.6)
76.3
(24.6)
81.0
(27.2)
79.4
(26.3)
72.4
(22.4)
60.8
(16.0)
49.9
(9.9)
41.7
(5.4)
59.3
(15.2)
Average low °F (°C) 30.1
(−1.1)
31.8
(−0.1)
38.6
(3.7)
48.4
(9.1)
58.0
(14.4)
67.5
(19.7)
72.4
(22.4)
71.0
(21.7)
64.1
(17.8)
52.2
(11.2)
41.6
(5.3)
34.5
(1.4)
50.9
(10.5)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 14.3
(−9.8)
16.9
(−8.4)
23.4
(−4.8)
34.9
(1.6)
45.5
(7.5)
55.7
(13.2)
63.8
(17.7)
62.1
(16.7)
51.3
(10.7)
38.7
(3.7)
28.8
(−1.8)
21.3
(−5.9)
12.3
(−10.9)
Record low °F (°C) −14
(−26)
−15
(−26)
4
(−16)
15
(−9)
33
(1)
43
(6)
52
(11)
49
(9)
36
(2)
26
(−3)
11
(−12)
−13
(−25)
−15
(−26)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.86
(73)
2.62
(67)
3.50
(89)
3.21
(82)
3.94
(100)
4.20
(107)
4.33
(110)
3.25
(83)
3.93
(100)
3.66
(93)
2.91
(74)
3.41
(87)
41.82
(1,062)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 4.9
(12)
5.0
(13)
2.0
(5.1)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
1.7
(4.3)
13.7
(35)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.7 9.3 11.0 10.8 11.6 10.6 10.5 8.7 8.7 8.3 8.4 10.1 117.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 2.8 2.7 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.3 8.0
Average relative humidity (%) 62.1 60.5 58.6 58.0 64.5 65.8 66.9 69.3 69.7 67.4 64.7 64.1 64.3
Average dew point °F (°C) 21.7
(−5.7)
23.5
(−4.7)
31.3
(−0.4)
39.7
(4.3)
52.3
(11.3)
61.5
(16.4)
66.0
(18.9)
65.8
(18.8)
59.5
(15.3)
47.5
(8.6)
37.0
(2.8)
27.1
(−2.7)
44.4
(6.9)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.6 151.8 204.0 228.2 260.5 283.2 280.5 263.1 225.0 203.6 150.2 133.0 2,527.7
Mean daily daylight hours 9.8 10.8 12.0 13.3 14.3 14.9 14.6 13.6 12.4 11.2 10.1 9.5 12.2
Percent possible sunshine 48 50 55 57 59 64 62 62 60 59 50 45 57
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 5 7 8 9 9 8 7 4 3 2 6
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961−1990)[87][91][85][92]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV and daylight hours)[93]

Cityscape

 
The L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C., developed in 1791 by Pierre L'Enfant and revised by Andrew Ellicott in 1792
 
The Georgetown area of Washington, D.C. is known for its historic Federal-style rowhouses; in the foreground is the 19th century Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.
 
Victorian-style houses located in Dupont Circle.

The City of Washington was a planned city. In the present day, many of the District's streets are on a grid extending from that of the original city. In 1791, President Washington commissioned Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant, a French-born architect and city planner, to design the new capital. He enlisted Scottish surveyor Alexander Ralston to help lay out the city plan.[94] The L'Enfant Plan featured broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles, providing room for open space and landscaping.[95] He based his design on plans of cities such as Paris, Amsterdam, Karlsruhe, and Milan that Thomas Jefferson had sent to him.[96] L'Enfant's design also envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in length and 400 feet (120 m) wide in the area that is now the National Mall.[97] President Washington dismissed L'Enfant in March 1792 due to conflicts with the three commissioners appointed to supervise the capital's construction. Andrew Ellicott, who had worked with L'Enfant surveying the city, was then tasked with completing the design. Though Ellicott made revisions to the original plans—including changes to some street patterns—L'Enfant is still credited with the overall design of the city.[98]

By the early 20th century, L'Enfant's vision of a grand national capital had become marred by slums and randomly placed buildings, including a railroad station on the National Mall. Congress formed a special committee charged with beautifying Washington's ceremonial core.[49] What became known as the McMillan Plan was finalized in 1901 and included re-landscaping the Capitol grounds and the National Mall, clearing slums, and establishing a new citywide park system. The plan is thought to have largely preserved L'Enfant's intended design.[95]

By law, the District's skyline is low and sprawling. The federal Height of Buildings Act of 1910 allows buildings that are no taller than the width of the adjacent street, plus 20 feet (6.1 m).[99] Despite popular belief, no law has ever limited buildings to the height of the United States Capitol or the 555-foot (169 m) Washington Monument,[66] which remains the district's tallest structure. City leaders have criticized the height restriction as a primary reason why the district has limited affordable housing and traffic problems caused by suburban sprawl.[99]

The district is divided into four quadrants of unequal area: Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), and Southwest (SW). The axes bounding the quadrants radiate from the U.S. Capitol.[100] All road names include the quadrant abbreviation to indicate their location and house numbers generally correspond with the number of blocks away from the Capitol. Most streets are set out in a grid pattern with east–west streets named with letters (e.g., C Street SW), north–south streets with numbers (e.g., 4th Street NW), and diagonal avenues, many of which are named after states.[100]

The City of Washington was bordered by Boundary Street to the north (renamed Florida Avenue in 1890), Rock Creek to the west, and the Anacostia River to the east.[47][95] Washington's street grid was extended, where possible, throughout the district starting in 1888.[101] Georgetown's streets were renamed in 1895.[48] Some streets are particularly noteworthy, such as Pennsylvania Avenue—which connects the White House to the Capitol, and K Street—which houses the offices of many lobbying groups.[102] Constitution Avenue and Independence Avenue, located on the north and south sides of the National Mall, respectively, are home to many of Washington's iconic museums, including the Smithsonian Institution buildings and the National Archives Building. Washington hosts 177 foreign embassies, constituting approximately 297 buildings beyond the more than 1,600 residential properties owned by foreign countries, many of which are on a section of Massachusetts Avenue informally known as Embassy Row.[103]

Architecture

 
Eisenhower Executive Office Building, which includes the offices of most presidential personnel, was once the world's largest office building and is designed in the French Second Empire style.
 
Meridian Hill Park and its cascading waterfall in Columbia Heights.

The architecture of Washington varies greatly but is generally popular among tourists and locals. Six of the top 10 buildings in the American Institute of Architects' 2007 ranking of "America's Favorite Architecture" are in the District of Columbia:[104] the White House, the Washington National Cathedral, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial, the United States Capitol, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The neoclassical, Georgian, gothic, and modern architectural styles are all reflected among those six structures and many other prominent edifices in Washington.

Many of the government buildings, monuments, and museums along the National Mall and surrounding areas are heavily inspired by classical Roman and Greek architecture. For examples, the designs of the White House, Capitol, Supreme Court Building, Washington Monument, National Gallery of Art, Lincoln Memorial, and Jefferson Memorial, are all heavily drawn from these classical architectural movements, consisting of large pediments, domes, columns in the classical order, and heavy walls made of stone. Notable exceptions to the city's classical-style architecture include buildings constructed in the French Second Empire style such as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building.[105] The Thomas Jefferson Building, which serves as the main building for the Library of Congress, is built in the style of Beaux-Arts architecture.[106] Meridian Hill Park contains a cascading waterfall with Italian renaissance-style architecture.[107]

Modern and other non-classical architectural styles are also seen throughout the city. The National Museum of African American History and Culture deeply contrasts the stone-based neoclassical buildings on the Mall, as its design combines modern engineering with heavy inspiration from African Art.[108] Additionally, the interior of the Washington Metro stations are designed with strong influence from the twentieth-century art movement of Brutalism, as is the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.[109] The Smithsonian Institution Building, often called the "castle", is built of Seneca red sandstone in the Norman Revival style.[110] The Old Post Office building, located along Pennsylvania Avenue, was completed in 1899 and was the first building in the city to have a steel frame structure and the first to utilize electrical wiring into its design.[111]

Outside Downtown Washington, architectural styles are even more varied. Historic buildings are designed primarily in the Queen Anne, Châteauesque, Richardsonian Romanesque, Georgian revival, Beaux-Arts, and a variety of Victorian styles.[112] Rowhouses are especially prominent in areas developed after the Civil War and typically follow Federalist and late Victorian designs.[113] Georgetown's Old Stone House was built in 1765, making it the oldest-standing original building in the city.[114] Founded in 1789, Georgetown University features a mix of Romanesque and Gothic Revival architecture.[105] The Ronald Reagan Building is the largest building in the district with a total area of approximately 3.1 million square feet (288,000 m2).[115] Washington Union Station is designed from a combination of different architectural styles. Its Great Hall, which serves as the main hall within the building, has elaborate gold leaf designs along the ceilings, as well as decorative classical-style statues.[116]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18008,144
181015,47190.0%
182023,33650.8%
183030,26129.7%
184033,74511.5%
185051,68753.2%
186075,08045.3%
1870131,70075.4%
1880177,62434.9%
1890230,39229.7%
1900278,71821.0%
1910331,06918.8%
1920437,57132.2%
1930486,86911.3%
1940663,09136.2%
1950802,17821.0%
1960763,956−4.8%
1970756,510−1.0%
1980638,333−15.6%
1990606,900−4.9%
2000572,059−5.7%
2010601,7235.2%
2020689,54514.6%
Source:[117] [e][43][118] Note:[f]
2010–2020[2]
Demographic profile 2020[120] 2010[121] 1990[122] 1970[122] 1940[122]
White 39.6% 38.5% 29.6% 27.7% 71.5%
 —Non-Hispanic whites 38.0% 34.8% 27.4% 26.5%[123] 71.4%
Black or African American 41.4% 50.7% 65.8% 71.1% 28.2%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 11.3% 9.1% 5.4% 2.1%[123] 0.1%
Asian 4.8% 3.5% 1.8% 0.6% 0.2%

The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that the district's population was 705,749 as of July 2019, an increase of more than 100,000 people compared to the 2010 United States Census. When measured on a decade-over-decade basis, this continues a growth trend since 2000, following a half-century of population decline.[124] But on a year-over-year basis, the July 2019 census count shows a population decline of 16,000 individuals over the preceding 12-month period.[125] Washington was the 24th most populous place in the United States as of 2010.[126] According to data from 2010, commuters from the suburbs increase the district's daytime population to over a million.[127] If the district were a state it would rank 49th in population, ahead of Vermont and Wyoming.[128]

 
Map of racial distribution in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan region, according to the 2010 U.S. census. Each dot represents 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

The Washington metropolitan area, which includes the district and surrounding suburbs, is the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with an estimated six million residents.[129] When the Washington area is included with Baltimore and its suburbs, it forms the vast Washington–Baltimore combined statistical area. With a population exceeding 9.8 million residents in 2020, it is the third-largest combined statistical area in the country.[130]

According to 2017 Census Bureau data, the population of Washington, D.C., was 47.1% Black or African American, 45.1% White (36.8% non-Hispanic White), 4.3% Asian, 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Individuals from two or more races made up 2.7% of the population. Hispanics of any race made up 11.0% of the district's population.[128]

Washington has had a significant African American population since the city's foundation.[131] African American residents composed about 30% of the district's total population between 1800 and 1940.[43] The black population reached a peak of 70% by 1970, but has since steadily declined due to many African Americans moving to the surrounding suburbs. Partly as a result of gentrification, there was a 31.4% increase in the non-Hispanic white population and an 11.5% decrease in the black population between 2000 and 2010.[132] According to a study by the National Community Reinvestment Coalition, D.C. has experienced more "intense" gentrification than any other American city, with 40% of neighborhoods gentrified.[133]

About 17% of D.C. residents were age 18 or younger in 2010, lower than the U.S. average of 24%. However, at 34 years old, the district had the lowest median age compared to the 50 states.[134] As of 2010, there were an estimated 81,734 immigrants living in Washington, D.C.[135] Major sources of immigration include El Salvador, Vietnam, and Ethiopia, with a concentration of Salvadorans in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood.[136]

Researchers found that there were 4,822 same-sex couples in the District of Columbia in 2010, about 2% of total households.[137] Legislation authorizing same-sex marriage passed in 2009, and the district began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in March 2010.[138]

A 2007 report found that about a third of district residents were functionally illiterate, compared to a national rate of about one in five. This is attributed in part to immigrants who are not proficient in English.[139] As of 2011, 85% of D.C. residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language.[140] Half of residents had at least a four-year college degree in 2006.[135] In 2017, the median household income in D.C. was $77,649;[141] also in 2017, D.C. residents had a personal income per capita of $50,832 (higher than any of the 50 states).[141][142] However, 19% of residents were below the poverty level in 2005, higher than any state except Mississippi. In 2019, the poverty rate stood at 14.7%.[143][g][145]

As of 2010, more than 90% of D.C. residents had health insurance coverage, the second-highest rate in the nation. This is due in part to city programs that help provide insurance to low-income individuals who do not qualify for other types of coverage.[146] A 2009 report found that at least three percent of district residents have HIV or AIDS, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) characterizes as a "generalized and severe" epidemic.[147]

Of the district's population, 17% is Baptist, 13% is Catholic, 6% is evangelical Protestant, 4% is Methodist, 3% is Episcopalian/Anglican, 3% is Jewish, 2% is Eastern Orthodox, 1% is Pentecostal, 1% is Buddhist, 1% is Adventist, 1% is Lutheran, 1% is Muslim, 1% is Presbyterian, 1% is Mormon, and 1% is Hindu.[148][h] The city is populated with many religious buildings, including the Washington National Cathedral, the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception (which comprises the largest Catholic church building in the United States), and the Islamic Center of Washington, which was the largest mosque in the Western Hemisphere when opened in 1957. St. John's Episcopal Church is located off Lafayette Square and has held services for every U.S. president since James Madison. The Sixth & I Historic Synagogue is a synagogue located in Chinatown and was completed in 1908. The Washington D.C. Temple is a large Mormon temple located just outside the city in Kensington, Maryland. It can be viewed when driving south on the Capital Beltway. It is the tallest Mormon temple in existence, and third-largest by floor area.[149][150]

Crime

 
D.C. police on Harley-Davidson motorcycles escort a 2018 protest.

Crime in Washington, D.C., is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. A 2010 study found that 5 percent of city blocks accounted for more than 25% of the district's total crimes.[151]

The more affluent neighborhoods of Northwest Washington are typically safe, especially in areas with concentrations of government operations, such as Downtown Washington, D.C., Foggy Bottom, Embassy Row, and Penn Quarter, but reports of violent crime increase in poorer neighborhoods generally concentrated in the eastern portion of the city.[151] Approximately 60,000 residents are ex-convicts.[152]

In 2021, the annual murders continued on an upward trend, totaling 226, a significant rise from previous lows.[153] In 2012, Washington's annual murder count had dropped to 88, the lowest total since 1961.[154] Washington was once described as the "murder capital" of the United States during the early 1990s.[155] The number of murders peaked in 1991 at 479, but the level of violence then began to decline significantly.[156]

In 2016, the district's Metropolitan Police Department tallied 135 homicides, a 53% increase from 2012 but a 17% decrease from 2015.[157] Many neighborhoods such as Columbia Heights and Logan Circle are becoming safer and vibrant. However, incidents of robberies and thefts have remained higher in these areas because of increased nightlife activity and greater numbers of affluent residents.[158] Even still, citywide reports of both property and violent crimes have declined by nearly half since their most recent highs in the mid-1990s.[159]

On June 26, 2008, the Supreme Court of the United States held in District of Columbia v. Heller that the city's 1976 handgun ban violated the right to keep and bear arms as protected under the Second Amendment.[160] However, the ruling does not prohibit all forms of gun control; laws requiring firearm registration remain in place, as does the city's assault weapon ban.[161]

In addition to the district's own Metropolitan Police Department, many federal law enforcement agencies have jurisdiction in the city as well—most visibly the U.S. Park Police, founded in 1791.[162]

Economy

 
Federal Triangle between Constitution Avenue and Pennsylvania Avenue, where many federal government agencies are located

The Washington, D.C. region has one of the country's largest and most advanced economies. Currently, it is the fourth largest metropolitan economy, as measured by Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP), in the United States.[163] Its growing and diversified economy has an increasing percentage of professional and business service jobs in addition to more traditional jobs rooted in tourism, entertainment, and government.[164]

Between 2009 and 2016, GDP per capita in Washington has consistently ranked on the very top among U.S. states.[165] In 2016, at $160,472, its GDP per capita is almost three times as high as that of Massachusetts, which was ranked second in the nation.[165] As of 2011, the Washington Metropolitan Area had an unemployment rate of 6.2%; the second-lowest rate among the 49 largest metro areas in the nation.[166] The District of Columbia itself had an unemployment rate of 9.8% during the same time period.[167] In 2019, D.C. had the highest median household income in the United States at $92,266.[168]

Federal government

 
The Department of Justice, one of the federal government's largest agencies.

In December 2017, 25% of the employees in Washington, D.C. were employed by the federal government.[169][170] The vast majority of these government employees serve in professional staff positions in various government departments, agencies, and institutions, while only a small percentage serve as temporary staff for presidents or Congress members. The large amount of government employment in the region is thought to immunize Washington from suffering the consequences of national economic downturns, since the federal government continues operations during economic recessions. In reality, however, the Washington area can also suffer from severe economic shocks, given that most of its residents work outside the government.

In addition to direct government work, many of the region's residents work for companies and organizations that sign contracts with the federal government or work on issues directly related to the work of the federal government, such as lobbying or policy analysis. This includes organizations such as law firms, defense contractors, civilian contractors, nonprofit organizations, lobbying firms, trade unions, industry trade groups, and professional associations, many of which have their headquarters in or near Washington, D.C. in order to be close to the federal government.[102] The largest U.S. government agencies located in or near Washington, D.C. are as follows: (1) the United States Department of Defense (headquartered in the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia), (2) the United States Postal Service, (3) the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, (4) the United States Department of Homeland Security, and (5) the United States Department of Justice.[171]

Diplomacy and global finance

 
The Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank.

The city also hosts nearly 200 foreign embassies and international organizations. Embassy Row is the informal name given to a stretch of Massachusetts Avenue which is occupied by many of the city's foreign embassies. In 2008, the foreign diplomatic corps in Washington employed about 10,000 people and contributed an estimated $400 million annually to the local economy.[103]

Additionally, many prominent global financial and diplomatic institutions are headquartered in the city. These include the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization. These institutions seek to use money lending and other financial and economic tools to improve the state of a country's economy and level of development. The Federal Reserve, which is the central bank for the United States of America, is located along Constitution Avenue. Commonly called "the Fed," this institution's policies are made by the members of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. Through monetary policy, the Board adjusts various interest rates in the United States, which heavily impacts the U.S. economy as well as the economies for many countries across the world. Because of the power of the U.S. dollar, the actions of the Board are closely watched by world leaders as well as economic and diplomatic experts across the globe.

Research and non-profit organizations

 
The U.S. Institute of Peace, which works on global conflict prevention, is located along Constitution Avenue.

Washington, D.C. is a leading center for national and international research organizations, especially as it relates to think tanks that engage heavily with questions about education, finance, domestic policy, foreign policy, as well as science and technology. Some leading think tanks and research organizations headquartered in the city are partisan in nature, while many others work as non-partisan centers for research and policy formation.[172] Among notable research organizations headquartered in the city are the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), the Brookings Institution, Atlantic Council, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Center for American Progress, the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the US Institute of Peace, and the Wilson Center, among many others. As of 2020, 8% of the country's think tanks are headquartered in Washington.[173] Many non-think tanks are also leading research centers, such as the Washington Hospital Center, the Children's National Medical Center, and the National Institutes of Health, located in nearby Bethesda, Maryland.[174]

The city is also home to many other non-profits that engage with issues of domestic and global importance by conducting advanced research, running programs, or advocating on behalf of people. Many of these organizations are headquartered in the city or have major offices in Washington. Among these organizations are the UN Foundation, Human Rights Campaign, Amnesty International, and the National Democratic Institute. The city is also the country's primary location for international development firms, many of whom find funding by contracting with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), which is the U.S. federal government's aid agency and is itself located in Washington. Additionally, the American Red Cross, which is a humanitarian agency focused on emergency relief, is headquartered in the city.

Private sector

The Washington region has one of the country's largest private sectors. According to statistics compiled in 2011, four of the largest 500 companies in the country were headquartered in the district.[175] In the 2021 Global Financial Centres Index, Washington was ranked as having the 14th most competitive financial center in the world, and fourth most competitive in the United States (after New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles).[176] Among the largest companies headquartered in Washington, D.C. are Fannie Mae, Amtrak, Lockheed Martin, Marriot International, Danaher Corporation, FTI Consulting, and Hogan Lovells.[177]

Neighboring Maryland and Northern Virginia serve as a base of operations for several large companies, including some Fortune 500 companies. Due to the building height restrictions in place within the District of Columbia, many of these companies are able to build taller buildings in the suburban financial centers of Maryland and Virginia. Capital One Bank, which is one of the largest banks in the country, is headquartered in nearby Tysons, Virginia, a large and growing financial center located in Fairfax County. The headquarter building for Capital One Bank, known as Capital One Tower, is the tallest occupied building in the Washington region. Additionally, in 2018 Amazon announced it would build a second headquarters building (known as "HQ2") in the Crystal City neighborhood of Arlington County, Virginia, which sits just across the Potomac River from Washington.[178] In addition to Capital One, some of the largest companies headquartered in Northern Virginia include Hilton, Navy Federal Credit Union, Mars, Freddie Mac, Northrop Grumman, and General Dynamics.[179]

The Washington economy also benefits from being home to many prominent news and media organizations. Among these are The Washington Post, The Washington Times, Politico, and The Hill. There are also many television and radio media organizations either headquartered in or near the city or with large offices in the region, such as CNN, PBS, C-SPAN, CBS, NBC, Discovery, and NPR, among others. The Gannett Company is a mass media holding company headquartered in Tysons, Virginia which owns numerous national and local newspapers that publish across the country. Gannett is the largest U.S. newspaper publisher as measured by total daily circulation.[180] Most notably, it is the owner of USA Today, which itself is headquartered in Tysons, and which is by far the largest newspaper in the United States by circulation.[181]

Tourism

 
The National World War II Memorial is among the many popular tourist sites located on the National Mall.

Tourism is Washington's second-largest industry, after the federal government. Approximately 18.9 million visitors contributed an estimated $4.8 billion to the local economy in 2012.[182] In 2019, the number of tourists who visited the city increased to 24.6 million, of which 22.8 million were domestic tourists. In total, the tourists spent $8.15 billion during their stay.[183] This heavy tourism helps many of the region's other industries, such as lodging, food and beverage, entertainment, shopping, and transportation.[183] Additionally, tourism helps the city maintain a robust network of world-class museums and cultural centers, most notably the Smithsonian Institution.

The city and wider Washington region has a diverse array of attractions for tourists, such as monuments, memorials, museums, sports events, and trails. Within the city, the National Mall serves as the center of the tourism industry. It is there that many of the city's museums and monuments are located. Adjacent to the mall sits the Tidal Basin, where several additional memorials and monuments lie, including the popular Jefferson Memorial. Additionally, Union Station is a very popular tourist spot with its multitude of restaurants and shops. Among the most visited tourist destinations is Arlington National Cemetery in nearby Arlington County, Virginia.[184] This is a military cemetery that serves as a burial ground for former military combatants. It is also the location of President John F. Kennedy's tomb, marked by an eternal flame.[185] President William Howard Taft is also buried in Arlington.[186] The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located in the cemetery and is guarded 24/7 by a tomb guard. The changing of the guard is a popular tourist attraction and occurs once every hour from October through March and every half-hour during the rest of the year.[187]

Culture

Landmarks

National Mall and Tidal Basin

 
Roughly six million people annually visit the Lincoln Memorial.

The National Mall is a large, open park in Downtown Washington between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Given its prominence, the mall is often the location of political protests, concerts, festivals, and presidential inaugurations. The Washington Monument and the Jefferson Pier are near the center of the mall, south of the White House. Located on the mall directly northwest of the Washington Monument is Constitution Gardens, which serves as a memorial to the signers of the United States Declaration of Independence.[188] Also on the mall are the National World War II Memorial at the east end of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, the Korean War Veterans Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.[189]

Directly south of the mall, the Tidal Basin features rows of Japanese cherry trees. Every spring, millions of cherry blossoms bloom, an event which attracts visitors from across the world as part of the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival.[190] The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial, and the District of Columbia War Memorial are around the Tidal Basin.[189]

Other landmarks

 
The Old Post Office is now a hotel; its clock tower, which is open to the public, is a museum operated by the National Park Service.

Numerous historic landmarks are located outside the National Mall. Among these are the Old Post Office,[191] the Treasury Building,[192] Old Patent Office Building,[193] the National Cathedral,[194] the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception,[195] the National World War I Memorial,[196] the Frederick Douglass National Historic Site,[197] Lincoln's Cottage,[198] the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial, and the United States Navy Memorial.[199] The Octagon House, which was the building that President James Madison and his administration moved into following the burning of the White House during the War of 1812, is now a historic museum and popular tourist destination.[200]

The National Archives is headquartered in a building just north of the National Mall and houses thousands of documents important to American history, including the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.[201] Located in three buildings on Capitol Hill, the Library of Congress is the largest library complex in the world with a collection of more than 147 million books, manuscripts, and other materials.[202] The United States Supreme Court is located immediately north of the Library of Congress. The United States Supreme Court Building was completed in 1935; before then, the court held sessions in the Old Senate Chamber of the Capitol.[203]

Chinatown is located just north of the National Mall. It houses many Chinese-inspired restaurants and shops as well as Capital One Arena, which serves as the primary indoor sports and entertainment arena in Washington. Chinatown's Friendship Archway is one of the largest Chinese ceremonial archways outside of China. The Archway bears the Chinese characters for Chinatown below the roof.[204]

The Southwest Waterfront along the Potomac River has been redeveloped in recent years and now serves as a popular cultural center. The Wharf, as it is called, contains the city's historic Maine Avenue Fish Market. This is the oldest fish market currently in operation in the entire United States.[205] The Wharf also has many hotels, residential buildings, restaurants, shops, parks, piers, docks and marinas, and live music venues.[206][207]

Several other landmarks are located in neighboring Northern Virginia. Among these are Arlington National Cemetery, including the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, The Pentagon, the United States Air Force Memorial, Old Town Alexandria, and Mount Vernon, the former home of George Washington.[208]

Parks

There are also numerous parks, gardens, and squares that have become notable landmarks, such as Rock Creek Park. Rock Creek Park, located in Northwest D.C., is the largest park in the city and is administered by the National Park Service.[209] Located on the northern side of the White House, Lafayette Square is a historic public square. Named after the Marquis de Lafayette, a Frenchman who served as a commander during the American Revolutionary War, the square has been the site of many protests, marches, and speeches over the decades. The houses bordering the square have served as the home to many notable figures, such as First Lady Dolley Madison and Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of State William H. Seward, who was stabbed by an intruder in his Lafayette Square house on the evening of President Lincoln's assassination.[210] Located next to the square and on Pennsylvania Avenue across from the White House is the Blair House, which serves as the primary state guest house for the U.S. president.[211]

The United States National Arboretum is a dense arboretum in Northeast D.C. filled with gardens and trails. Its most notable landmark is the National Capitol Columns monument.[212] A smaller urban park located in the city's limits is Theodore Roosevelt Island. This is an island in the Potomac River named in honor of President Theodore Roosevelt. The island has many trails used by bikers, walkers, and runners, as well as a statue and memorial in honor of Theodore Roosevelt.[213]

Other parks, gardens, and squares include Dumbarton Oaks, Meridian Hill Park, the Yards, Anacostia Park, Lincoln Park, Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, Franklin Square, Washington Circle, McPherson Square, Farragut Square, and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park.[214]

Museums

 
Like many of the city's museums, the Smithsonian's administration building, known as "the Castle", is on the National Mall.

The Smithsonian Institution is an educational foundation chartered by Congress in 1846 that maintains most of the nation's official museums and galleries in Washington, D.C. It is the world's largest research and museum complex.[215] The U.S. government partially funds the Smithsonian, and its collections are open to the public free of charge.[216] The Smithsonian's locations had a combined total of 30 million visits in 2013. The most visited museum is the National Museum of Natural History on the National Mall.[217] Other Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries on the mall are: the National Air and Space Museum; the National Museum of African Art; the National Museum of American History; the National Museum of the American Indian; the Sackler and Freer galleries, which both focus on Asian art and culture; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; the Arts and Industries Building; the S. Dillon Ripley Center; and the Smithsonian Institution Building (also known as "The Castle"), which serves as the institution's headquarters.[218] The Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery are housed in the Old Patent Office Building, near Washington's Chinatown.[219] The Renwick Gallery is officially part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum but is in a separate building near the White House. Other Smithsonian museums and galleries include: the Anacostia Community Museum in Southeast Washington; the National Postal Museum near Union Station; and the National Zoo in Woodley Park.[218]

The National Gallery of Art is on the National Mall near the Capitol and features American and European artworks. The U.S. government owns the gallery and its collections. However, they are not a part of the Smithsonian Institution.[220] The National Building Museum, which occupies the former Pension Building near Judiciary Square, was chartered by Congress and hosts exhibits on architecture, urban planning, and design.[221] The Botanic Garden is a botanical garden and museum operated by the U.S. Congress that is open to the public.[222]

There are many private art museums in the District of Columbia, which house major collections and exhibits open to the public, such as the National Museum of Women in the Arts and The Phillips Collection in Dupont Circle, the first museum of modern art in the United States.[223] Other private museums in Washington include the Newseum, the O Street Museum, the International Spy Museum, the National Geographic Society Museum, and the Museum of the Bible. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum near the National Mall maintains exhibits, documentation, and artifacts related to the Holocaust.[224]

Arts

 
The U Street Corridor is home to many of Washington's historic theaters.

Washington, D.C. is a national center for the arts and houses numerous leading concert halls and theaters. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is home to the National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, and the Washington Ballet. The Kennedy Center Honors are awarded each year to those in the performing arts who have contributed greatly to the cultural life of the United States. This ceremony is often attended by the sitting American President as well as other dignitaries and celebrities.[225] The Kennedy Center also awards the annual Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, which is one of the most prestigious comedy awards in the U.S. The historic Ford's Theatre, site of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, continues to operate as a functioning performance space as well as a museum.[226]

The Marine Barracks near Capitol Hill houses the United States Marine Band; founded in 1798, it is the country's oldest professional musical organization.[227] American march composer and Washington-native John Philip Sousa led the Marine Band from 1880 until 1892.[228] Founded in 1925, the United States Navy Band has its headquarters at the Washington Navy Yard and performs at official events and public concerts around the city.[229]

Founded in 1950, Arena Stage achieved national attention and spurred growth in the city's independent theater movement that now includes organizations such as the Shakespeare Theatre Company, Woolly Mammoth Theatre Company, and the Studio Theatre.[230] Arena Stage opened its newly renovated home in the city's emerging Southwest waterfront area in 2010.[231] The GALA Hispanic Theatre, now housed in the historic Tivoli Theatre in Columbia Heights, was founded in 1976 and is a National Center for the Latino Performing Arts.[232]

Other performing arts spaces in the city include the Andrew W. Mellon Auditorium in Federal Triangle, the Atlas Performing Arts Center on H Street, the Carter Barron Amphitheater in Rock Creek Park, Constitution Hall in Downtown, the National Theatre in Downtown, the Keegan Theatre in Dupont Circle, the Lisner Auditorium in Foggy Bottom, the Sylvan Theater on the National Mall, and the Warner Theatre in Penn Quarter.

The Folger Shakespeare Library is a research library and museum located in the Capitol Hill neighborhood. It houses the world's largest collection of Shakespeare-related material[233] and third largest collection of English books printed before 1641.[234][235] The Folger Library also runs special events and cultural attractions, most notably the Folger Theatre, which is known for being a leading interpreter of Shakespeare works, in addition to those from other authors.[236]

The U Street Corridor in Northwest D.C., once known as "Washington's Black Broadway", is home to institutions like the Howard Theatre, Bohemian Caverns, and the Lincoln Theatre, which hosted music legends such as Washington-native Duke Ellington, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis.[237] Washington has its own native music genre called go-go; a post-funk, percussion-driven flavor of rhythm and blues that was popularized in the late 1970s by D.C. band leader Chuck Brown.[238]

The district is an important center for indie culture and music in the United States. The label Dischord Records, formed by Ian MacKaye, frontman of Fugazi, was one of the most crucial independent labels in the genesis of 1980s punk and eventually indie rock in the 1990s.[239] Modern alternative and indie music venues like The Black Cat and the 9:30 Club bring popular acts to the U Street area.[240] The hardcore punk scene in the city, known as D.C. hardcore, is an important genre of D.C.'s contemporary music scene. Starting in the 1970s, it is considered to be one of the most influential punk music movements in the country.[241]

Cuisine

 
Ben's Chili Bowl is a staple of the city's historic cuisine and home to its half-smoke.

Washington, D.C. is rich in both fine dining as well as casual eating, and is now considered by many to be one of the best cities for dining in the United States.[242] The city benefits from a diverse food scene made up of restaurants with a wide variety of international cuisines.[243] The city's Chinatown, for example, is filled with Chinese-style restaurants. The city also has many Middle Eastern, European, African, Asian, and Latin American cuisine options. D.C. is known for being one of the best cities in the world for Ethiopian cuisine.[244]

Despite the cosmopolitan nature of the city, D.C. is known for being the birthplace of particular foods, such as half-smokes.[245] Additionally, the city is the birthplace of the mumbo sauce, a type of condiment that is similar to barbecue sauce but often sweeter in flavor.[246]

Among the District's signature restaurants is Ben's Chili Bowl, which has been located on U Street since its founding in 1958. The restaurant rose to prominence as a peaceful escape during the violent 1968 race riots in the city. The restaurant is famous for its chili dogs and half-smokes. The restaurant has been visited by numerous presidents and celebrities over the years.[247]

Washington, D.C.'s fine dining options are extensive, with the Michelin Guide awarding numerous D.C. restaurants with prestigious Michelin stars in recent years. The city's growth as a fine dining location has garnered the attention of many celebrity chefs, who have opened restaurants in the city. Among these chefs are José Andrés,[248] Kwame Onwuachi,[249] and previously Michel Richard.

Sports

Washington is one of 13 cities in the United States with teams from all four major professional men's sports and is home to one major professional women's team. The Washington Wizards (National Basketball Association) and the Washington Capitals (National Hockey League) play at the Capital One Arena in Chinatown. The Washington Mystics (Women's National Basketball Association) play in the St. Elizabeths East Entertainment and Sports Arena. Nationals Park, which opened in Southeast D.C. in 2008, is home to the Washington Nationals (Major League Baseball). D.C. United (Major League Soccer) plays at Audi Field. The Washington Commanders (National Football League) plays at FedExField in nearby Landover, Maryland.

D.C. teams have won a combined thirteen professional league championships: the Washington Commanders (then named the Washington Redskins) have won five (including three Super Bowls during the 1980s);[250] D.C. United has won four;[251] and the Washington Wizards (then the Washington Bullets), Washington Capitals, Washington Mystics and Washington Nationals have each won a single championship.[252][253]

Other professional and semi-professional teams in Washington include: DC Defenders (XFL), Old Glory DC (Major League Rugby), the Washington Kastles (World TeamTennis); the Washington D.C. Slayers (USA Rugby League); the Baltimore Washington Eagles (U.S. Australian Football League); the D.C. Divas (Independent Women's Football League); and the Potomac Athletic Club RFC (Rugby Super League). The William H.G. FitzGerald Tennis Center in Rock Creek Park hosts the Citi Open. Washington is also home to two major annual marathon races: the Marine Corps Marathon, which is held every autumn, and the Rock 'n' Roll USA Marathon held in the spring. The Marine Corps Marathon began in 1976 and is sometimes called "The People's Marathon" because it is the largest marathon that does not offer prize money to participants.[254]

The district's four NCAA Division I teams, American Eagles, George Washington Colonials, Georgetown Hoyas and Howard Bison and Lady Bison, have a broad following. The Georgetown Hoyas men's basketball team is the most notable and also plays at the Capital One Arena. From 2008 to 2012, the district hosted an annual college football bowl game at RFK Stadium, called the Military Bowl.[255] The D.C. area is home to one regional sports television network, NBC Sports Washington, based in Bethesda, Maryland.

Media

 
One Franklin Square, on Franklin Square in Downtown, has been the headquarters of The Washington Post since 2014.
 
The Watergate complex was the site of the Watergate scandal, which led to President Nixon's resignation.

Washington, D.C. is a prominent center for national and international media. The Washington Post, founded in 1877, is the oldest and most-read local daily newspaper in Washington.[256] "The Post", as it is popularly called, is well known as the newspaper that exposed the Watergate scandal.[257] It had the sixth-highest readership of all news dailies in the country in 2011.[258] From 2003 to 2019, The Washington Post Company published a daily free commuter newspaper called the Express, which summarized events, sports and entertainment;[259] it still publishes the Spanish-language paper El Tiempo Latino. The Atlantic magazine, which covers politics, international affairs, and cultural issues, is also headquartered in Washington.

Another popular local daily is The Washington Times, the city's second general interest broadsheet and also an influential paper in conservative political circles.[260] The alternative weekly Washington City Paper, with a circulation of 47,000, is also based in the city. also has a substantial readership in the Washington area.[261][262]

Some community and specialty papers focus on neighborhood and cultural issues, including the weekly Washington Blade and Metro Weekly, which focus on LGBT issues; the Washington Informer and The Washington Afro American, which highlight topics of interest to the black community; and neighborhood newspapers published by The Current Newspapers. Congressional Quarterly, The Hill, Politico, and Roll Call newspapers focus exclusively on issues related to Congress and the federal government. Other publications based in Washington include the National Geographic magazine and political publications such as The Washington Examiner, The New Republic, and Washington Monthly.[263]

The Washington Metropolitan Area is the ninth-largest television media market in the nation, with two million homes, approximately 2% of the country's population.[264] Several media companies and cable television channels have their headquarters in the area, including C-SPAN; Radio One; the National Geographic Channel; Smithsonian Networks; National Public Radio (NPR); Travel Channel (in Chevy Chase, Maryland); Discovery Communications (in Silver Spring, Maryland); and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) (in Arlington County, Virginia). The headquarters of Voice of America, the U.S. government's international news service, is near the Capitol in Southwest Washington.[265]

Washington has two local NPR affiliates, WAMU and WETA.

City government and politics

Politics

Article One, Section Eight of the United States Constitution grants the United States Congress "exclusive jurisdiction" over the city. The district did not have an elected local government until the passage of the 1973 Home Rule Act. The Act devolved certain Congressional powers to an elected mayor and the thirteen-member Council of the District of Columbia. However, Congress retains the right to review and overturn laws created by the council and intervene in local affairs.[266] Washington, D.C., is overwhelmingly Democratic, having voted for the Democratic presidential candidate solidly since it was granted electoral votes in 1964.

Each of the city's eight wards elects a single member of the council and residents elect four at-large members to represent the district as a whole. The council chair is also elected at-large.[267] There are 37 Advisory Neighborhood Commissions (ANCs) elected by small neighborhood districts. ANCs can issue recommendations on all issues that affect residents; government agencies take their advice under careful consideration.[268] The attorney general of the District of Columbia is elected to a four-year term.[269]

Washington, D.C., observes all federal holidays and also celebrates Emancipation Day on April 16, which commemorates the end of slavery in the district.[42] The flag of Washington, D.C., was adopted in 1938 and is a variation on George Washington's family coat of arms.[270]

Washington, D.C., has been a member state of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) since 2015.[271]

The idiom "Inside the Beltway" is a reference used by media to describe discussions of national political issues inside of Washington, by way of geographical demarcation regarding the region inner to the Capital's Beltway, Interstate 495, the city's highway loop (beltway) constructed in 1964. The phrase is used as a title for a number of political columns and news items by publications like the populist Washington Times.[272]

Budgetary issues

 
The John A. Wilson Building houses the offices of the Mayor and the Council of the District of Columbia.

The mayor and council set local taxes and a budget, which Congress must approve. The Government Accountability Office and other analysts have estimated that the city's high percentage of tax-exempt property and the Congressional prohibition of commuter taxes create a structural deficit in the district's local budget of anywhere between $470 million and over $1 billion per year. Congress typically provides additional grants for federal programs such as Medicaid and the operation of the local justice system; however, analysts claim that the payments do not fully resolve the imbalance.[273][274]

The city's local government, particularly during the mayoralty of Marion Barry, was criticized for mismanagement and waste.[275] During his administration in 1989, The Washington Monthly magazine claimed that the district had "the worst city government in America".[276] In 1995, at the start of Barry's fourth term, Congress created the District of Columbia Financial Control Board to oversee all municipal spending.[277] Mayor Anthony Williams won election in 1998 and oversaw a period of urban renewal and budget surpluses.

The district regained control over its finances in 2001 and the oversight board's operations were suspended.[278]

The district has a federally funded "Emergency Planning and Security Fund" to cover security related to visits by foreign leaders and diplomats, presidential inaugurations, protests, and terrorism concerns. During the Trump administration, the fund has run with a deficit. Trump's January 2017 inauguration cost the city $27 million; of that, $7 million was never repaid to the fund. Trump's 2019 Independence Day event, "A Salute to America", cost six times more than Independence Day events in past years.[279]

Voting rights debate

 
The city's license plate calls for an end to taxation without representation.

The district is not a state and therefore has no voting representation in Congress. D.C. residents elect a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives (D.C. At-Large), who may sit on committees, participate in debate, and introduce legislation, but cannot vote on the House floor. The district has no official representation in the United States Senate. Neither chamber seats the district's elected "shadow" representative or senators. Unlike residents of U.S. territories such as Puerto Rico or Guam, which also have non-voting delegates, D.C. residents are subject to all federal taxes.[280] In the financial year 2012, D.C. residents and businesses paid $20.7 billion in federal taxes, more than the taxes collected from 19 states and the highest federal taxes per capita.[281]

A 2005 poll found that 78% of Americans did not know residents of the District of Columbia have less representation in Congress than residents of the fifty states.[282] Efforts to raise awareness about the issue have included campaigns by grassroots organizations and featuring the city's unofficial motto, "End Taxation Without Representation", on D.C. vehicle license plates.[283] There is evidence of nationwide approval for D.C. voting rights; various polls indicate that 61 to 82% of Americans believe D.C. should have voting representation in Congress.[282][284]

Opponents of D.C. voting rights propose that the Founding Fathers never intended for district residents to have a vote in Congress since the Constitution makes clear that representation must come from the states. Those opposed to making D.C. a state claim such a move would destroy the notion of a separate national capital and that statehood would unfairly grant Senate representation to a single city.[285]

Sister cities

Washington, D.C., has fifteen official sister city agreements. Each of the listed cities is a national capital except for Sunderland, which includes the town of Washington, the ancestral home of George Washington's family.[286] Paris and Rome are each formally recognized as a partner city due to their special one sister city policy.[287] Listed in the order each agreement was first established, they are:

Education

 
The Library of Congress is the one of the world's second largest library with more than 167 million cataloged items and the nation's oldest cultural institution.[290]

District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS), the sole public school district in the city,[291] operates the city's 123 public schools.[292] The number of students in DCPS steadily decreased for 39 years until 2009. In the 2010–11 school year, 46,191 students were enrolled in the public school system.[293] DCPS has one of the highest-cost, yet lowest-performing school systems in the country, in terms of both infrastructure and student achievement.[294] Mayor Adrian Fenty's administration made sweeping changes to the system by closing schools, replacing teachers, firing principals, and using private education firms to aid curriculum development.[295]

The District of Columbia Public Charter School Board monitors the 52 public charter schools in the city.[296] Due to the perceived problems with the traditional public school system, enrollment in public charter schools had by 2007 steadily increased.[297] As of 2010, D.C., charter schools had a total enrollment of about 32,000, a 9% increase from the prior year.[293] The district is also home to 92 private schools, which enrolled approximately 18,000 students in 2008.[298] The District of Columbia Public Library operates 25 neighborhood locations including the landmark Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library.[299]

Higher education

Private universities include American University (AU), the Catholic University of America (CUA), Gallaudet University, George Washington University (GW), Georgetown University (GU), Howard University (HU), the Johns Hopkins University Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), and Trinity Washington University. The Corcoran College of Art and Design, the oldest art school in the capital, was absorbed into the George Washington University in 2014, now serving as its college of arts.[300]

The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) is a public land-grant university providing undergraduate and graduate education. D.C. residents may also be eligible for a grant of up to $15,000 per year to offset the cost of tuition at any public university in the country through the city's DCTAG program[301]

The district is known for its medical research institutions such as Washington Hospital Center and the Children's National Medical Center, as well as the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. In addition, the city is home to three medical schools and associated teaching hospitals at George Washington, Georgetown, and Howard universities.[302]

Infrastructure

Transportation

 
A Capital Bikeshare rental station near McPherson Square.

There are 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of streets, parkways, and avenues in the district.[303] Due to the freeway revolts of the 1960s, much of the proposed interstate highway system through the middle of Washington was never built. Interstate 95 (I-95), the nation's major east coast highway, therefore bends around the district to form the eastern portion of the Capital Beltway. A portion of the proposed highway funding was directed to the region's public transportation infrastructure instead.[304] The interstate highways that continue into Washington, including I-66 and I-395, both terminate shortly after entering the city.[305] According to a 2010 study, Washington-area commuters spent 70 hours a year in traffic delays, which tied with Chicago for having the nation's worst road congestion.[306] However, 37% of Washington-area commuters take public transportation to work, the second-highest rate in the country.[307] An additional 12% of D.C. commuters walked to work, 6% carpooled, and 3% traveled by bicycle in 2010.[308] A 2011 study by Walk Score found that Washington was the seventh-most walkable city in the country with 80% of residents living in neighborhoods that are not car dependent.[309] In 2013, the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria metropolitan statistical area (MSA) had the eighth lowest percentage of workers who commuted by private automobile (75.7 percent), with 8 percent of area workers traveling via rail transit.[310]

D.C. is part of the regional Capital Bikeshare program. Started in 2010, it is one of the largest bicycle sharing systems in the country with more than 4,351 bicycles and more than 395 stations,[311] all provided by PBSC Urban Solutions. By 2012, the city's network of marked bicycle lanes covered 56 miles (90 km) of streets.[312]

River crossings

 
Arlington Memorial Bridge connects Washington with Virginia across the Potomac River.

There are multiple transportation methods to cross the city's two rivers, the Potomac River and the Anacostia River. There are numerous bridges that take cars, trains, pedestrians, and bikers across the rivers. Among these are Arlington Memorial Bridge, the 14th Street Bridges, Francis Scott Key Bridge, Theodore Roosevelt Bridge, Woodrow Wilson Bridge, and Frederick Douglass Bridge.[313]

There are also ferries and water cruises that cross the Potomac River. One of these is the Potomac Water Taxi, operated by Hornblower Cruises, which goes between the Georgetown Waterfront, the Wharf, the Old Town Alexandria Waterfront, and National Harbor.[314]

Rail

 
Washington Metro is the second-largest rapid rail system in the U.S. based on annual ridership.
 
Washington Union Station is one of the busiest rail stations in the United States.

The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) operates the Washington Metro, the city's rapid transit rail system. The system serves Washington, D.C. as well as its Maryland and Virginia suburbs. Metro opened on March 27, 1976, and consists of six lines (each one color coded), 91 stations, and 117 miles (188 km) of track.[315] With an average of about one million trips each weekday, Metro is the second-busiest rapid transit system in the country and fifth-busiest in North America.[316] It operates mostly as a deep-level subway in more densely populated parts of the D.C. metropolitan area (including most of the District itself), while most of the suburban tracks are at surface level or elevated. Metro is known for its iconic brutalist-style vaulted ceilings in the interior stations. It is also known for having long escalators in some of its underground stations. The longest single-tier escalator in the Western Hemisphere, spanning 230 feet (70 m), is located at Metro's Wheaton station in Maryland.[317]

Union Station is the city's main train station and serves approximately 70,000 people each day. It is Amtrak's second-busiest station with 4.6 million passengers annually and is the southern terminus for the Northeast Corridor and Acela Express routes. Maryland's MARC and Virginia's VRE commuter trains and the Metrorail Red Line also provide service into Union Station.[318] Following renovations in 2011, Union Station became Washington's primary intercity bus transit center.[319]

Although Washington was famous throughout the 19th and early- to mid-20th centuries for its streetcars, these lines were dismantled in the 1960s. In 2016, however, the city brought back a streetcar line. The DC Streetcar consists of a single line in Northeast D.C., along H Street and Benning Road, known as the H Street/Benning Road Line.[320]

Bus

Two main public bus systems operate in Washington. Metrobus, operated by WMATA, is the primary public bus system in Washington, D.C. Serving more than 400,000 riders each weekday, it is one of the nation's largest bus systems by annual ridership.[321] The city also operates its own DC Circulator bus system, which connects commercial and touristic areas within central Washington.[322] The DC Circulator costs only $1 to ride and is composed of six distinct routes that cover central D.C. and suburban Rosslyn, Virginia. The DC Circulator is run via a public-private partnerships between the District of Columbia Department of Transportation, WMATA, and DC Surface Transit, Inc. (DCST). The bus system services each stop approximately every 10 minutes.[323]

Many other public bus systems operate in the various jurisdictions of the Washington region outside of the city in suburban Maryland and Virginia. Among these are the Fairfax Connector in Fairfax County, Virginia; DASH in Alexandria, Virginia; and TheBus in Prince George's County, Maryland.[324] There are also numerous commuter buses that residents of the wider Washington region take to commute into the city for work or other events. Among these are the Loudoun County Transit Commuter Bus and the Maryland Transit Administration Commuter Bus.[325]

D.C. also has numerous buses used by tourists and others visiting the city. Among the most popular tourist buses are Big Bus Tours, Old Town Trolley Tours, and DC Trails. The city also sees many charter buses carrying young students and other tourists from across the country to the Washington region's historic sites. These buses are often found parked beside famous tourist locations, such as the National Mall.

Air

Three major airports serve the district, though none are within the city's borders. Two of these major airports are located in suburban Virginia and one in suburban Maryland. The closest is Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, which is located in Virginia just across the Potomac River about 5 miles from the city. This airport is primarily reserved for domestic flights and has the lowest number of passengers of any of the three airports in the region. The busiest by international flights and the largest by land size and amount of facilities is Washington Dulles International Airport, located in suburban Virginia, about 24 miles west of the city.[326] Dulles has the most international passenger traffic of any airport in the Mid-Atlantic outside the New York metropolitan area, including approximately 90% of the international passenger traffic in the Washington-Baltimore region.[327] The busiest by number of total passenger boardings is Baltimore/Washington International Airport (BWI), located in suburban Maryland about 30 miles northeast of D.C.[328] Each of these three airports also serves as a hub for a major American airline: Reagan is a small hub for American Airlines,[329] Dulles is a major hub for United Airlines and Star Alliance partners,[330] and BWI is a hub for Southwest Airlines.[331]

The President of the United States does not use these airports for travel. Instead, he rides Marine One from the White House lawn to Joint Base Andrews, located just beyond the city's limits in Maryland. There, he takes Air Force One to his destination. The air base was originally built in 1942. From 1942 to 2009, it was solely an Air Force Base, but became a joint Air Force and Naval base in 2009, when Andrews Air Force Base and Naval Air Facility Washington were merged.

Utilities

The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (i.e., WASA or D.C. Water) is an independent authority of the D.C. government that provides drinking water and wastewater collection in Washington. WASA purchases water from the historic Washington Aqueduct, which is operated by the Army Corps of Engineers. The water, sourced from the Potomac River, is treated and stored in the city's Dalecarlia, Georgetown, and McMillan reservoirs. The aqueduct provides drinking water for a total of 1.1 million people in the district and Virginia, including Arlington, Falls Church, and a portion of Fairfax County.[332] The authority also provides sewage treatment services for an additional 1.6 million people in four surrounding Maryland and Virginia counties.[333]

Pepco is the city's electric utility and services 793,000 customers in the district and suburban Maryland.[334] An 1889 law prohibits overhead wires within much of the historic City of Washington. As a result, all power lines and telecommunication cables are located underground in downtown Washington, and traffic signals are placed at the edge of the street.[335] A plan announced in 2013 would bury an additional 60 miles (97 km) of primary power lines throughout the district.[336]

Washington Gas is the city's natural gas utility and serves more than a million customers in the district and its suburbs. Incorporated by Congress in 1848, the company installed the city's first gas lights in the Capitol, the White House, and along Pennsylvania Avenue.[337]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ By 1790, the Southern states had largely repaid their overseas debts from the Revolutionary War. The Northern states had not, and wanted the federal government to take over their outstanding liabilities. Southern Congressmen agreed to the plan in return for establishing the new national capital at their preferred site on the Potomac River.[24]
  2. ^ The Residence Act allowed the President to select a location within Maryland as far east as the Anacostia River. However, Washington shifted the federal territory's borders to the southeast and rotated them to include the city of Alexandria at the District's southern tip. In 1791, Congress amended the Residence Act to approve the new site, including territory ceded by Virginia.[25]
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  4. ^ Official records for Washington, D.C. were kept at 24th and M Streets NW from January 1871 to June 1945, and at Reagan National Airport since July 1945.[90]
  5. ^ Apportionment totals are collected by combining Resident and Overseas population. (For D.C., this is 689545 residents and 1988 overseas population.)
  6. ^ Until 1890, the Census Bureau counted the City of Washington, Georgetown, and unincorporated portions of Washington County as three separate areas. The data provided in this article from before 1890 are calculated as if the District of Columbia were a single municipality as it is today. Population data for each city prior to 1890 are available.[119]
  7. ^ The territories of the United States have the highest poverty rates in the United States.[144]
  8. ^ These figures count adherents, meaning all full members, their children, and others who regularly attend services. In all of the District, 55% of the population is adherent to any particular religion.

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