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The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440 yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete.

Athletics
400 metres
400m CIF San Diego Championship 2007.jpg
The closing stages of a men's 400 m race
Men's records
World South Africa Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 (2016)
Olympic South Africa Wayde van Niekerk 43.03 (2016)
Women's records
World East Germany Marita Koch 47.60 (1985)
Olympic France Marie-José Pérec 48.25 (1996)

Maximum sprint speed capability is a significant contributing factor to success in the event, but athletes also require substantial speed endurance and the ability to cope well with high amounts of lactic acid to sustain a fast speed over a whole lap. While considered to be predominantly an anaerobic event, there is some aerobic involvement and the degree of aerobic training required for 400 metre athletes is open to debate.[1]

The current men's world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk of South Africa, with a time of 43.03 seconds; van Niekerk is also the reigning world and Olympic champion. The world indoor record holder is Michael Norman, in 44.52 seconds. The current women's world record is held by Marita Koch, with a time of 47.60 seconds. Phyllis Francis is the reigning women's world champion, while Shaunae Miller holds the women's Olympic title. The men's T43 Paralympic world record of 45.07 seconds is held by Oscar Pistorius.[2]

An Olympic double of 200 metres and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, and later by Marie-José Pérec of France and Michael Johnson from the United States on the same evening in 1996. Alberto Juantorena of Cuba at the 1976 Summer Olympics became the first and so far the only athlete to win both the 400 m and 800 m Olympic titles. Pérec became the first to defend the Olympic title in 1996, Johnson became the first and only man to do so in 2000.

The Olympic champion has frequently won a second gold medal in the 4 × 400 metres relay. This has been accomplished 14 times by men; Charles Reidpath, Ray Barbuti, Bill Carr, George Rhoden, Charles Jenkins, Otis Davis, Mike Larrabee, Lee Evans, Viktor Markin, Alonzo Babers, Steve Lewis, Quincy Watts, Jeremy Wariner and LaShawn Merritt; and 4 times by women; Monika Zehrt, Valerie Brisco-Hooks, Olga Bryzgina and Sanya Richards-Ross. All but Rhoden, Markin, Zehrt and Bryzgina ran on American relay teams. Injured after his double in 1996, Johnson also accomplished the feat in 2000 only to have it disqualified when his teammate Antonio Pettigrew admitted to doping.

From 31 appearances in the Olympic Games, the men's gold medallist came from the USA 19 times.

Contents

Continental recordsEdit

Area Men Women
Time (s) Athlete Nation Time (s) Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 43.03 WR Wayde van Niekerk   South Africa 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya   Nigeria
Asia (records) 43.93 Yousef Ahmed Masrahi   Saudi Arabia 49.08 Salwa Eid Nasser   Bahrain
Europe (records) 44.33 Thomas Schönlebe   East Germany 47.60 WR Marita Koch   East Germany
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
43.18 Michael Johnson   United States 48.70 Sanya Richards   United States
Oceania (records) 44.38 Darren Clark   Australia 48.63 Cathy Freeman   Australia
South America (records) 44.29 Sanderlei Parrela   Brazil 49.64 Ximena Restrepo   Colombia

All-time top 25Edit

  • A = affected by altitude

MenEdit

  • Correct as of July 2018.[3]
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 43.03 Wayde van Niekerk   South Africa 14 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [4]
2 43.18 Michael Johnson   United States 26 August 1999 Seville
3 43.29 Harry 'Butch' Reynolds   United States 17 August 1988 Zürich
4 43.45 Jeremy Wariner   United States 31 August 2007 Osaka
5 43.50 Quincy Watts   United States 5 August 1992 Barcelona
6 43.61 Michael Norman   United States 8 June 2018 Eugene [5]
7 43.65 LaShawn Merritt   United States 26 August 2015 Beijing [6]
8 43.70 Fred Kerley   United States 26 May 2017 Austin [7]
9 43.72 Isaac Makwala   Botswana 5 July 2015 La Chaux-de-Fonds [8]
10 43.74 Kirani James   Grenada 3 July 2014 Lausanne [9]
11 43.81 Danny Everett   United States 26 June 1992 New Orleans
12 43.86 A Lee Evans   United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
13 43.87 Steve Lewis   United States 28 September 1988 Seoul
Steven Gardiner   Bahamas 4 May 2018 Doha [10]
15 43.93 Yousef Ahmed Masrahi   Saudi Arabia 23 August 2015 Beijing [11]
Rusheen McDonald   Jamaica
17 43.94 Akeem Bloomfield   Jamaica 8 June 2018 Eugene [12]
18 43.97 A Larry James   United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
19 44.01 Machel Cedenio   Trinidad and Tobago 14 August 2016 Rio de Janeiro [13]
20 44.02 Baboloki Thebe   Botswana 6 July 2017 Lausanne [14]
21 44.05 Angelo Taylor   United States 23 June 2007 Indianapolis
22 44.07 Abdalleleh Haroun   Qatar 21 July 2018 London [15]
23 44.09 Alvin Harrison   United States 19 June 1996 Atlanta
Jerome Young   United States 21 June 1998 New Orleans
25 44.10 Gary Kikaya   Democratic Republic of the Congo 9 September 2006 Stuttgart

NotesEdit

Below is a list of all other times equal or superior to 43.84:

WomenEdit

  • Correct as of July 2018.[16]
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 47.60 Marita Koch   East Germany 6 October 1985 Canberra
2 47.99 Jarmila Kratochvílová   Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
3 48.25 Marie-José Pérec   France 29 July 1996 Atlanta
4 48.27 Olga Vladykina   Soviet Union 6 October 1985 Canberra
5 48.59 Taťána Kocembová   Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
6 48.63 Cathy Freeman   Australia 29 July 1996 Atlanta
7 48.70 Sanya Richards   United States 16 September 2006 Athens
8 48.83 Valerie Brisco-Hooks   United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
9 48.89 Ana Guevara   Mexico 27 August 2003 Paris Saint-Denis
10 48.97 Shaunae Miller-Uibo   Bahamas 20 July 2018 Monaco [17]
11 49.05 Chandra Cheeseborough   United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
12 49.07 Tonique Williams-Darling   Bahamas 12 September 2004 Berlin
13 49.08 Salwa Eid Naser   Bahrain 20 July 2018 Monaco [18]
14 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya   Nigeria 29 July 1996 Atlanta
15 49.11 Olga Nazarova   Soviet Union 25 September 1988 Seoul
16 49.16 Antonina Krivoshapka   Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
17 49.19 Mariya Pinigina   Soviet Union 10 August 1983 Helsinki
18 49.24 Sabine Busch   East Germany June 1984 Erfurt
19 49.26 Allyson Felix   United States 27 August 2015 Beijing [19]
20 49.28 Irena Szewinska   Poland 29 July 1976 Montreal
Pauline Davis   Bahamas 29 July 1996 Atlanta
Yuliya Gushchina   Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
23 49.29 Charity Opara   Nigeria 14 July 1998 Rome
24 49.30 Petra Muller   East Germany 3 June 1988 Jena
Lorraine Fenton   Jamaica 19 July 2002 Monaco

NotesEdit

Below is a list of all other times superior to 48.80:

Indoor Top 10Edit

Men indoorEdit

Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 44.52 Michael Norman   United States 10 March 2018 College Station
2 44.57 Kerron Clement   United States 12 March 2005 Fayetteville
3 44.63 Michael Johnson   United States 4 March 1995 Atlanta
4 44.80 Kirani James   Grenada 27 February 2011 Fayetteville
5 44.85 Fred Kerley   United States 11 March 2017 College Station
6 44.86 Akeem Bloomfield   Jamaica 10 March 2018 College Station
7 44.88 Bralon Taplin   Grenada 3 February 2018 College Station
8 44.93 LaShawn Merritt   United States 11 February 2005 Fayetteville
9 45.02 Danny Everett   United States 2 February 1992 Stuttgart
10 45.03 Torrin Lawrence   United States 27 February 2011 Fayetteville
Deon Lendore   Trinidad and Tobago 1 March 2014 College Station

Women indoorEdit

Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1 49.59 Jarmila Kratochvílová   Czechoslovakia 7 March 1982 Milan
2 49.68 Natalya Nazarova   Russia 18 February 2004 Moscow
3 49.76 Taťána Kocembová   Czechoslovakia 2 February 1984 Vienna
4 50.01 Sabine Busch   East Germany 2 February 1984 Vienna
5 50.02 Nicola Sanders   United Kingdom 3 March 2007 Birmingham
6 50.04 Olesya Krasnomovets   Russia 19 February 2006
12 March 2006
Moscow
7 50.15 Olga Zaytseva   Russia 25 January 2006 Moscow
8 50.21 Vania Stambolova   Bulgaria 12 March 2006 Moscow
9 50.23 Irina Privalova   Russia 12 March 1995 Barcelona
10 50.28 Petra Schersing   East Germany 6 March 1988 Budapest

Fastest relay splitsEdit

Most successful athletesEdit

3 or more 400 metres victories at the Olympic Games and World Championships:

  • 6 wins: Michael Johnson (USA) - Olympic Champion in 1996 and 2000, World Champion in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999.
  • 4 wins: Marie-Jose Perec (FRA) - Olympic Champion in 1992 and 1996, World Champion in 1991 and 1995.
  • 3 wins: Cathy Freeman (AUS) - Olympic Champion in 2000, World Champion in 1997 and 1999
  • 3 wins: Jeremy Wariner (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2004, World Champion in 2005 and 2007.
  • 3 wins: Christine Ohuruogu (GBR) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2007 and 2013.
  • 3 wins: LaShawn Merritt (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2009 and 2013.
  • 3 wins: Wayde van Niekerk (RSA) - Olympic Champion in 2016, World Champion in 2015 and 2017.

Olympic medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
Thomas Burke
  United States
Herbert Jamison
  United States
Charles Gmelin
  Great Britain
1900 Paris
details
Maxie Long
  United States
William Holland
  United States
Ernst Schultz
  Denmark
1904 St. Louis
details
Harry Hillman
  United States
Frank Waller
  United States
Herman Groman
  United States
1908 London
details
Wyndham Halswelle
  Great Britain
None awarded None awarded
1912 Stockholm
details
Charles Reidpath
  United States
Hanns Braun
  Germany
Edward Lindberg
  United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Bevil Rudd
  South Africa
Guy Butler
  Great Britain
Nils Engdahl
  Sweden
1924 Paris
details
Eric Liddell
  Great Britain
Horatio Fitch
  United States
Guy Butler
  Great Britain
1928 Amsterdam
details
Ray Barbuti
  United States
James Ball
  Canada
Joachim Büchner
  Germany
1932 Los Angeles
details
Bill Carr
  United States
Ben Eastman
  United States
Alex Wilson
  Canada
1936 Berlin
details
Archie Williams
  United States
Godfrey Brown
  Great Britain
James LuValle
  United States
1948 London
details
Arthur Wint
  Jamaica
Herb McKenley
  Jamaica
Mal Whitfield
  United States
1952 Helsinki
details
George Rhoden
  Jamaica
Herb McKenley
  Jamaica
Ollie Matson
  United States
1956 Melbourne
details
Charles Jenkins
  United States
Karl-Friedrich Haas
  United Team of Germany
Voitto Hellstén
  Finland
Ardalion Ignatyev
  Soviet Union
1960 Rome
details
Otis Davis
  United States
Carl Kaufmann
  United Team of Germany
Malcolm Spence
  South Africa
1964 Tokyo
details
Mike Larrabee
  United States
Wendell Mottley
  Trinidad and Tobago
Andrzej Badeński
  Poland
1968 Mexico City
details
Lee Evans
  United States
Larry James
  United States
Ron Freeman
  United States
1972 Munich
details
Vincent Matthews
  United States
Wayne Collett
  United States
Julius Sang
  Kenya
1976 Montreal
details
Alberto Juantorena
  Cuba
Fred Newhouse
  United States
Herman Frazier
  United States
1980 Moscow
details
Viktor Markin
  Soviet Union
Rick Mitchell
  Australia
Frank Schaffer
  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Alonzo Babers
  United States
Gabriel Tiacoh
  Ivory Coast
Antonio McKay
  United States
1988 Seoul
details
Steve Lewis
  United States
Butch Reynolds
  United States
Danny Everett
  United States
1992 Barcelona
details
Quincy Watts
  United States
Steve Lewis
  United States
Samson Kitur
  Kenya
1996 Atlanta
details
Michael Johnson
  United States
Roger Black
  Great Britain
Davis Kamoga
  Uganda
2000 Sydney
details
Michael Johnson
  United States
Alvin Harrison
  United States
Greg Haughton
  Jamaica
2004 Athens
details
Jeremy Wariner
  United States
Otis Harris
  United States
Derrick Brew
  United States
2008 Beijing
details
LaShawn Merritt
  United States
Jeremy Wariner
  United States
David Neville
  United States
2012 London
details
Kirani James
  Grenada
Luguelín Santos
  Dominican Republic
Lalonde Gordon
  Trinidad and Tobago
2016 Rio
details
Wayde van Niekerk
  South Africa
Kirani James
  Grenada
LaShawn Merritt
  United States

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1964 Tokyo
details
Betty Cuthbert
  Australia
Ann Packer
  Great Britain
Judy Amoore
  Australia
1968 Mexico City
details
Colette Besson
  France
Lillian Board
  Great Britain
Natalya Pechonkina
  Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Monika Zehrt
  East Germany
Rita Wilden
  West Germany
Kathy Hammond
  United States
1976 Montreal
details
Irena Szewińska
  Poland
Christina Brehmer
  East Germany
Ellen Streidt
  East Germany
1980 Moscow
details
Marita Koch
  East Germany
Jarmila Kratochvílová
  Czechoslovakia
Christina Lathan
  East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Valerie Brisco-Hooks
  United States
Chandra Cheeseborough
  United States
Kathy Smallwood-Cook
  Great Britain
1988 Seoul
details
Olga Bryzgina
  Soviet Union
Petra Müller
  East Germany
Olga Nazarova
  Soviet Union
1992 Barcelona
details
Marie-José Pérec
  France
Olga Bryzgina
  Unified Team
Ximena Restrepo
  Colombia
1996 Atlanta
details
Marie-José Pérec
  France
Cathy Freeman
  Australia
Falilat Ogunkoya
  Nigeria
2000 Sydney
details
Cathy Freeman
  Australia
Lorraine Graham
  Jamaica
Katharine Merry
  Great Britain
2004 Athens
details
Tonique Williams-Darling
  Bahamas
Ana Guevara
  Mexico
Natalya Antyukh
  Russia
2008 Beijing
details
Christine Ohuruogu
  Great Britain
Shericka Williams
  Jamaica
Sanya Richards
  United States
2012 London
details
Sanya Richards-Ross
  United States
Christine Ohuruogu
  Great Britain
DeeDee Trotter
  United States
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Shaunae Miller
  Bahamas
Allyson Felix
  United States
Shericka Jackson
  Jamaica

World Championships medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Bert Cameron (JAM)   Michael Franks (USA)   Sunder Nix (USA)
1987 Rome
details
  Thomas Schönlebe (GDR)   Innocent Egbunike (NGA)   Harry Reynolds (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Antonio Pettigrew (USA)   Roger Black (GBR)   Danny Everett (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Michael Johnson (USA)   Butch Reynolds (USA)   Samson Kitur (KEN)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Michael Johnson (USA)   Butch Reynolds (USA)   Greg Haughton (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
  Michael Johnson (USA)   Davis Kamoga (UGA)   Tyree Washington (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  Michael Johnson (USA)   Sanderlei Parrela (BRA)   Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Avard Moncur (BAH)   Ingo Schultz (GER)   Greg Haughton (JAM)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Tyree Washington (USA)   Marc Raquil (FRA)   Michael Blackwood (JAM)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Jeremy Wariner (USA)   Andrew Rock (USA)   Tyler Christopher (CAN)
2007 Osaka
details
  Jeremy Wariner (USA)   LaShawn Merritt (USA)   Angelo Taylor (USA)
2009 Berlin
details
  LaShawn Merritt (USA)   Jeremy Wariner (USA)   Renny Quow (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
  Kirani James (GRN)   LaShawn Merritt (USA)   Kevin Borlée (BEL)
2013 Moscow
details
  LaShawn Merritt (USA)   Tony McQuay (USA)   Luguelín Santos (DOM)
2015 Beijing
details
  Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)   LaShawn Merritt (USA)   Kirani James (GRN)
2017 London
details
  Wayde van Niekerk (RSA)   Steven Gardiner (BAH)   Abdalelah Haroun (QAT)

WomenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Jarmila Kratochvílová (TCH)   Taťána Kocembová (TCH)   Mariya Pinigina (URS)
1987 Rome
details
  Olga Bryzgina (URS)   Petra Muller (GDR)   Kirsten Emmelmann (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Marie-José Pérec (FRA)   Grit Breuer (GER)   Sandra Myers (ESP)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Jearl Miles (USA)   Natasha Kaiser-Brown (USA)   Sandie Richards (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Marie-José Pérec (FRA)   Pauline Davis (BAH)   Jearl Miles (USA)
1997 Athens
details
  Cathy Freeman (AUS)   Sandie Richards (JAM)   Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  Cathy Freeman (AUS)   Anja Rücker (GER)   Lorraine Graham-Fenton (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)   Lorraine Fenton (JAM)   Ana Guevara (MEX)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Ana Guevara (MEX)   Lorraine Fenton (JAM)   Amy Mbacké Thiam (SEN)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)   Sanya Richards (USA)   Ana Guevara (MEX)
2007 Osaka
details
  Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)   Nicola Sanders (GBR)   Novlene Williams (JAM)
2009 Berlin
details
  Sanya Richards (USA)   Shericka Williams (JAM)   Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2011 Daegu
details
  Amantle Montsho (BOT)   Allyson Felix (USA)   Anastasiya Kapachinskaya (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
  Christine Ohuruogu (GBR)   Amantle Montsho (BOT)   Antonina Krivoshapka (RUS)
2015 Beijing
details
  Allyson Felix (USA)   Shaunae Miller (BAH)   Shericka Jackson (JAM)
2017 London
details
  Phyllis Francis (USA)   Salwa Eid Naser (BHR)   Allyson Felix (USA)

World Indoor Championships medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]   Thomas Schönlebe (GDR)   Todd Bennett (GBR)   Mark Rowe (USA)
1987 Indianapolis
details
  Antonio McKay (USA)   Roberto Hernández (CUB)   Michael Franks (USA)
1989 Budapest
details
  Antonio McKay (USA)   Ian Morris (TTO)   Cayetano Cornet (ESP)
1991 Seville
details
  Devon Morris (JAM)   Samson Kitur (KEN)   Cayetano Cornet (ESP)
1993 Toronto
details
  Butch Reynolds (USA)   Sunday Bada (NGR)   Darren Clark (AUS)
1995 Barcelona
details
  Darnell Hall (USA)   Sunday Bada (NGR)   Mikhail Vdovin (RUS)
1997 Paris
details
  Sunday Bada (NGR)   Jamie Baulch (GBR)   Shunji Karube (JPN)
1999 Maebashi
details
  Jamie Baulch (GBR)   Milton Campbell (USA)   Alejandro Cárdenas (MEX)
2001 Lisbon
details
  Daniel Caines (GBR)   Milton Campbell (USA)   Danny McFarlane (JAM)
2003 Birmingham
details
  Tyree Washington (USA)   Daniel Caines (GBR)   Paul McKee (IRL)
  Jamie Baulch (GBR)
2004 Budapest
details
  Alleyne Francique (GRN)   Davian Clarke (JAM)   Gary Kikaya (COD)
2006 Moscow
details
  Alleyne Francique (GRN)   California Molefe (BOT)   Chris Brown (BAH)
2008 Valencia
details
  Tyler Christopher (CAN)   Johan Wissman (SWE)   Chris Brown (BAH)
2010 Doha
details
  Chris Brown (BAH)   William Collazo (CUB)   Jamaal Torrance (USA)
2012 Istanbul
details
  Nery Brenes (CRC)   Demetrius Pinder (BAH)   Chris Brown (BAH)
2014 Sopot
details
  Pavel Maslák (CZE)   Chris Brown (BAH)   Kyle Clemons (USA)
2016 Portland
details
  Pavel Maslák (CZE)   Abdalelah Haroun (QAT)   Deon Lendore (TTO)
2018 Birmingham
details
  Pavel Maslák (CZE)   Michael Cherry (USA)   Deon Lendore (TTO)

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]   Diane Dixon (USA)   Regine Berg (BEL)   Charmaine Crooks (CAN)
1987 Indianapolis
details
  Sabine Busch (GDR)   Lillie Leatherwood (USA)   Judit Forgács (HUN)
1989 Budapest
details
  Helga Arendt (FRG)   Diane Dixon (USA)   Jillian Richardson (TTO)
1991 Seville
details
  Diane Dixon (USA)   Sandra Myers (ESP)   Anita Protti (SUI)
1993 Toronto
details
  Sandie Richards (JAM)   Tatyana Alekseyeva (RUS)   Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
1995 Barcelona
details
  Irina Privalova (RUS)   Sandie Richards (JAM)   Daniela Georgieva (BUL)
1997 Paris
details
  Jearl Miles Clark (USA)   Sandie Richards (JAM)   Helena Fuchsová (CZE)
1999 Maebashi
details
  Grit Breuer (GER)   Falilat Ogunkoya (NGR)   Jearl Miles Clark (USA)
2001 Lisbon
details
  Sandie Richards (JAM)   Olga Kotlyarova (RUS)   Olesya Zykina (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
  Natalya Nazarova (RUS)   Christine Amertil (BAH)   Grit Breuer (GER)
2004 Budapest
details
  Natalya Nazarova (RUS)   Olesya Forsheva (RUS)   Tonique Williams-Darling (BAH)
2006 Moscow
details
  Olesya Forsheva (RUS)   Vania Stambolova (BUL)   Christine Amertil (BAH)
2008 Valencia
details
  Olesya Zykina (RUS)   Natalya Nazarova (RUS)   Shareese Woods (USA)
2010 Doha
details
  Debbie Dunn (USA)   Tatyana Firova (RUS)   Vania Stambolova (BUL)
2012 Istanbul
details
  Sanya Richards-Ross (USA)   Aleksandra Fedoriva (RUS)   Natasha Hastings (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
  Francena McCorory (USA)   Kaliese Spencer (JAM)   Shaunae Miller (BAH)
2016 Portland
details
  Kemi Adekoya (BHR)   Ashley Spencer (USA)   Quanera Hayes (USA)
2018 Birmingham
details
  Courtney Okolo (USA)   Shakima Wimbley (USA)   Eilidh Doyle (GBR)
  • A Known as the World Indoor Games

Season's bestsEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, "Aerobic versus anaerobic training for success in various athletic events" by Shepard, R. J., 1978
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 August 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012. 
  3. ^ "All-time men's best 400m". alltime-athletics.com. 8 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Men's 400m Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 14 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  5. ^ Roy Jordan (9 June 2018). "Benjamin and Norman break collegiate records at NCAA Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  6. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015. 
  7. ^ Jon Mulkeen (27 May 2017). "Kerley cruises to 43.70 clocking for 400m at NCAA West Preliminaries". IAAF. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  8. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). www.sep-olympic.ch. 5 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-03. 
  10. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018. 
  11. ^ "400m Men - Heats Results". IAAF. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015. 
  12. ^ Roy Jordan (9 June 2018). "Benjamin and Norman break collegiate records at NCAA Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 13 June 2018. 
  13. ^ "Men's 400m Results" (PDF). Rio 2016 official website. 14 August 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  15. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 21 July 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018. 
  16. ^ "All-time women's best 400m". alltime-athletics.com. 26 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  17. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018. 
  18. ^ "400m Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018. 
  19. ^ "400m Results". IAAF. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015. 
  20. ^ "4x400 Metres Relay Icons". Retrieved 10 June 2018. Jeremy Wariner: The two-time world 400m champion was a key member of the USA 4x400m squad in the 2000s, picking up two Olympic relay golds and three world titles. He also boasts the second-fastest relay split in history with his 42.93 from the 2007 World Championships. 
  21. ^ "Men's 4×400m Relay Results". ncaa.com. 27 May 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018. 
  22. ^ https://smsprio2016-a.akamaihd.net/_odf-documents/A/T/ATM404101_Results_2016_08_20_3f946dd6_c984_4e33_bf39_31afec5beb68.pdf

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