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Paul Reynaud (French: [pɔl ʁɛjno]; 15 October 1878 – 21 September 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany.

Paul Reynaud
Paul Reynaud 1933.jpg
Paul Reynaud (1933)
77th Prime Minister of France
In office
21 March 1940 – 16 June 1940
President Albert Lebrun
Preceded by Édouard Daladier
Succeeded by Philippe Pétain
Deputy Prime Minister of France
In office
28 June 1953 – 12 June 1954
Preceded by Henri Queuille
Succeeded by Guy Mollet
In office
20 February 1932 – 10 May 1932
Preceded by Lucien Hubert
Succeeded by Albert Dalimier
Minister responsible for Relations with Partner States and the Far East
In office
2 July 1950 – 4 July 1950
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Jean Letourneau
Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs
In office
26 July 1948 – 28 August 1948
Preceded by René Mayer
Succeeded by Christian Pineau
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
5 June 1940 – 16 June 1940
Preceded by Édouard Daladier
Succeeded by Philippe Pétain
In office
21 March 1940 – 18 May 1940
Preceded by Édouard Daladier
Succeeded by Édouard Daladier
Minister of National Defence and War
In office
18 May 1940 – 16 June 1940
Preceded by Édouard Daladier
Succeeded by Maxime Weygand
Minister of Finance
In office
1 November 1938 – 21 March 1940
Preceded by Paul Marchandeau
Succeeded by Lucien Lamoureux
In office
2 March 1930 – 4 December 1930
Preceded by Charles Dumont
Succeeded by Louis Germain-Martin
Minister of Justice
In office
12 April 1938 – 1 November 1938
Preceded by Marc Rucart
Succeeded by Paul Marchandeau
In office
20 February 1932 – 3 June 1932
Preceded by Léon Bérard
Succeeded by René Renoult
Minister of the Colonies
In office
27 February 1931 – 6 February 1932
Preceded by Théodore Steeg
Succeeded by Louis de Chappedelaine
Personal details
Born Jean Paul Reynaud
(1878-10-15)15 October 1878
Barcelonnette, France
Died 21 September 1966(1966-09-21) (aged 87)
Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
Political party Democratic Republican Alliance
(1901–1949)
National Centre of Independents and Peasants
(1949–1966)
Spouse(s) Jeanne Henri-Robert
(1912–1913)
Christiane Mabire
(1949–1966)
Children Colette
Serge
Evelyne
Alexandre
Alma mater HEC Paris

After the outbreak of World War II Reynaud became the penultimate Prime Minister of the Third Republic in March 1940. He was also vice-president of the Democratic Republican Alliance center-right party. Reynaud was Prime Minister during the German defeat of France in May and June 1940; he persistently refused to support an armistice with Germany and resigned on 16 June. After unsuccessfully attempting to flee France, he was arrested by Philippe Petain's administration. Surrendered to German custody in 1942, he was imprisoned in Germany and later Austria until liberation in 1945.

Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1946, he became a prominent figure again in French political life, serving in several cabinet positions. He favoured a United States of Europe, and participated in drafting the constitution for the Fifth Republic, but resigned from government in 1962 after disagreement with President de Gaulle over changes to the electoral system.

Contents

Early life and politicsEdit

Reynaud was born in Barcelonnette, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. His father had made a fortune in the textile industry, enabling Reynaud to study law at the Sorbonne. He entered politics and was elected to the French Chamber of Deputies from 1919 to 1924, representing Basses-Alpes, and again from 1928, representing a Paris district. Although he was first elected as part of the conservative "Blue Horizon" bloc in 1919, Reynaud shortly thereafter switched his allegiance to the centre-right Democratic Republican Alliance party, later becoming its vice-president.

In the 1920s, Reynaud developed a reputation for laxity on German reparations, at a time when many in the French government backed harsher terms for Germany. In the 1930s during the Great Depression, particularly after 1933, Reynaud's stance hardened against the Germans at a time when all nations were struggling economically. Reynaud backed a strong alliance with the United Kingdom and, unlike many others on the French Right, better relations with the Soviet Union as a counterweight against the Germans.[1]:517

Reynaud held several cabinet posts in the early 1930s, but he clashed with members of his party after 1932 over French foreign and defense policy. He was not given another cabinet position until 1938. Like Winston Churchill, Reynaud was a maverick in his party and often alone in his calls for rearmament and resistance to German aggrandizement. Reynaud was a supporter of Charles de Gaulle's theories of mechanized warfare in contrast to the static defense doctrines that were in vogue among many of his countrymen, symbolized by the Maginot Line. He strongly opposed appeasement in the run-up to the Second World War. He also clashed with his party on economic policy, backing the devaluation of the franc as a solution to France's economic woes. Pierre Étienne Flandin, the leader of the Democratic Republican Alliance, agreed with several of Reynaud's key policy stances, particularly on Reynaud's defence of economic liberalism.

Return to governmentEdit

Reynaud returned to the cabinet in 1938 as Minister of Finance under Édouard Daladier. The Sudeten Crisis, which began not long after Reynaud was named Minister of Justice, again revealed the divide between Reynaud and the rest of the Alliance Démocratique; Reynaud adamantly opposed abandoning the Czechs to the Germans, while Flandin felt that allowing Germany to expand eastward would inevitably lead to a conflict with the Soviets that would weaken both. Reynaud publicly made his case, and in response Flandin pamphleted Paris in order to pressure the government to agree to Hitler's demands.[1]:519 Reynaud subsequently left his party to become an independent. However, Reynaud still had the support of Daladier, whose politique de fermeté ("policy of firmness") was very similar to Reynaud's notion of deterrence.

Reynaud, however, had always wanted the Finance ministry. He endorsed radically liberal economic policies in order to draw France's economy out of stagnation, centered on a massive program of deregulation, including the elimination of the forty-hour work week.[1]:503 The notion of deregulation was very popular among France's businessmen, and Reynaud believed that it was the best way for France to regain investors' confidence again and escape the stagnation its economy had fallen into. The collapse of Léon Blum's government in 1938 was a response to Blum's attempt to expand the regulatory powers of the French government; there was therefore considerable support in the French government for an alternative approach like Reynaud's.

Paul Marchandeau, Daladier's first choice for finance minister, offered a limited program of economic reform that was not to Daladier's satisfaction; Reynaud and Marchandeau swapped portfolios, and Reynaud went ahead with his radical liberalization reforms. Reynaud's reforms were successfully implemented, and the government faced down a one-day strike in opposition. Reynaud addressed France's business community, arguing that "We live in a capitalist system. For it to function we must obey its laws. These are the laws of profits, individual risk, free markets, and growth by competition."[1]:504

Reynaud's reforms proved remarkably successful; a massive austerity program was implemented (although armament measures were not cut) and France's coffers expanded from 37 billion francs in September 1938 to 48 billion francs at the outbreak of war a year later. More importantly, France's industrial productivity jumped from 76 to 100 (base=1929) from October 1938 to May 1939.[1]:505 At the outbreak of war, however, Reynaud was not bullish on France's economy; he felt that the massive increase in spending that a war entailed would stamp out France's recovery.

The French Right was ambivalent about the war in late 1939 and early 1940, feeling that the Soviets rather than Nazi Germany were the greater long-term threat.[1]:522–523 Daladier regarded the war with Germany as the greater priority and so refused to send aid to the Finns, who were under attack from the USSR, then loosely allied to Germany, in the Winter War. News that the Finns had sued for peace in March 1940 prompted Flandin and Pierre Laval to hold secret sessions of the legislature that denounced Daladier's actions; the government fell on 19 March. The government named Reynaud Prime Minister of France two days later.

Prime minister, resignation, and arrestEdit

AppointmentEdit

Although Reynaud was increasingly popular, the Chamber of Deputies elected him premier by only a single vote with most of his own party abstaining; over half of the votes for Reynaud came from the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) party. With so much support from the left, and opposition from many parties on the right, Reynaud's government was especially unstable; many on the Right demanded that Reynaud attack not Germany, but the Soviet Union.[1]:524 The Chamber also forced Daladier, whom Reynaud held personally responsible for France's weakness, to be Reynaud's Minister of National Defense and War. One of Reynaud's first acts was at a meeting of the Anglo-French Supreme War Council held in London on 28 March 1940, whose main outcome was the signing of a declaration with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain that neither of the two countries would sign a separate peace. A joint communiqué declared 'Both Governments mutually undertake that during the present war they will neither negotiate nor conclude an armistice or treaty of peace except by mutual agreement. They undertake to maintain after conclusion of peace a community of action for so long as may be necessary'.[2]

Reynaud abandoned any notion of a "long war strategy" based on attrition. Aiming at diverting German attentions from France, Reynaud entertained suggestions to expand the war to the Balkans or northern Europe; he was instrumental in launching the allied campaign in Norway, though it ended in failure. Britain's decision to withdraw on 26 April prompted Reynaud to travel to London to lobby the British personally to stand and fight in Norway.[1]:533

The German breakthroughEdit

The Battle of France began less than two months after Reynaud came to office. France was badly mauled by the initial attack in early May 1940, and Paris was threatened. On 15 May, five days after the invasion began, Reynaud contacted Churchill and famously remarked, "We have been defeated... we are beaten; we have lost the battle.... The front is broken near Sedan." Indeed, such was the situation regarding equipment and morale that Reynaud received a postcard found on the body of an officer who had committed suicide in Le Mans. It stated: "I am killing myself Mr President[3] to let you know that all my men were brave, but one cannot send men to fight tanks with rifles."[4]

On 18 May Reynaud removed commander-in-chief Maurice Gamelin in favour of Maxime Weygand.[5]

On 26 May, around lunchtime, Reynaud attended a meeting in London with Churchill. At 2 pm Churchill reported to the War Cabinet that Reynaud had stated that the French military situation was hopeless, that he had no intention of signing a separate peace with Germany, but that he might be forced to resign and that others in the French government might sign such a treaty. At this stage Churchill told Reynaud that he did not rule out talks with Mussolini altogether (Italy was still neutral). The Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax met Reynaud later in the afternoon, before the latter’s return to France. This was the beginning of the British May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis, in which Halifax favoured what was euphemistically described as “the Reynaud Option”: approaching the Italians to see if acceptable peace terms could be negotiated, perhaps by giving up some British territory in the Mediterranean. Halifax was eventually overruled by Churchill.[6]:217

On 28 May Churchill sent a telegram to Reynaud stating that there would be no approach to Mussolini at that time but still leaving the possibility open. Mussolini had rejected an approach by President Roosevelt along the lines suggested by Britain and France. On 28 May, it was learned that Italy was planning to enter the war on Germany's side, which would happen on 10 June.[6]:223-227

In early June Charles de Gaulle, whom Reynaud had long supported and one of the few French commanders to have fought the Germans successfully in May 1940, was promoted to brigadier general and named undersecretary of war.[5]

Support for an armistice; Reynaud's resignationEdit

Reynaud vacillated a little on his return from London on 26 May, but otherwise wanted to continue to fight. However, he was unable to persuade enough of his colleagues.[7]:138–142 Italy entered the war on 10 June; on that same day, Commander-in-Chief General Weygand strode into Reynaud’s office and demanded an armistice. At around 11  pm that night Reynaud and de Gaulle left Paris for Tours; the rest of the government followed the next day. De Gaulle was unable to persuade Reynaud to sack Weygand.[8]:195–196

At the Anglo-French conference at the Chateau du Muguet, Briare, on 11–12 June, Churchill urged the French to carry on fighting, either in Brittany or in French North Africa, or by guerrilla warfare, meeting strong resistance from Deputy Prime Minister Marshal Pétain. At the Cabinet meeting on the evening of 12 June it was clear that there was a growing movement for an armistice, and it was decided to move to Bordeaux rather than to a fortified Brittany.[8]:197–198

At the next Anglo-French conference at Tours on 13 June, Reynaud demanded that France be released from the agreement which he had made with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in March 1940, so that France could seek an armistice. Churchill said that he “understood” the French action but (contrary to later claims that he approved) that he did not agree with it. At the Cabinet meeting that evening (Churchill had returned to London rather than address the French Cabinet as Reynaud had wished) Pétain strongly supported Weygand’s demand for an armistice, and said that he himself would remain in France to share the suffering of the French people and to begin the national rebirth,[8]:199–201 President Albert Lebrun refused Reynaud’s resignation on 13 June.[8]:204–205

Edward Spears recorded that Reynaud was, from the evening of 13 June, under great stress. Paul Baudouin and Marie-Joseph Paul de Villelume had been leaning on Reynaud to seek an armistice with Germany, as had his mistress, the Comtesse Hélène de Portes, a Fascist sympathizer[7]:138–142[9] On 14 June Villelume and de Portes called on the American diplomat Anthony Joseph Drexel Biddle Jr. and stated that France had no alternative but to seek an armistice and that they were speaking on behalf of Reynaud, although Biddle did not believe them.[7] :138–142

At Cabinet on 15 June, Reynaud urged the Cabinet to adopt the Dutch example, that the Army should lay down its arms so that the fight could be continued from abroad; Pétain was sympathetic.[10]:82–86 Pétain was sent to speak to General Weygand (who was waiting outside, as he was not a member of the Cabinet).[11]:325–327 Weygand persuaded him that this would be a shameful surrender. Chautemps then suggested a fudge proposal, an inquiry about terms.[10]:82–86 The Cabinet voted 13-6 for the Chautemps proposal. Reynaud tried to resign on the spot but Lebrun shouted at him. Admiral Darlan, who had been opposed to an armistice until 15 June, now agreed, provided the French fleet was kept out of German hands.[11]:325–327 On 15 June, Reynaud threw two glasses of water over de Portes at dinner; a key telegram had been found in her bed after it went missing.[7]:138–142

On 16 June de Portes kept putting her head around the door during a meeting and US diplomats testified that she was constantly coming and going from Reynaud’s office.[7] :138–142 President Roosevelt's reply to Reynaud's inquiry, stating that he could do little to help without Congressional approval, was then received on the morning of Sunday 16 June.[10]:82–86 Churchill’s telegram also arrived that morning, agreeing to an armistice provided the French fleet was moved to British ports, a proposal unacceptable to Darlan, who argued that it would leave France defenceless.[10]:82–86 De Gaulle was in London for talks about the planned Franco-British Union that afternoon. He telephoned Reynaud to inform him the British Cabinet had agreed.[8]:203–204 The French Cabinet then met in Bordeaux. Reynaud wanted to fight on; he and Georges Mandel were among the few in the cabinet to support the proposal.[12] Contrary to Lebrun’s mistaken recollection, no formal vote appears to have been taken at Cabinet on Sunday 16 June.[8]:204–205 The outcome of the meeting is unclear.[10]:82–86 Ten ministers wanted to fight on while seven favoured an armistice, though these included the two Deputy Prime Ministers: Pétain and Chautemps. An armistice was also favoured by Weygand. Another eight ministers were undecided, but ultimately swung towards an armistice. This time, Lebrun reluctantly accepted Reynaud’s resignation. De Gaulle later wrote that Reynaud was “a man of great worth unjustly crushed by events beyond measure”.[8]:204–205

After resignationEdit

Julian Jackson writes that Reynaud felt guilty for 20 years for having let Pétain into power, and gave ever more convoluted explanations of what had happened: despite his own fighting spirit, apart from a brief vacillation on 26 May, "he had failed to be Clemenceau (France's great war Prime Minister of 1917-18), but missed the chance to be de Gaulle and never forgave himself". Reynaud later claimed that he had hoped Pétain would resign if the armistice terms were too harsh, which if true was wishful thinking in Jackson’s view. There were claims that he could have mustered a majority in the Cabinet for fighting on, so he later claimed that he could not have argued against the political weight of the “softs”, especially Pétain and Weygand, France’s two leading soldiers.[7]:138–142

Spears recorded that Reynaud appeared relieved to be rid of his burden. In the immediate aftermath, he appears to have been in denial, hoping still to meet Churchill at Concarneau on 17 June (in fact Churchill, who was at Waterloo Station, had cancelled his travel plans on learning of Reynaud’s resignation).[7]:138–142

Jules Jeanneney and Edouard Herriot, Presidents respectively of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, urged Lebrun to reappoint Reynaud as Prime Minister (all four men wanted to continue the war from North Africa). Lebrun felt he had little choice but to appoint Pétain, who already had a ministerial team ready, as Prime Minister. Pétain became the leader of the new government (the last one of the Third Republic), and signed the armistice on 22 June.[8]:206–207 De Gaulle had returned to Bordeaux at around 10pm on 16 June. He visited Reynaud, who still hoped to go to North Africa and declined to come to London. Reynaud still had control of secret government funds until the handover of power the next day, and made money available to de Gaulle. De Gaulle flew to London with Edward Spears at 9  am on 17 June, and the next day made his famous broadcast announcing that he would fight on. It has been suggested that Reynaud had ordered de Gaulle to go to London, but no written evidence has ever been found to confirm this.[8]:209

Reynaud would later provisionally accept Pétain’s offer of the post of French Ambassador to the USA. Lebrun refused to confirm the appointment, apparently as he admired Reynaud and wanted to save him from association with the Pétain government.[8]:209, 238

Accident and arrestEdit

Reynaud and de Portes left the Hotel Splendid, Bordeaux, driving southeast ahead of the advancing German armies, intending to stop at Reynaud's holiday home at Grès, Hérault, (other sources state Sainte-Maxime) before fleeing to North Africa. On 28 June, with Reynaud at the wheel, their Renault Juvaquatre car inexplicably left the road and hit a plane tree at La Peyrade, between Frontignan and Sète; de Portes was all but decapitated, while Reynaud escaped with relatively minor head injuries.[13][14] Hospitalized at Montpellier, Reynaud was arrested on his discharge on Pétain's orders and imprisoned at Fort du Portalet.[15] Pétain decided against having Reynaud charged during the Riom Trial of 1942, but surrendered him to the Germans instead, who removed him firstly to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, thence Itter Castle near Wörgl, Austria, where he remained with other high-profile French prisoners until liberated by Allied troops on 7 May 1945.[16] Major Josef Gangl, a Wehrmacht officer who had gone over to the anti-Nazi Austrian resistance, was killed by a sniper's bullet while trying to move Reynaud out of harm's way during the Battle for Castle Itter on May 5, 1945.[17]

While hospitalized at Montpellier, Reynaud allegedly told Bill Bullitt, American ambassador, "I have lost my country, my honour, and my love."[18]

Postwar lifeEdit

After the war, Reynaud was elected in 1946 as a member of the Chamber of Deputies. He was appointed to several cabinet positions in the postwar period and remained a prominent figure in French politics. His attempts to form governments in 1952 and 1953 in the turbulent politics of the French Fourth Republic were failures.

Reynaud supported the idea of a United States of Europe, along with a number of prominent contemporaries. Reynaud presided over the consultative committee that drafted the constitution of France's (current) Fifth Republic. In 1962, he denounced his old friend de Gaulle's replacement of the electoral college system by a direct public vote for the Presidency. Reynaud left office the same year; he died on 21 September 1966 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, leaving a number of writings.

Private lifeEdit

By his first marriage in 1912 to Jeanne Anne Henri-Robert, he was the father of a daughter, Collette, born in 1914. At some time in the early 1920s, Reynaud was introduced to Hélène Rebuffel by Andre Tardieu, a friend of her father's. Rebuffel's father, however, was displeased at her relationship with a married man, actively seeking other suitors for her, and she was eventually persuaded to marry the Italian Comte Henri de Portes. After she had borne him two children, the marriage failed, and when Reynaud and his wife separated in 1938, Hélène de Portes became his mistress. De Portes died in a road accident in 1940, after which Reynaud was arrested and imprisoned until the liberation. Reynaud and his first wife were finally divorced in 1949. Reynaud then married Christiane Mabire (who was previously one of his office assistants) at Versailles in the same year, at the age of 71, by which time she had already borne him a son, Serge Paul-Reynaud; they had two more children, Evelyne, in 1949, and Alexandre in 1954.[19]

Reynaud's government, 21 March – 16 June 1940Edit

 
Three French cabinet ministers, Édouard Daladier, Georges Monnet and Paul Reynaud c. 1940

Changes

  • 10 May 1940 – Louis Marin and Jean Ybarnegaray enter the Cabinet as Ministers of State
  • 18 May 1940 – Philippe Pétain enters the Cabinet as Minister of State. Reynaud succeeds Daladier as Minister of National Defense and War. Daladier succeeds Reynaud as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Georges Mandel succeeds Roy as Minister of the Interior. Louis Rollin succeeds Mandel as Minister of Colonies. Léon Baréty succeeds Rollin as Minister of Commerce and Industry.
  • 5 June 1940 – Reynaud succeeds Daladier as Minister of Foreign Affairs, remaining also Minister of National Defense and War. Yves Bouthillier succeeds Lamoureux as Minister of Finance. Yvon Delbos succeeds Sarraut as Minister of National Education. Ludovic-Oscar Frossard succeeds Monzie as Minister of Public Works. Jean Prouvost succeeds Frossard as Minister of Information. Georges Pernot succeeds Héraud as Health Minister, with the new title of Minister of French Family. Albert Chichery succeeds Baréty as Minister of Commerce and Industry.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Imlay, Talbot C. "Paul Reynaud and France's Response to Nazi Germany, 1938–1940," French Historical Studies 26.3 (2003)
  2. ^ [1] Present and Future Plans (Time Magazine, 8 April 1940) Retrieved 2008-10-22
  3. ^ "President" in this context means "President of the Council of Ministers", the official title of the Prime Minister of France, not the President of the Republic
  4. ^ Regan, Geoffrey. Military Anecdotes - The End of The Line (1992)  p.159 ISBN 0-85112-519-0
  5. ^ a b http://www.spartacus-educational.com/2WWreynaud.htm
  6. ^ a b Roberts, A. (1991). The Holy Fox, The Life of Lord Halifax. London: Phoenix, 1991. ISBN 978-1857994728
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Jackson, J. (2003). The Fall of France. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 019280300X.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lacouture, J. (1984). De Gaulle: The Rebel 1890–1944. English ed. 1990, W W Norton & Co, London. ISBN 978-0393026993
  9. ^ Pelayo, D. (2009) L'accident de Paul Reynaud. l'Agglorieuse
  10. ^ a b c d e Atkin, N. (1997). Pétain, Longman, ISBN 978-0-582-07037-0
  11. ^ a b Williams, C. (2005). Pétain, Little Brown (Time Warner Book Group UK), London, ISBN 978-0-316-86127-4
  12. ^ Shlaim, Avi (July 1974). "Prelude to Downfall: The British Offer of Union to France, June 1940". Journal of Contemporary History. 3. 9: 27–63. JSTOR 260024. doi:10.1177/002200947400900302. 
  13. ^ Benoit-Méchin, J. (1956). Soixante jours qui ébranlèrent l'Occident : Volume 3, La Fin du régime - 26 juin / 10 juillet 1940,  p.46. Laffont, Paris. ISBN 978-2-221-13211-1
  14. ^ Photo of the car wreck, under year '1940', in Chronologie La Peyrade [2]
  15. ^ http://www.tourisme-aspe.com/fort-du-portalet.html
  16. ^ Barber, Noel (1976). The Week France Fell. p. 299. 
  17. ^ "Sepp Gangl-Straße in Wörgl • Strassensuche.at". Strassensuche.at. 
  18. ^ Moss, N. (2003). 19 Weeks. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York. ISBN 0-618-10471-2.
  19. ^ Kapfer, E. (2017). Hélène Marie Jeanne Rebuffel, Comtesse de Portes (1902 - 1940). Christine Belcikowski Publications. [3]

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Charles Dumont
Minister of Finance
1930
Succeeded by
Louis Germain-Martin
Preceded by
Théodore Steeg
Minister of the Colonies
1931–1932
Succeeded by
Louis de Chappedelaine
Preceded by
Lucien Hubert
Vice President of the Council
1932
Succeeded by
Albert Dalimier
Preceded by
Léon Bérard
Minister of Justice
1932
Succeeded by
René Renoult
Preceded by
Marc Rucart
Minister of Justice
1938
Succeeded by
Paul Marchandeau
Preceded by
Paul Marchandeau
Minister of Finance
1938–1940
Succeeded by
Lucien Lamoureux
Preceded by
Édouard Daladier
President of the Council
1940
Succeeded by
Philippe Pétain
Preceded by
Édouard Daladier
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1940
Succeeded by
Édouard Daladier
Preceded by
Édouard Daladier
Minister of National Defense and War
1940
Succeeded by
Maxime Weygand
Preceded by
Édouard Daladier
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1940
Succeeded by
Philippe Pétain
Preceded by
René Mayer
Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs
1948
Succeeded by
Christian Pineau
Preceded by
Minister responsible for Relations with
Partner States and the Far East

1950
Succeeded by
Jean Letourneau
Preceded by
Henri Queuille
Vice President of the Council
with Henri Queuille and Pierre-Henri Teitgen
1953–1954
Succeeded by
Guy Mollet