Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is an American actor and filmmaker. Known for both his comedic and dramatic roles, Hanks is one of the most popular and recognizable film stars worldwide, and is regarded as an American cultural icon. Hanks's films have grossed more than $4.9 billion in North America and more than $9.96 billion worldwide, making him the fourth-highest-grossing actor in North America.
Hanks at the 2019 Toronto International Film Festival
Thomas Jeffrey Hanks
July 9, 1956
Concord, California, U.S.
|Education||California State University|
|Net worth||$350 million (Feb 2020)|
|Children||4, including Colin Hanks|
Hanks made his breakthrough with leading roles in the comedies Splash (1984) and Big (1988). He won two consecutive Academy Awards for Best Actor for starring as a gay lawyer suffering from AIDS in Philadelphia (1993) and a young man with below-average IQ in Forrest Gump (1994). Hanks collaborated with film director Steven Spielberg on five films: Saving Private Ryan (1998), Catch Me If You Can (2002), The Terminal (2004), Bridge of Spies (2015), and The Post (2017), as well as the 2001 miniseries Band of Brothers, which launched him as a director, producer, and screenwriter.
Hanks's other notable films include the romantic comedies Sleepless in Seattle (1993) and You've Got Mail (1998); the dramas Apollo 13 (1995), The Green Mile (1999), Cast Away (2000), Road to Perdition (2002), and Cloud Atlas (2012); and the biographical dramas Saving Mr. Banks (2013), Captain Phillips (2013), Sully (2016), and A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood (2019). He has also appeared as the title character in the Robert Langdon film series, and has voiced Sheriff Woody in the Toy Story film series (1995–2019).
Hanks's accolades include two Academy Awards out of six nominations. He has received the Stanley Kubrick Britannia Award for Excellence in Film from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts in 2004. In 2014, he received a Kennedy Center Honor, and in 2016, he received a Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama, as well as the French Legion of Honor.
Thomas Jeffrey Hanks was born in Concord, California, on July 9, 1956, to hospital worker Janet Marylyn (née Frager, 1932–2016) and itinerant cook Amos Mefford Hanks (1924–1992). His mother was of Portuguese descent (her family's surname was originally "Fraga"), while his father had English ancestry. His parents divorced in 1960. Their three oldest children, Sandra (later Sandra Hanks Benoiton, a writer), Larry (an entomology professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign), and Tom, went with their father, while the youngest, Jim (who also became an actor and filmmaker), remained with their mother in Red Bluff, California. In his childhood, Hanks's family moved often; by the age of 10, he had lived in 10 different houses.
While Hanks's family religious history was Catholic and Mormon, he has characterized his teenage self as being a "Bible-toting evangelical" for several years. In school, he was unpopular with students and teachers alike, later telling Rolling Stone magazine, "I was a geek, a spaz. I was horribly, painfully, terribly shy. At the same time, I was the guy who'd yell out funny captions during filmstrips. But I didn't get into trouble. I was always a real good kid and pretty responsible." In 1965, his father married Frances Wong, a San Francisco native of Chinese descent. Frances had three children, two of whom lived with Hanks during his high school years. Hanks acted in school plays, including South Pacific, while attending Skyline High School in Oakland, California.
Hanks studied theater at Chabot College in Hayward, California, and transferred to California State University, Sacramento after two years. During a 2001 interview with sportscaster Bob Costas, Hanks was asked whether he would rather have an Oscar or a Heisman Trophy. He replied he would rather win a Heisman by playing halfback for the California Golden Bears. He told New York magazine in 1986, "Acting classes looked like the best place for a guy who liked to make a lot of noise and be rather flamboyant. I spent a lot of time going to plays. I wouldn't take dates with me. I'd just drive to a theater, buy myself a ticket, sit in the seat and read the program, and then get into the play completely. I spent a lot of time like that, seeing Brecht, Tennessee Williams, Ibsen, and all that."
During his years studying theater, Hanks met Vincent Dowling, head of the Great Lakes Theater Festival in Cleveland, Ohio. At Dowling's suggestion, Hanks became an intern at the festival. His internship stretched into a three-year experience that covered most aspects of theater production, including lighting, set design, and stage management, prompting Hanks to drop out of college. During the same time, Hanks won the Cleveland Critics Circle Award for Best Actor for his 1978 performance as Proteus in Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona, one of the few times he played a villain. In 2010, Time magazine named Hanks one of the "Top 10 College Dropouts."
1979–1987: Early work
In 1979, Hanks moved to New York City, where he made his film debut in the low-budget slasher film He Knows You're Alone (1980) and landed a starring role in the television movie Mazes and Monsters. Early that year, he was cast in the lead, Callimaco, in the Riverside Shakespeare Company's production of Niccolò Machiavelli's The Mandrake, directed by Daniel Southern. The following year, Hanks landed one of the lead roles, that of character Kip Wilson, on the ABC television pilot of Bosom Buddies. He and Peter Scolari played a pair of young advertising men forced to dress as women so they could live in an inexpensive all-female hotel. Hanks had previously partnered with Scolari on the 1970s game show Make Me Laugh. After landing the role, Hanks moved to Los Angeles. Bosom Buddies ran for two seasons, and, although the ratings were never strong, television critics gave the program high marks. "The first day I saw him on the set," co-producer Ian Praiser told Rolling Stone, "I thought, 'Too bad he won't be in television for long.' I knew he'd be a movie star in two years." However, although Praiser knew it, he was not able to convince Hanks. "The television show had come out of nowhere," Hanks's best friend Tom Lizzio told Rolling Stone.
Bosom Buddies and a guest appearance on a 1982 episode of Happy Days ("A Case of Revenge," in which he played a disgruntled former classmate of Fonzie) prompted director Ron Howard to contact Hanks. Howard was working on the film Splash (1984), a romantic comedy fantasy about a mermaid who falls in love with a human. At first, Howard considered Hanks for the role of the main character's wisecracking brother, a role that eventually went to John Candy. Instead, Hanks landed the lead role in Splash, which went on to become a surprise box office hit, grossing more than US$69 million. He also had a sizable hit with the sex comedy Bachelor Party, also in 1984. In 1983–84, Hanks made three guest appearances on Family Ties as Elyse Keaton's alcoholic brother, Ned Donnelly.
With Nothing in Common (1986)—a story of a young man alienated from his father (played by Jackie Gleason)— Hanks began to extend himself from comedic roles to dramatic roles. In an interview with Rolling Stone magazine, Hanks commented on his experience: "It changed my desires about working in movies. Part of it was the nature of the material, what we were trying to say. But besides that, it focused on people's relationships. The story was about a guy and his father, unlike, say, The Money Pit, where the story is really about a guy and his house."
After a few more flops and a moderate success with the comedy Dragnet, Hanks's stature in the film industry rose.
1988–2003: Established star
The broad success of the fantasy comedy Big (1988) established Hanks as a major Hollywood talent, both as a box office draw and within the industry as an actor. For his performance in the film, Hanks earned his first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Big was followed later that year by Punchline, in which he and Sally Field co-starred as struggling comedians.
Hanks then suffered a run of box-office underperformers: The 'Burbs (1989), Joe Versus the Volcano (1990), and The Bonfire of the Vanities (1990). In the last, he portrayed a greedy Wall Street figure who gets enmeshed in a hit-and-run accident. 1989's Turner & Hooch was Hanks's only financially successful film of the period.
Hanks climbed back to the top again with his portrayal of a washed-up baseball legend turned manager in A League of Their Own (1992). Hanks has said his acting in earlier roles was not great, but that he subsequently improved. In an interview with Vanity Fair, Hanks noted his "modern era of moviemaking ... because enough self-discovery has gone on ... My work has become less pretentiously fake and over the top". This "modern era" began in 1993 for Hanks, first with Sleepless in Seattle and then with Philadelphia. The former was a blockbuster success about a widower who finds true love over the radio airwaves. Richard Schickel of TIME called his performance "charming," and most critics agreed that Hanks' portrayal ensured him a place among the premier romantic-comedy stars of his generation.
In Philadelphia, he played a gay lawyer with AIDS who sues his firm for discrimination. Hanks lost 35 pounds and thinned his hair in order to appear sickly for the role. In a review for People, Leah Rozen stated, "Above all, credit for Philadelphia's success belongs to Hanks, who makes sure that he plays a character, not a saint. He is flat-out terrific, giving a deeply felt, carefully nuanced performance that deserves an Oscar." Hanks won the 1993 Academy Award for Best Actor for his role in Philadelphia. During his acceptance speech, he revealed that his high school drama teacher Rawley Farnsworth and former classmate John Gilkerson, two people with whom he was close, were gay.
Hanks followed Philadelphia with the 1994 hit Forrest Gump which grossed a worldwide total of over $600 million at the box office. Hanks remarked: "When I read the script for Gump, I saw it as one of those kind of grand, hopeful movies that the audience can go to and feel ... some hope for their lot and their position in life ... I got that from the movies a hundred million times when I was a kid. I still do." Hanks won his second Best Actor Academy Award for his role in Forrest Gump, becoming only the second actor to have accomplished the feat of winning consecutive Best Actor Oscars. (Spencer Tracy was the first, winning in 1937–38. Hanks and Tracy were the same age at the time they received their Academy Awards: 37 for the first and 38 for the second.)
Hanks's next role as astronaut and commander Jim Lovell in the 1995 film Apollo 13 reunited him with Ron Howard. Critics generally applauded the film and the performances of the entire cast, which included actors Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton, Gary Sinise, Ed Harris, and Kathleen Quinlan. The movie also earned nine Academy Award nominations, winning two. Later that year, Hanks starred in Disney/Pixar's CGI-animated hit film Toy Story, as the voice of Sheriff Woody.
Hanks made his directing debut with his 1996 film That Thing You Do! about a 1960s pop group, also playing the role of a music producer. Hanks and producer Gary Goetzman went on to create Playtone, a record and film production company named after the record company in the film.
Hanks then executive produced, co-wrote, and co-directed the HBO docudrama From the Earth to the Moon. The 12-part series chronicled the space program from its inception, through the familiar flights of Neil Armstrong and Jim Lovell, to the personal feelings surrounding the reality of moon landings. The Emmy Award-winning project was, at US$68 million, one of the most expensive ventures undertaken for television.
In 1998, Hanks's next project was no less expensive. For Saving Private Ryan, he teamed up with Steven Spielberg to make a film about a search through war-torn France after D-Day to bring back a soldier. It earned the praise and respect of the film community, critics, and the general public. It was labeled one of the finest war films ever made and earned Spielberg his second Academy Award for direction, and Hanks another Best Actor nomination. Later that year, Hanks re-teamed with his Sleepless in Seattle co-star Meg Ryan for You've Got Mail, a remake of 1940's The Shop Around the Corner. In 1999, Hanks starred in an adaptation of the Stephen King novel The Green Mile. He also returned as the voice of Woody in Toy Story 2, the sequel to Toy Story. The following year, he won a Golden Globe for Best Actor and an Academy Award nomination for his portrayal of a marooned FedEx systems analyst in Robert Zemeckis's Cast Away.
In 2001, Hanks helped direct and produce the Emmy Award-winning HBO miniseries Band of Brothers. He also appeared in the September 11 television special America: A Tribute to Heroes and the documentary Rescued From the Closet. He then teamed up with American Beauty director Sam Mendes for the adaptation of Max Allan Collins's and Richard Piers Rayner's DC Comics graphic novel Road to Perdition, in which he played an anti-hero role as a hitman on the run with his son. That same year, Hanks collaborated once again with director Spielberg, starring opposite Leonardo DiCaprio in the hit biographical crime drama Catch Me If You Can, based on the true story of Frank Abagnale, Jr. The same year, Hanks and his wife Rita Wilson produced the hit movie My Big Fat Greek Wedding. In August 2007, he along with co-producers Rita Wilson and Gary Goetzman, and writer and star Nia Vardalos, initiated a legal action against the production company Gold Circle Films for their share of profits from the movie. At the age of 45, Hanks became the youngest-ever recipient of the American Film Institute's Life Achievement Award on June 12, 2002.
2004–present: Later critical acclaim
In 2004, he appeared in three films: The Coen brothers' The Ladykillers, another Spielberg film, The Terminal, and The Polar Express, a family film from Zemeckis for which Hanks played multiple motion capture roles. In a USA Weekend interview, Hanks discussed how he chooses projects: "[Since] A League of Their Own, it can't be just another movie for me. It has to get me going somehow ... There has to be some all-encompassing desire or feeling about wanting to do that particular movie. I'd like to assume that I'm willing to go down any avenue in order to do it right". In August 2005, Hanks was voted in as vice president of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
Hanks next starred in the highly anticipated film The Da Vinci Code, based on the bestselling novel by Dan Brown. The film was released May 19, 2006 in the U.S., and grossed over US$750 million worldwide. He followed the film with Ken Burns's 2007 documentary The War. For the documentary, Hanks did voice work, reading excerpts from World War II-era columns by Al McIntosh. In 2006, Hanks topped a 1,500-strong list of "most trusted celebrities" compiled by Forbes magazine. Hanks also produced the animated children's movie The Ant Bully in 2006.
Hanks next appeared in a cameo role as himself in The Simpsons Movie, in which he appeared in an advertisement claiming that the U.S. government has lost its credibility and is hence buying some of his. He also made an appearance in the credits, expressing a desire to be left alone when he is out in public. Later in 2006, Hanks produced the British film Starter for Ten, a comedy based on working-class students attempting to win on University Challenge.
In 2007, Hanks starred in Mike Nichols's film Charlie Wilson's War (written by screenwriter Aaron Sorkin) in which he played Democratic Texas Congressman Charles Wilson. The film opened on December 21, 2007, and Hanks received a Golden Globe nomination. In the comedy-drama film The Great Buck Howard (2008), Hanks played the on-screen father of a young man (played by Hanks' real-life son Colin) who chooses to work as road manager for a fading mentalist (John Malkovich). His character was less than thrilled about his son's career decision. In the same year, he executive produced the musical comedy Mamma Mia and the miniseries John Adams.
Hanks's next endeavor, released on May 15, 2009, was a film adaptation of Angels & Demons, based on the novel of the same name by Dan Brown. Its April 11, 2007 announcement revealed that Hanks would reprise his role as Robert Langdon, and that he would reportedly receive the highest salary ever for an actor. The following day he made his 10th appearance on NBC's Saturday Night Live, impersonating himself for the Celebrity Jeopardy sketch. Hanks produced the Spike Jonze film Where The Wild Things Are, based on the children's book by Maurice Sendak in 2009.
In 2010, Hanks reprised his voice role of Woody in Toy Story 3, after he, Tim Allen, and John Ratzenberger were invited to a movie theater to see a complete story reel of the movie. The film went on to become the first animated film to gross a worldwide total of over $1 billion as well as the highest-grossing animated film at the time. He was also executive producer of the miniseries The Pacific.
In 2011, he directed and starred opposite Julia Roberts in the title role in the romantic comedy Larry Crowne. The movie received poor reviews, with only 35% of the 175 Rotten Tomatoes reviews giving it high ratings. Also in 2011, he starred in the drama film Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close. In 2012, he voiced the character Cleveland Carr for a web series he created titled Electric City. He also starred in the Wachowskis-directed film adaptation of the novel of the same name, Cloud Atlas, and was executive producer of the miniseries Game Change.
In 2013, Hanks starred in two critically acclaimed films—Captain Phillips and Saving Mr. Banks—which each earned him praise, including nominations for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama for the former role. In Captain Phillips, he starred as Captain Richard Phillips with Barkhad Abdi, which was based on the Maersk Alabama hijacking. In Saving Mr. Banks, co-starring Emma Thompson and directed by John Lee Hancock, he played Walt Disney, being the first actor to portray Disney in a mainstream film. That same year, Hanks made his Broadway debut, starring in Nora Ephron's Lucky Guy, for which he was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play.
In 2014, Hanks's short story "Alan Bean Plus Four" was published in the October 27 issue of The New Yorker. Revolving around four friends who make a voyage to the moon, the short story is titled after the Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean. Slate magazine's Katy Waldman found his first published short story "mediocre", writing that "Hanks' shopworn ideas about technology might have yet sung if they hadn't been wrapped in too-clever lit mag-ese". In an interview with The New Yorker, Hanks said he has always been fascinated by space. He told the magazine that he built plastic models of rockets when he was a child and watched live broadcasts of space missions back in the 1960s.
In March 2015, Hanks appeared in the Carly Rae Jepsen music video for "I Really Like You", lip-syncing most of the song's lyrics as he goes through his daily routine. His next film was the Steven Spielberg-directed historical drama Bridge of Spies, in which he played lawyer James B. Donovan who negotiated for the release of pilot Francis Gary Powers by the Soviet Union in exchange for KGB spy Rudolf Abel. It was released in October 2015 to a positive reception. In April 2016, Hanks starred as Alan Clay in the comedy-drama A Hologram for the King, an adaptation of the 2012 novel of the same name. It is the second time he was directed by Tom Tykwer after Cloud Atlas in 2012.
Hanks starred as airline captain Chesley Sullenberger in Clint Eastwood's Sully, which was released in September 2016. He next reprised his role as Robert Langdon in Inferno (2016), and co-starred alongside Emma Watson in the 2017 science fiction drama The Circle. He voiced David S. Pumpkins in The David S. Pumpkins Halloween Special, which aired October 28, 2017 on NBC, a character he had portrayed in episodes of Saturday Night Live.
Hanks reprised his voice role as Sheriff Woody in Pixar's Toy Story 4, which was released on June 21, 2019. Later that year, Hanks portrayed Fred Rogers in Marielle Heller's biographical film A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood for which he was nominated for his first Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. The film was released on November 22, 2019 by Sony Pictures.
On April 11, 2020, Hanks made his first television appearance since his COVID-19 diagnosis by hosting Saturday Night Live. Hanks delivered an opening monologue via his house but did not appear in any of the sketches. This is the first episode of SNL to debut after the show's hiatus due to the COVID-19 pandemic; it features different sketches filmed remotely from the cast members' homes. This is also a first in SNL history, for the show to be made up entirely of prerecorded content before airing, and the second to not be filmed at Studio 8H. In July 2020, Hanks starred in Greyhound, a war film which he also wrote the screenplay for, directed by Aaron Schneider. Initially set to be theatrically released in June 2020 by Sony Pictures, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, distribution rights to the film were bought by Apple TV+, where it was released in July 2020.
In 2021, Hanks will star in the science fiction drama Bios, directed by Miguel Sapochnik, set to be released on April 16, 2021 by Universal Pictures. That same year, Hanks will star as Tom Parker, the sole manager of Elvis Presley, in Elvis, directed by Baz Luhrmann. Shooting commenced in the beginning of 2020 in Queensland, Australia. The film is scheduled to be released on November 5, 2021.
In November 2018, it was reported that Hanks was in talks to portray Geppetto in Walt Disney Studios' live-action Pinocchio remake. Hanks is also attached to star in an American remake of A Man Called Ove.
HBO confirmed in January 2013 that it was developing a third World War II miniseries based on the book Masters of the Air by Donald L. Miller with Hanks and Spielberg to follow Band of Brothers and The Pacific. Few details have emerged about the project since, but NME reported in March 2017 that production was progressing under the working title The Mighty Eighth. On October 11, 2019, it was announced that the series would keep the title from the book and that the miniseries will stream on Apple TV+ due to budget constraints at HBO. Masters of the Air is expected to cost $200 million with a duration of at least eight hours.
Awards and honors
Over Hanks's illustrious career as an actor and producer, he has received many award nominations. Hanks has received six Academy Award nominations including two consecutive wins for Best Actor for Philadelphia, and Forrest Gump in 1993, and 1994 respectively. Hanks also received a Tony Award nomination for Best Actor in a Play for his performance in Nora Ephron's play Lucky Guy in 2013. Hanks has also received 12 Primetime Emmy Award nominations for his work on television which includes 7 wins for his work as a producer on various limited series and television films including From the Earth to the Moon (1998), Band of Brothers (2002), John Adams (2008), The Pacific (2010), Game Change (2012), and Olive Kitteridge (2015).
- 2002: AFI Life Achievement Award
- 2006: Douglas S. Morrow Public Outreach Award
- 2014: Kennedy Center Honors Medallion
- 2016: Presidential Medal of Freedom
- 2016: French Legion of Honor, for his presentation of World War II and support of World War II veterans, along with Tom Brokaw, retired NBC anchor, and Gordon H. Mueller, president and co-founder of the National WWII Museum, New Orleans.
- 2019: Honorary citizen of Greece.
- 2020: Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award
Hanks was married to American actress Samantha Lewes in 1978. They had one son, actor Colin Hanks (born 1977), and one daughter, Elizabeth Hanks (born 1982). Hanks and Samantha Lewes divorced in 1987.
In 1981, Hanks met actress Rita Wilson on the set of TV comedy Bosom Buddies (1980–1982). They were reunited in 1985 on the set of Volunteers. Wilson is of Greek and Bulgarian descent, and a member of the Greek Orthodox Church. Before marrying her, Hanks converted to her faith. Hanks and Wilson married in 1988 and have two sons. The oldest, Chester Marlon "Chet" Hanks, had a minor role as a student in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull and released a rap song in 2011. Their youngest, Truman Theodore, was born in 1995. Hanks lives with his family in Los Angeles, California, and Ketchum, Idaho.
Hanks actively attends church. He said, "I must say that when I go to church—and I do go to church—I ponder the mystery. I meditate on the 'why?' of 'why people are as they are' and 'why bad things happen to good people,' and 'why good things happen to bad people' ... The mystery is what I think is, almost, the grand unifying theory of all mankind."
Despite being a fan of the Oakland Athletics and the Raiders when they were based in Oakland, Hanks stated in April 2017 he would boycott the NFL for two years after the Raiders filed for relocation to Las Vegas.
In November 2019, shortly before the release of A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood, a drama film in which Hanks portrays Fred Rogers, he learned through Ancestry.com that he and Rogers were sixth cousins, both descendants of Johannes Meffert (1732–1795), who was born in Schöneck, Hesse and emigrated to the United States in the 18th century, settling in Kentucky and changing his last name to Mefford.
On December 27, 2019, the President of Greece, Prokopis Pavlopoulos, signed an honorary naturalisation order for Hanks and his family, citing their "exceptional services to Greece", thus making him and his immediate family, Greek citizens. Tom Hanks, along with his wife Rita Wilson and their children, were conferred honorary citizenship for their role in bringing global attention and appealing for aid, to a devastating wildfire that ripped through the seaside village of Mati, near Athens, in July 2018, which killed more than 100 people. Greece's Interior Minister Takis Theodorikakos said Hanks "showed real interest in the people who suffered from the fire in Mati and promoted this issue in the global media".
Hanks practices transcendental meditation and participates in a charity dinner for veterans victims of post-traumatic stress disorder organized by the David Lynch Foundation with Mary-Louise Parker, he says: "I crumbled between 3 o’clock in the afternoon and 7. I mean I was no good for anything. I couldn’t read; I couldn’t talk on the phone; I couldn’t do any work. It was really an unproductive four hours. And now, with meditation, it is the most productive hours of my day".
On March 12, 2020, Hanks announced that he and his wife had tested positive for COVID-19 during the COVID-19 pandemic while shooting Elvis in Queensland, Australia. They were admitted to the Gold Coast University Hospital for care. Hanks was playing the role of Colonel Tom Parker in the film directed by Baz Luhrmann. Australian health authorities stated that Hanks and Wilson, along with all of the five other coronavirus cases confirmed that day, had "contracted the illness outside Australia and travelled to Queensland with the virus". On March 16, Hanks and his wife were released from the hospital. On March 27, Hanks and his wife returned to Los Angeles following their quarantine. The couple decided to donate their blood antibodies for virus research.
Politics and activism
Hanks supports same-sex marriage, environmental causes, and alternative fuels. He has donated to many Democratic politicians, and during the 2008 United States presidential election uploaded a video to his MySpace account endorsing Barack Obama. He also narrated a 2012 documentary, The Road We've Traveled, created by Obama for America. In 2016, Hanks endorsed former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential election.
Hanks was outspoken about his opposition to the 2008 Proposition 8, an amendment to the California constitution that defined marriage as a union only between a man and a woman. Hanks and others raised over US$44 million to campaign against the proposition, in contrast to the supporters' $39 million, but Proposition 8 passed with 52% of the vote. It was overruled in June 2013, when the Ninth Circuit lifted its stay of the district court's ruling, enabling Governor Jerry Brown to order same-sex marriage officiations to resume. While premiering a TV series in January 2009, Hanks called supporters of Proposition 8 "un-American" and criticized LDS Church members, who were major proponents of the bill, for their views on marriage and role in supporting the bill. About a week later, he apologized for the remark, saying that nothing is more American than voting one's conscience.
A proponent of environmentalism, Hanks is an investor in electric vehicles and owns a Toyota RAV4 EV and the first production AC Propulsion eBox. He was a lessee of an EV1 before it was recalled, as chronicled in the documentary Who Killed the Electric Car? He was on the waiting list for an Aptera 2 Series.
Hanks serves as campaign chair of the Hidden Heroes Campaign of the Elizabeth Dole Foundation. The stated mission of the campaign is to inspire a national movement to more effectively support the military and veteran caregivers.
In 2004, while touring the White House, Hanks learned that the press corps did not have a coffee pot, and shortly thereafter he donated an espresso machine. He again donated new machines in 2010 and 2017. His 2017 donation was accompanied by a note that read "To the White House Press Corps, Keep up the good fight for Truth, Justice, and the American Way. Especially for the truth part."
A supporter of NASA's crewed space program, Hanks said he originally wanted to be an astronaut. Hanks is a member of the National Space Society, serving on the Board of governors of the nonprofit educational space advocacy organization founded by Wernher von Braun. He also produced the HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon about the Apollo program to send astronauts to the moon. In addition, Hanks co-wrote and co-produced Magnificent Desolation: Walking on the Moon 3D, an IMAX film about the moon landings. Hanks provided the voice-over for the premiere of the show Passport to the Universe at the Rose Center for Earth and Space in the Hayden Planetarium at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
In 2006, the Space Foundation awarded Hanks the Douglas S. Morrow Public Outreach Award, given annually to an individual or organization that has made significant contributions to public awareness of space programs.
In June 2006, Hanks was inducted as an honorary member of the United States Army Rangers Hall of Fame for his accurate portrayal of a captain in the movie Saving Private Ryan; Hanks, who was unable to attend the induction ceremony, was the first actor to receive such an honor. In addition to his role in Saving Private Ryan, Hanks was cited for serving as the national spokesperson for the World War II Memorial Campaign, for being the honorary chairperson of the D-Day Museum Capital Campaign, and for his role in writing and helping to produce the Emmy Award-winning miniseries, Band of Brothers. On March 10, 2008, Hanks was on hand at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to induct The Dave Clark Five.
Hanks is a collector of manual typewriters and uses them almost daily. In August 2014, Hanks released Hanx Writer, an iOS app meant to emulate the experience of using a typewriter; within days the free app reached number one on the App Store.
Hanks is often compared to James Stewart, and has also frequently been referred to as "America's Dad". In 2013, when he was starring in Nora Ephron's Lucky Guy on Broadway, he had crowds of 300 fans waiting for a glimpse of him after every performance. This is the highest number of expectant fans post-show of any Broadway performance.
Hanks is ranked as the fifth-highest all-time box office star in North America, with a total gross of over $4.9 billion at the North American box office, an average of $100.8 million per film. Worldwide, his films have grossed over $9.96 billion.
In 2003, Hanks was voted Number 3 in Channel 4's countdown of the 100 Greatest Movie Stars of All Time, and he is number 22 on VH1's list of the "200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons of All Time". He was included on Forbes' list of the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world, in 2000, 2002 and 2003. As of January 2019, Hanks is currently voted #1 on Ranker's "The Best Actors in Film History".
Hanks was the guest on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs (in the footsteps of John Huston, Arthur Rubinstein, Luciano Pavarotti, and more than 2,500 other celebrities who were "castaways" (guests on the show) since 1942) on May 8, 2016, giving a 45-minute interview with insights into his personal life and career.
- "PM meets Tom Hanks, now a Greek citizen". Ekathimerini. July 26, 2020.
- Wallin, Emmy (February 2, 2020). "Tom Hanks Net Worth". Wealthy Gorilla. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- Phillips, Kendall R. (2004). Framing Public Memory. University of Alabama Press. p. 214. ISBN 9780817313890.
- "Tom Hanks Movie Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- "50 Highest-Grossing Actors of All Time". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
- Weiner, Rex (March 28, 1995). "Tom Hanks Joins Back-to-Back Oscar Elite". Variety. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- "Hanks' big splash in Hollywood". BBC News. November 5, 2004. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". White House. November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- Mikelbank, Peter (May 17, 2016). "Tom Hanks to Receive France's Highest Honor for His Work Highlighting World War II". People. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
- "Tom Hanks Biography". Biography.com (FYI / A&E Networks). Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- "Monitor". Entertainment Weekly (1215). July 13, 2012. p. 20.
- "Tom Hanks Biography (1956–)". FilmReference.com. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
- Gordon, Julie (July 12, 2016). "Tom Hanks' mother dies". Page Six. Retrieved February 1, 2016.
- Stated on Inside the Actors Studio, 1999
- Gardner, David (January 1, 1999). Tom Hanks. Blake. ISBN 978-1-85782-327-1.
- "Honor: Portuguese American actor Tom Hanks awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom—Washington, DC". Portuguese American Journal. November 23, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
... Tom Hanks was born in Contra Costa county, California, in 1956, of Portuguese, British and Irish descent. His maternal ancestors were Portuguese pioneers in California with roots in the Azores. His mother Janet Marylyn Frager (Fraga) was a hospital worker ...
- on YouTube
- Altobelli, Maria (November 10, 2010). "Female Nomad and Friends Interview: Sandra Hanks Benoiton". Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Lawrence M. Hanks, Associate Professor—University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
- "Tom Hanks". biography.com. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- Interview on Fresh Air. Aired April 26, 2016.
- Terry Mattingly (March 25, 2009). "Mattingly: Tom Hanks talks about religion". Scripps Howard News Service. Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Zehme, Bill (June 30, 1988). "Tom Hanks Is Mr. Big". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 2, 2017.
- Silverman, Stephen (April 15, 1998). "Hanks Thanks School". People. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- Hanks, Tom (January 14, 2015). "Opinion | I Owe It All to Community College". The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- Freedom du Lac, J. (February 19, 2004). "Show your ID: What do you call that university by the river? The new president steps into the name game". California State University. Archived from the original on February 5, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
- a "Famous alumni*: Actor Tom Hanks ... *Includes former students who attended—but didn't graduate from—the university"—¶ 67.
- "Tom Hanks [interview]". Genesis. February 1987. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
He attended Chabot Junior College in Hayward for two years, then spent a year at California State University in Sacramento, majoring in theater arts.
- Cal Bears (October 31, 2013), Cal Football: Tom Hanks and the Heisman Trophy, retrieved October 24, 2017
- Blum, David (July 28, 1986). "Tom Hanks's Real Splash: A Funny Guy Grows Up in 'Nothing in Common'". New York. New York Media. 19 (29): 39. ISSN 0028-7369. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- Mytnick, Colleen (October 2009). "Life According to Tom Hanks". Cleveland Magazine. Retrieved November 6, 2010.
- Lin, Joseph (May 10, 2010). "Top 10 College Dropouts". Time.
- Buckley, Tom (September 26, 1980). "Obstacle to Marriage". The New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Kushner, David (March 10, 2008). "Dungeon Master: The Life and Legacy of Gary Gygax". Wired. Archived from the original on October 31, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2008.
- Cullen, Jim (February 28, 2013). Sensing the Past: Hollywood Stars and Historical Visions. Oxford University Press. p. 152.
- Isle, Mick (October 1, 2004). Tom and Colin Hanks. Rosen Publishing. pp. 11, 39.
- "From 'Big' To 'Brothers'". CBS News. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Television listings. TV Guide. November 27, 2003. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- Riggs, Thomas (2002). Contemporary Theatre, Film, and Television. Gale Research. p. 117. ISBN 0-7876-5116-8.
- Mobilereference (December 15, 2009). Encyclopedia of American Cinema. ISBN 9781605011455.
- "The 61st Academy Awards (1989) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- "'Sleepless in Seattle' Anniversary: Tom Hanks & Meg Ryan Classic Turns 20". HuffPost. June 25, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Schickel, Richard (July 5, 1993). "Modern Romance". TIME. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Nominees & Winners for the 66th Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Winner Speeches.
- "Forrest Gump". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- Grimes, William (March 28, 1995). "'Forrest Gump' Triumphs With 6 Academy Awards". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Teachout, Terry. "The Eclipse of Spencer Tracy". commentarymagazine.com.
- "The 67th Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Perry, Keith and Alice Vincent (November 11, 2014). "Toy Story 4: everything you need to know". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- "That Thing You Do! (1996)". The New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- "Movie Reviews—That Thing You Do!". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "Audible and Playtone Launch Creative Partnership". The Wall Street Journal. October 15, 2013. Archived from the original on August 10, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- "That Thing You Do! (1996)". rottentomatoes.
- "From The Earth to the Moon". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "From the Earth to the Moon". tv.com. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
- "Making of Saving Private Ryan". Empire. October 1998. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- "Saving Private Ryan (1998)". rottentomatoes. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
- "Nominees & Winners for the 71st Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- The Green Mile at Rotten Tomatoes
- "Tom Hanks". Golden Globe Awards. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- "The 73rd Academy Awards (2001) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
- "Band of Brothers". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "America: A Tribute to Heroes". CBS. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
- Child, Ben (May 28, 2014). "Nia Vardalos confirms 'bigger, fatter' Greek Wedding sequel to hit big screen". The Guardian. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Goodman, Jessica (May 28, 2014). "'My Big Fat Greek Wedding' Sequel in the Works From Nia Vardalos". HuffPost. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Hanks files big fat 'Greek' lawsuit" Archived February 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine—United Press International—(c/o NewsDaily.com)—August 8, 2007.
- "Tom Hanks". Archive of UPS article at Archive.org. Archived from the original on February 8, 2008. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
- "Hanks sues over unpaid 'My big fat Greek wedding' profits", Irish Examiner, August 8, 2007.
- King, Susan (June 14, 2002). "AFI Salutes a Humble Tom Hanks With Life Achievement Award". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 31, 2014.
- Levy, Rochelle L. "THE ACHIEVEMENT OF TOM HANKS". afi.com. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
- "Actor Hanks voted in by Academy", BBC, August 25, 2005.
- "The Da Vinci Code". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
- "Hanks tops 'most trusted' index", BBC, September 27, 2006.
- "A real Movie challenge". BBC. November 9, 2006.
- "Hollywood Foreign Press Association 2008 Golden Globe Awards for the Year Ended December 31, 2007". goldenglobes.org. December 13, 2007. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
- "The Great Buck Howard". magpictures.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012.
- Andrews, Amanda (December 16, 2008). "Mamma Mia! becomes biggest-ever hit at British box office". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "John Adams". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- Tyler, Joshua (April 9, 2007). "Tom Hanks Confirmed For Da Vinci Code Sequel". Cinema Blend. Retrieved March 16, 2020..
- Fleming, Michael (October 24, 2007). "Howard moves fast with 'Code' sequel". Variety. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Where the Wild Things Are". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- Tom Hanks on Toy Story 3 from firstshowing.net.
- Subers, Ray (August 29, 2010). "'Toy Story 3' Reaches $1 Billion". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Toy Story 3 highest-grossing animated film". The Daily Telegraph. August 14, 2010. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- "Frozen becomes the biggest animation in box office history". BBC News. March 31, 2014.
- "The Pacific". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- Gomez, Luis (June 26, 2011). "The first rule is no punching Tom Hanks". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Larry Crowne (2011)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
- Dargis, Manohla (December 22, 2011). "Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close (2011)". The New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2012.
- Newcomb, Tim (July 17, 2012). "Online Blockbuster?: Tom Hanks' Electric City Debuts on Yahoo Today". Time. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Game Change". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- "Bafta Film Awards 2014: Full list of nominees". BBC News. January 8, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- Child, Ben (April 11, 2012). "Tom Hanks to play Walt Disney in Saving Mr Banks". The Guardian. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
- Kit, Borys (March 15, 2011). "Tom Hanks to Play Capt. Richard Phillips in Somali Pirate Hostage Story". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
- Williams, Mike (October 22, 2013). "Tom Hanks becomes first actor to play Walt Disney on the big screen". Yahoo UK. Yahoo Contributor Network. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Carlson, Erin (April 30, 2013). "Tonys: Tom Hanks Gets Nomination for 'Lucky Guy'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Hanks, Tom (October 27, 2014). "Alan Bean Plus Four". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- Waldman, Katy (October 20, 2014). "Tom Hanks Has a Short Story in The New Yorker. It's Not Very Good". Slate. The Slate Group. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Tom Hanks publishes short story in The New Yorker and gets panned". The Straits Times. Singapore Press Holdings. October 21, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Shetty, Sharan. "Tom Hanks Lip-Syncs to Carly Rae Jepsen in the 'I Really Like You' Music Video". Slate. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- Debruge, Peter (October 4, 2015). "Film Review: 'Bridge of Spies'". Variety. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Mclintcock, Pamela (May 14, 2014). "Cannes: First Look at Tom Hanks in 'A Hologram for the King' (Exclusive Image)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Smith, Nigel (April 20, 2016). "A Hologram for a King review – Tom Hanks presides over meandering mess". The Guardian. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Dugan, Christina (October 2, 2015). "First Look: Tom Hanks as Heroic Pilot Sully Sullenberger". People. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Lesnick, Silas (April 27, 2015). "Production Begins on Ron Howard's Da Vinci Code Sequel, Inferno". ComingSoon.net. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (December 15, 2014). "Tom Hanks Eyes David Eggers' Novel 'The Circle' With James Ponsoldt: Hot Package". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Weldon, Sarah (October 29, 2017). "David S. Pumpkins saves the day with a Pumpkinmobile and song in SNL Halloween special". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- Skipper, Ben (May 25, 2016). "Tom Hanks Offers Toy Story 4 Update". Yahoo!. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- McClintock, Pamela (October 26, 2016). "'The Incredibles 2' Moves Up to Summer 2018; 'Toy Story 4' Pushed to 2019". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- "Tom Hanks ends 20-year drought with new Oscar nomination". Los Angeles Times. January 13, 2020. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
- Kroll, Justin (January 29, 2018). "Tom Hanks to Play Mr. Rogers in Biopic 'You Are My Friend' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Hipes, Patrick (January 25, 2019). "'Morbius' & 'Ghostbusters' Solidify Summer 2020 Release Dates". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- "'SNL' kicks off with Tom Hanks as host and sketches from home amid the coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
- Lyttelton, Oliver (September 9, 2016). "Tom Hanks Is The Captain Now (Of A WW2 Destroyer In 'Greyhound')". theplaylist.net. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (July 2, 2018). "'Greyhound' Release Date Changes Again As Sony Moves Tom Hanks WWII Pic To March—Update".
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (June 11, 2020). "Apple TV+ Sets July 10 Release For WWII Tom Hanks-Starrer 'Greyhound'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Lang, Brent (February 6, 2019). "Paul Greengrass Circling 'News of the World' With Tom Hanks (EXCLUSIVE)".
- McNary, Dave (September 25, 2019). "Tom Hanks' Historical Drama 'News of the World' Gets Release Date".
- Lang, Justin Kroll, Brent (October 26, 2017). "Tom Hanks to Star in Sci-Fi Film 'Bios' From 'Game of Thrones' Director (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
- Marc, Christopher (August 22, 2018). "Tom Hank's Post-Apocalypse Flick 'Bios To Shoot February–March In Vancouver". Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (June 12, 2020). "Tom Hanks Sci-Fi Movie 'Bios' Moves To 2021". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Kroll, Justin (March 28, 2019). "Tom Hanks to Play Elvis Presley's Manager in Baz Luhrmann's Next Film (EXCLUSIVE)".
- Fleming, Mike, Jr. (July 15, 2019). "Baz Luhrmann Sets Austin Butler In Starmaking Elvis Presley Role Opposite Tom Hanks In Warner Bros Film".
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 20, 2020). "'The Batman' Flies To Fall 2021, 'Sopranos' Prequel Moves To March & More As Warner Bros Makes Release Date Changes Due To COVID-19 Climate". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Kroll, Justin (November 29, 2018). "Tom Hanks Circling Geppetto Role in Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio'". Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Fleming, Mike (September 21, 2017). "Tom Hanks To Star In 'A Man Called Ove' Remake". Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Guthrie, Marisa (January 18, 2013). "HBO Developing Third WWII Miniseries with Tom Hanks, Steven Spielberg (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Moore, Sam (March 1, 2017). "Production progresses on reported Spielberg/Tom Hanks HBO miniseries 'The Mighty Eighth'". NME. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Fleming, Mike, Jr. (October 11, 2019). "Apple Enlists For 'Masters Of The Air' As Steven Spielberg, Tom Hanks & Gary Goetzman Fly From HBO For WWII Series". Deadline. Retrieved October 11, 2019.
- Kennedy, Merrit (November 16, 2016). "These Are The 21 People Receiving The Nation's Highest Civilian Honor". NPR. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
- Roberts III, Faimon A. (May 11, 2016). "National World War II Museum president and supporters Tom Hanks, Tom Brokaw to receive award in Paris". The New Orleans Advocate. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018.
- Kampouris, Nick (December 27, 2019). "Tom Hanks Becomes a Citizen of Greece". Greek Reporter. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Tom Hanks Biography". Us Weekly. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
- Leigh, Danny (January 12, 2001). "Desert island risks". The Guardian. Retrieved October 9, 2010.
- Fairchild, Mary. "Eastern Orthodox Church Denomination". About.com. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- Rita Wilson (November 17, 2011). "The Joys Of Greek Easter". HuffPost. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
- Suh, Jennifer (January 13, 2011). "Frat star to rap star: Chet Hanks". The Northwestern Daily. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
- "Truman Theodore Hanks, Born 12/26/1995 in California | CaliforniaBirthIndex.org". www.californiabirthindex.org.
- Shuster, Andrew (November 15, 2018). "Tom Hanks Rang Doorbell In Los Angeles, Bought House In Cash?". gossipcop.com.
- Reddigari, Manasa. "Celebrity Homes – 14 Small Towns the Stars Call Home – Bob Vila". bobvila.com. p. 1.
- "Tom Hanks reveals diabetes diagnosis: Did fluctuating weight play a role?". CBS News. October 8, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
Academy Award winning actor, Tom Hanks announced on Monday that he is living with Type 2 diabetes on CBS' The Late Show with David Letterman.
- Capron, Maddie; Zdanowicz, Christina (November 20, 2019). "Tom Hanks just found out he's related to Mister Rogers". CNN. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- CNN, Christina Maxouris. "Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson are officially Greek citizens". CNN. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- "Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson become Greek citizens". BBC News. July 27, 2020. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- "Kyriakos Mitsotakis on Instagram: "@ritawilson @tomhanks are now proud Greek citizens! 🇬🇷👍"". Instagram. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- Tom Hanks, the Afternoon Crash, and Meditation. YouTube. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 12, 2020). "Tom Hanks & Rita Wilson Test Positive For Coronavirus As Outbreak Hits 'Elvis Presley' Film". Deadline. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- Stedman, Alex (March 12, 2020). "Tom Hanks, Rita Wilson Test Positive for Coronavirus". Variety. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- Gonzalez, Sandra (March 12, 2020). "Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson diagnosed with coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Tom Hanks and wife Rita Wilson test positive for coronavirus on the Gold Coast". ABC News. March 12, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Chung, Frank (March 12, 2020). "Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson test positive for coronavirus in Australia". News.com.au. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
- Melas, Chloe (March 16, 2020). "Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson released from the hospital following coronavirus diagnosis". CNN International. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
- "Tom Hanks returns to LA after bout of coronavirus: media reports". Reuters. March 27, 2020. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
- O’Kane, Caitlin (April 27, 2020). "Tom Hanks' blood to be used for coronavirus research". CBS News. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
- Tom Hanks endorses Obama for President, May 3, 2008
- Zakarin, Jordan (March 8, 2012). "Obama Documentary The Road We've Traveled by Davis Guggenheim". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
- Boucher, Philip (April 26, 2016). "Tom Hanks Predicts Donald Trump Will Become President When 'Spaceships Come Down Filled With Dinosaurs'". People. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Tracking the Money: The Final Numbers", Los Angeles Times
- California propositions: Proposition 8, county-by-county map, margin of victory, Los Angeles Times
- Dolan, Maura (June 28, 2013). "Prop 8: Gay marriages can resume in California, court rules". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
- "Tom Hanks Get Payback for Prop 8" from Lonsberry.com.
- "Tom Hanks Says Mormon Supporters of Proposition 8 'Un-American'" Archived March 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Fox News Channel.
- "Tom Hanks Apologizes for Calling Mormon Supporters of Proposition 8 'Un-American'". Fox News. January 23, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- "Hollywood Loves Hybrid Cars", The Washington Post Archived October 30, 2004, at Archive.today
- "Bird-like electric car to make Palo Alto debut". April 20, 2009. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- A message from our Hidden Heroes Campaign Chair, Tom Hanks Elizabeth Dole Foundation. 2015. Retrieved July 12, 2016
- Jowers, Karen (May 21, 2015). "Tom Hanks to head 'Hidden Heroes' campaign". Military Times. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Malloy, Allie (March 2, 2017). "Tom Hanks gives White House press an espresso machine". CNN. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Weaver, Hilary (March 2, 2017). "Tom Hanks Sent a Gift to the White House Press Corps". Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Wright, David (July 16, 2019). "Tom Hanks, Jennifer Aniston and Ben Affleck among celebrities donating to 2020 Democrats". CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- "National Space Society Board of Governors". Retrieved July 10, 2012.
- "The Narrator:Tom Hanks". imax.com. Archived from the original on July 8, 2012.
- "Rose Center for Earth and Space at the American Museum of Natural History". ny.com. museums.
- "Douglas S. Morrow Public Outreach Awards: Recipients". spacefoundation.org. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "Douglas S. Morrow Public Outreach Award". Space Foundation. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- "Tom Hanks into Army's Ranger Hall of Fame". USA Today. June 29, 2006. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
- "The Dave Clark Five". Captainerniesshowboat.com. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Hanks, Tom. "I Am TOM. I Like to TYPE. Hear That?". Retrieved August 17, 2015.
- Hawkes, Rebecca (March 24, 2015). "Tom Hanks: eight true stories about 'the nicest guy in Hollywood'". The Telegraph. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
- Spangler, Todd (August 18, 2014). "Tom Hanks' Free iPad Typewriter App Climbs to No. 1 on Apple's App Store". Variety. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
- Dockterman, Eliana (August 18, 2014). "Tom Hanks' Typewriter App Is No. 1 in the App Store". Time. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
- "Tom Hanks to pen book of stories inspired by typewriter collection". BBC News. November 4, 2014. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
- Hanks, Tom (October 2017). Uncommon Type. Knopf. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
- Phipps, Keith (November 19, 2019). "The Darker Side of Tom Hanks". The Ringer. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
- Betancourt, Manuel (September 8, 2016). "How Tom Hanks Slowly Became America's Dad". Esquire. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Vineyard, Jennifer, "Who Needs a Tony ...", New York, June 24 – July 1, 2013, pp. 124–25
- "People Index". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 23, 2019.
- "Tom Hanks profile at Box Office Mojo". Boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "12818 Tomhanks (1996 GU8)". NASA.gov. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Muir, Hugh (May 6, 2003). "Pacino, godfather of movie stars" – via www.theguardian.com.
- "The 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons Complete Ranked List" (Press release). VH1. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Forbes 100:
- 2000: "AmIAnnoying.com – Forbes' Celebrity 100 Power Ranking ". amiannoying.com.
- 2002: "AmIAnnoying.com – Forbes' Celebrity 100 Power Ranking ". amiannoying.com.
- 2003: "Forbes.com".
- "The Best Actors in Film History". Ranker.
- "BBC Radio 4—Desert Island Discs, Tome Hanks". BBC. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
- "Tom Hanks speaks of lonely childhood in emotional Desert Island Discs". The Guardian. May 8, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
- Gardner, David (1999), Tom Hanks: The Unauthorized Biography, London, ISBN 978-1-85782-327-1
- Gardner, David (2007), Tom Hanks: Enigma, ISBN 978-1-84454-428-8
- Pfeiffer, Lee (1996), The Films of Tom Hanks, Secaucus, New Jersey, ISBN 978-0-8065-1717-9
- Salamon, Julie (1991), The Devil's Candy: The Bonfire of the Vanities Goes to Hollywood, Boston, ISBN 978-0-385-30824-3
- Trakin, Roy (1995), Tom Hanks: Journey to Stardom, ISBN 978-0-312-95596-0
- Wallner, Rosemary (1994), Tom Hanks: Academy Award-Winning Actor, Edina, Minnesota