Supreme Allied Commander Europe

The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) is the commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) Allied Command Operations (ACO) and head of ACO's headquarters, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE). The commander is based at SHAPE in Casteau, Belgium. SACEUR is the second-highest military position within NATO, below only the Chair of the NATO Military Committee in terms of precedence.

Supreme Allied Commander Europe
SHAPE coat of arms
General Christopher G. Cavoli
since 4 July 2022[1]
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Allied Command Operations (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe)
Reports toNorth Atlantic Council,
through NATO Military Committee
ResidenceChateau Gendebien
SeatCasteau, Mons, Belgium
NominatorPresident of the United States,
with Senate advice and consent
AppointerNorth Atlantic Council
Formation2 April 1951
First holderGeneral of the Army
Dwight D. Eisenhower

SACEUR has always been held by a U.S. military officer, and the position is dual-hatted with that of Commander of United States European Command.

The current SACEUR is General Christopher G. Cavoli of the United States Army.

Role Edit

An overview of NATO military command structure (NCS):

Liaison:       Provides advice and support to the NAC
Political strategic level:
North Atlantic Council
Secretary General of NATO
Brussels, BE
International Staff
Brussels, BE
Military strategic level:
Chair of the NATO Military Committee

NATO HQ, Brussels, BE
Strategic commands:
Mons, BE
(Allied Command Transformation, HQ SACT)
Norfolk, US
Tactical commands:Transformational commands:
  Allied Air Command
Ramstein, DE
  Joint Warfare Centre
Stavanger, NO
  Allied Maritime Command
Northwood, GB
  Joint Analysis and Lessons Learned Centre
Lisbon, PT
  Allied Land Command
İzmir, TR
  Joint Force Training Centre
Bydgoszcz, PL
Joint Support and Enabling Command Ulm, DE
Operational commands:  Communications & Information Systems Group Mons, BE  Naval Striking and Support Forces NATO
Oeiras, PT
  Joint Force Command Norfolk
Norfolk, US
  Allied Joint Force Command Naples
Naples, IT
  Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum
Brunssum, NL
  Response Force:  Multinational Corps Southeast
Sibiu, RO
  Multinational Corps Northeast
Szczecin, PL

List of holders Edit

Gen. Eisenhower in front of the flag of SHAPE on 8 October 1951
2013 SACEUR change of command at SHAPE

Since 2003 the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) has also served as the head of Allied Command Europe and the head of Allied Command Operations. The officeholders have been:[2]

No. Portrait Supreme Allied Commander Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch
1Eisenhower, DwightGeneral of the Army
Dwight D. Eisenhower
2 April 195130 May 19521 year, 58 days  United States Army
2Ridgway, MatthewGeneral
Matthew Ridgway
30 May 195211 July 19531 year, 42 days  United States Army
3Gruenther, AlfredGeneral
Alfred Gruenther
11 July 195320 November 19563 years, 132 days  United States Army
4Norstad, LaurisGeneral
Lauris Norstad
20 November 19561 January 19636 years, 42 days  United States Air Force
5Lemnitzer, LymanGeneral
Lyman Lemnitzer
1 January 19631 July 19696 years, 181 days  United States Army
6Goodpaster, AndrewGeneral
Andrew Goodpaster
1 July 196915 December 19745 years, 167 days  United States Army
7Haig, AlexanderGeneral
Alexander M. Haig Jr.
15 December 19741 July 19794 years, 198 days  United States Army
8Rogers, BernardGeneral
Bernard W. Rogers
1 July 197926 June 19877 years, 360 days  United States Army
9Galvin, JohnGeneral
John Galvin
26 June 198723 June 19924 years, 363 days  United States Army
10Shalikashvili, JohnGeneral
John Shalikashvili
23 June 199222 October 19931 year, 121 days  United States Army
11Joulwan, GeorgeGeneral
George Joulwan
(born 1939)
22 October 199311 July 19973 years, 262 days  United States Army
12Clark, WesleyGeneral
Wesley Clark
(born 1944)
11 July 19973 May 20002 years, 297 days  United States Army
13Ralston, JosephGeneral
Joseph Ralston
(born 1943)
3 May 200017 January 20032 years, 259 days  United States Air Force
14Jones, JamesGeneral
James L. Jones
(born 1943)
17 January 20037 December 20063 years, 324 days  United States Marine Corps
15Craddock, BantzGeneral
Bantz J. Craddock
(born 1949)
7 December 20062 July 20092 years, 207 days  United States Army
16Stavridis, JamesAdmiral
James G. Stavridis
(born 1955)
2 July 200913 May 20133 years, 315 days  United States Navy
17Breedlove, PhilipGeneral
Philip M. Breedlove
(born 1955)
13 May 20134 May 20162 years, 357 days  United States Air Force
18Scaparrotti, CurtisGeneral
Curtis Scaparrotti
(born 1956)
4 May 20163 May 20192 years, 364 days  United States Army
19Wolters, Tod D.General
Tod D. Wolters
(born 1960)
3 May 20194 July 20223 years, 62 days  United States Air Force
20Cavoli, Christopher G.General
Christopher G. Cavoli
(born c. 1965)
4 July 2022Incumbent1 year, 85 days  United States Army

Deputy Edit

The position of Deputy Supreme Allied Command Europe (DSACEUR) has been known as Deputy Head of Allied Command Operations since 2003. From January 1978 until June 1993 there were two DSACEURs, one British and one German. From July 1993 this reverted to a single DSACEUR. With a small number of exceptions who were German military officers, DSACEUR is normally a British military officer. The officeholders have been as follows:

No. Portrait Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Start of term End of term Branch Unit of Commission
1.   Field Marshal

The Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG GCB DSO PC DL

2 April 1951 23 September 1958   British Army Royal Warwickshire Regiment
2.   General

Sir Richard Gale, GCB KBE DSO MC

23 September 1958 22 September 1960   British Army Worcestershire Regiment
3.   General

Sir Hugh Stockwell, GCB KBE DSO*

22 September 1960 1 January 1964   British Army Royal Welch Fusiliers
4.   Marshal of the Royal Air Force

Sir Thomas Pike, GCB CBE DFC* DL

1 January 1964 1 March 1967   Royal Air Force N/A
5.   General

Sir Robert Bray, GCB KBE DSO*

1 March 1967 1 December 1970   British Army Duke of Wellington's (West Riding) Regiment
6. General

Sir Desmond Fitzpatrick, GCB GCVO DSO MBE MC

1 December 1970 12 November 1973   British Army 1st The Royal Dragoons
7.   General

Sir John Mogg, GCB CBE DSO*

12 November 1973 12 March 1976   British Army Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
8. General

Sir Harry Tuzo, GCB OBE MC DL

12 March 1976 2 November 1978   British Army Royal Artillery
9. General

Gerd Schmückle

3 January 1978 1 April 1980   German Army -
10. General

Sir Jack Harman, GCB OBE MC

2 November 1978 9 April 1981   British Army 2nd Dragoon Guards (Queen's Bays)
11.   Admiral

Günter Luther

1 April 1980 1 April 1982   German Navy N/A
12. Air Chief Marshal

Sir Peter Terry, GCB AFC

9 April 1981 16 July 1984   Royal Air Force N/A
13.   General

Günter Kießling

1 April 1982 2 April 1984   German Army -
14. General

Hans-Joachim Mack

2 April 1984 1 October 1987   German Army Bundesgrenzschutz
15. General

Sir Edward Burgess, KCB OBE

16 July 1984 26 June 1987   British Army Royal Artillery
16. General

Sir John Akehurst, KCB CBE

26 June 1987 17 January 1990   British Army Northamptonshire Regiment
17. General

Eberhard Eimler

1 October 1987 2 October 1990   German Air Force N/A
18. General

Sir Brian Kenny, GCB CBE

17 January 1990 5 April 1993   British Army 4th Queen's Own Hussars
19. General

Dieter Clauss

2 October 1990 1 July 1993   German Army -
20. General

Sir John Waters, GCB CBE

5 April 1993 12 December 1994   British Army Gloucestershire Regiment
21. General

Sir Jeremy Mackenzie, GCB OBE DL

12 December 1994 30 November 1998   British Army Queen’s Own Highlanders
22. General

Sir Rupert Smith, KCB DSO* OBE QGM

30 November 1998 17 September 2001   British Army Parachute Regiment
23.   General

Dieter Stöckmann

17 September 2001 18 September 2002   German Army Panzergrenadier
24. Admiral

Rainer Feist

18 September 2002 1 October 2004   German Navy N/A
25.   General

Sir John Reith, KCB CBE

1 October 2004 22 October 2007   British Army Parachute Regiment
26.   General

Sir John McColl, KCB CBE DSO KStJ

22 October 2007 March 2011   British Army Royal Anglian Regiment
27.   General

Sir Richard Shirreff, KCB CBE

March 2011 March 2014   British Army 14th/20th King's Hussars
28.   General

Sir Adrian Bradshaw, KCB OBE

March 2014 March 2017   British Army 14th/20th King's Hussars
29.   General

Sir James Everard, KCB CBE

March 2017 April 2020   British Army 17th/21st Lancers
30.   General

Sir Tim Radford, KCB DSO OBE

April 2020 July 2023   British Army The Light Infantry
31.   Admiral

Sir Keith Blount, KCB OBE FRAeS

July 2023 Incumbent   Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm

Role in intra-European defence integration Edit

SACEUR's planned role for the European Defence Community Edit

If the treaty founding the European Defence Community (EDC) had not failed to acquire ratification in the French Parliament in 1954, the EDC would have entailed a pan-European military, divided into national components, and had a common budget, common arms, centralized military procurement, and institutions. The EDC would have had an integral link to NATO, forming an autonomous European pillar in the Atlantic alliance. The following chart illustrates the role of SACEUR in such an arrangement.

Diagram showing the functioning of the institutions provided for by the Treaty establishing the European Defence Community (EDC), the placing of Member States' armed forces (European Defence Forces) at the disposal of the Community, and the link between the EDC and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).

DSACEUR's role in European Union missions Edit

Under the 2002 Berlin Plus agreement, SHAPE may take part in the European Union's (EU) command and control structure as an operational headquarters (OHQ) for EU missions. In such an instance, the Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (DSACEUR), who is always a European, would serve as Operation Commander (OpCdr). This use of SHAPE by the EU is subject to a "right of first refusal", i.e. NATO must first decline to intervene in a given crisis,[3][4] and is contingent upon unanimous approval among NATO states, including those outside of the EU.[5]

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "NATO Secretary General at Allied Command Operations change of command". NATO. 1 July 2022. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  2. ^ List of Former SACEURs
  3. ^ "EU Operations Centre".
  4. ^ The Heritage Foundation report, March 24, 2008. [1]
  5. ^ Bram Boxhoorn, Broad Support for NATO in the Netherlands, 21-09-2005, "Article". Archived from the original on 18 February 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2007.

External links Edit