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Athletics at the 2012 Summer Olympics

The athletics competitions at the 2012 Olympic Games in London were held during the last 10 days of the Games, on 3–12 August. Track and field events took place at the Olympic Stadium in east London. The road events, however, started and finished on The Mall in central London.[3]

Athletics
at the Games of the XXX Olympiad
Athletics, London 2012.png
Venue Olympic Stadium
Dates 3–12 August
Competitors 2,231 (1,160 men, 1,071 women)[1][2]
← 2008
2016 →

Over 2,000 athletes from 201 nations competed in 47 events in total, with both men and women having a very similar schedule of events. Men competed in 24 events and women in 23, of which 21 were the same for both. The women's schedule lacked the 50 km race walk and included 100 m hurdles and heptathlon as opposed to the men's 110 m hurdles and decathlon. The youngest participant in the athletics competition was Andorran 15-year-old Cristina Llovera while the oldest was 46-year-old Ukrainian Oleksandr Dryhol.[4] South African Oscar Pistorius became the first amputee sprinter to compete at the Olympics.[5]

Contents

Competition scheduleEdit

The venue for the track and field events was the Olympic Stadium while the walks and the marathons started and finished on The Mall.[6] In the tables below, M stands for morning and A for afternoon.

Q Qualifiers H Heats ½ Semifinals F Final
Men[7]
Date → Fri 3 Sat 4 Sun 5 Mon 6 Tue 7 Wed 8 Thu 9 Fri 10 Sat 11 Sun 12
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m Q H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
110 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4x100 m relay H F
4x400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
50 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Decathlon F
Women
Date → Fri 3 Sat 4 Sun 5 Mon 6 Tue 7 Wed 8 Thu 9 Fri 10 Sat 11 Sun 12
Event ↓ M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A M A
100 m H ½ F
200 m H ½ F
400 m H ½ F
800 m H ½ F
1500 m H ½ F
5000 m H F
10,000 m F
100 m hurdles H ½ F
400 m hurdles H ½ F
3000 m steeplechase H F
4x100 m relay H F
4x400 m relay H F
Marathon F
20 km walk F
Long jump Q F
Triple jump Q F
High jump Q F
Pole vault Q F
Shot put Q F
Discus throw Q F
Javelin throw Q F
Hammer throw Q F
Heptathlon F


Medal summaryEdit

(WR = World Record, OR = Olympic Record)

MenEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Usain Bolt
  Jamaica
9.63
(OR)
Yohan Blake
  Jamaica
9.75 Justin Gatlin
  United States
9.79
200 metres
details
Usain Bolt
  Jamaica
19.32 Yohan Blake
  Jamaica
19.44 Warren Weir
  Jamaica
19.84
400 metres
details
Kirani James
  Grenada
43.94 Luguelín Santos
  Dominican Republic
44.46 Lalonde Gordon
  Trinidad and Tobago
44.52
800 metres
details
David Rudisha
  Kenya
1:40.91
(WR)
Nijel Amos
  Botswana
1:41.73 Timothy Kitum
  Kenya
1:42.53
1500 metres
details
Taoufik Makhloufi
  Algeria
3:34.08 Leonel Manzano
  United States
3:34.79 Abdalaati Iguider
  Morocco
3:35.13
5000 metres
details
Mo Farah
  Great Britain
13:41.66 Dejen Gebremeskel
  Ethiopia
13:41.98 Thomas Longosiwa
  Kenya
13:42.36
10,000 metres
details
Mo Farah
  Great Britain
27:30.42 Galen Rupp
  United States
27:30.90 Tariku Bekele
  Ethiopia
27:31.43
110 metres hurdles
details
Aries Merritt
  United States
12.92 Jason Richardson
  United States
13.04 Hansle Parchment
  Jamaica
13.12
400 metres hurdles
details
Félix Sánchez
  Dominican Republic
47.63 Michael Tinsley
  United States
47.91 Javier Culson
  Puerto Rico
48.10
3000 metres steeplechase
details
Ezekiel Kemboi
  Kenya
8:18.56 Mahiedine Benabbad
  France
8:19.08 Abel Mutai
  Kenya
8:19.73
4×100 metres relay
details [a]
  Jamaica (JAM)
Nesta Carter
Michael Frater
Yohan Blake
Usain Bolt
Kemar Bailey-Cole*
36.84
(WR)
  Trinidad and Tobago (TRI)
Keston Bledman
Marc Burns
Emmanuel Callender
Richard Thompson
38.12   France (FRA)
Jimmy Vicaut
Christophe Lemaitre
Pierre-Alexis Pessonneaux
Ronald Pognon
38.16
4×400 metres relay
details
  Bahamas (BAH)
Chris Brown
Demetrius Pinder
Michael Mathieu
Ramon Miller
2:56.72   United States (USA)
Bryshon Nellum
Joshua Mance
Tony McQuay
Angelo Taylor
Manteo Mitchell*
2:57.05   Trinidad and Tobago (TRI)
Lalonde Gordon
Jarrin Solomon
Ade Alleyne-Forte
Deon Lendore
2:59.40
Marathon
details
Stephen Kiprotich
  Uganda
2:08:01 Abel Kirui
  Kenya
2:08:27 Wilson Kipsang Kiprotich
  Kenya
2:09:37
20 kilometres walk
details
Chen Ding
  China
1:18:46
(OR)
Erick Barrondo
  Guatemala
1:18:57 Wang Zhen
  China
1:19:25
50 kilometres walk
details [b]
Jared Tallent
  Australia
3:36:53
(OR)
Si Tianfeng
  China
3:37:16 Robert Heffernan
  Ireland
3:37:54
High jump
details
Ivan Ukhov
  Russia
2.38 Erik Kynard
  United States
2.33 Mutaz Essa Barshim
  Qatar
Derek Drouin
  Canada
Robert Grabarz
  Great Britain
2.29
Pole vault
details
Renaud Lavillenie
  France
5.97
(OR)
Björn Otto
  Germany
5.91 Raphael Holzdeppe
  Germany
5.91
Long jump
details
Greg Rutherford
  Great Britain
8.31 Mitchell Watt
  Australia
8.16 Will Claye
  United States
8.12
Triple jump
details
Christian Taylor
  United States
17.81 Will Claye
  United States
17.62 Fabrizio Donato
  Italy
17.48
Shot put
details
Tomasz Majewski
  Poland
21.89 David Storl
  Germany
21.86 Reese Hoffa
  United States
21.23
Discus throw
details
Robert Harting
  Germany
68.27 Ehsan Haddadi
  Iran
68.18 Gerd Kanter
  Estonia
68.03
Hammer throw
details
Krisztián Pars
  Hungary
80.59 Primož Kozmus
  Slovenia
79.36 Koji Murofushi
  Japan
78.71
Javelin throw
details [c]
Keshorn Walcott
  Trinidad and Tobago
84.58 Antti Ruuskanen
  Finland
84.12 Vítězslav Veselý
  Czech Republic
83.34
Decathlon
details
Ashton Eaton
  United States
8869 Trey Hardee
  United States
8671 Leonel Suárez
  Cuba
8523
*Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats.

WomenEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
100 metres
details
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
  Jamaica
10.75 Carmelita Jeter
  United States
10.78 Veronica Campbell-Brown
  Jamaica
10.81
200 metres
details
Allyson Felix
  United States
21.88 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
  Jamaica
22.09 Carmelita Jeter
  United States
22.14
400 metres
details
Sanya Richards-Ross
  United States
49.55 Christine Ohuruogu
  Great Britain
49.70 DeeDee Trotter
  United States
49.72
800 metres
details [d]
Caster Semenya
  South Africa
1:57.23 Ekaterina Poistogova
  Russia
1:57.53 Vacant
1500 metres
details [e]
Maryam Yusuf Jamal
  Bahrain
4:10.74 Vacant Vacant
5000 metres
details
Meseret Defar
  Ethiopia
15:04.25 Vivian Cheruiyot
  Kenya
15:04.73 Tirunesh Dibaba
  Ethiopia
15:05.15
10,000 metres
details
Tirunesh Dibaba
  Ethiopia
30:20.75 Sally Kipyego
  Kenya
30:26.37 Vivian Cheruiyot
  Kenya
30:30.44
100 metres hurdles
details
Sally Pearson
  Australia
12.35
(OR)
Dawn Harper
  United States
12.37 Kellie Wells
  United States
12.48
400 metres hurdles
details
Natalya Antyukh
  Russia
52.70 Lashinda Demus
  United States
52.77 Zuzana Hejnová
  Czech Republic
53.38
3000 metres steeplechase
details [f]
Habiba Ghribi
  Tunisia
9:08.37 Sofia Assefa
  Ethiopia
9:09.84 Milcah Chemos Cheywa
  Kenya
9:09.88
4 × 100 m relay
details
  United States (USA)
Tianna Madison
Allyson Felix
Bianca Knight
Carmelita Jeter
Jeneba Tarmoh*
Lauryn Williams*
40.82
(WR)
  Jamaica (JAM)
Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce
Sherone Simpson
Veronica Campbell-Brown
Kerron Stewart
Samantha Henry-Robinson*
Schillonie Calvert*
41.41   Ukraine (UKR)
Olesya Povh
Hrystyna Stuy
Mariya Ryemyen
Elyzaveta Bryzgina
42.04
4 × 400 m relay
details [g]
  United States (USA)
DeeDee Trotter
Allyson Felix
Francena McCorory
Sanya Richards-Ross
Keshia Baker*
Diamond Dixon*
3:16.87   Jamaica (JAM)
Christine Day
Rosemarie Whyte
Shericka Williams
Novlene Williams-Mills
Shereefa Lloyd*
3:20.95   Ukraine (UKR)
Alina Lohvynenko
Olha Zemlyak
Hanna Yaroshchuk
Nataliya Pyhyda
3:23.57
Marathon
details
Tiki Gelana
  Ethiopia
2:23:07
(OR)
Priscah Jeptoo
  Kenya
2:23:12 Tatyana Arkhipova
  Russia
2:23:29
20 kilometres walk
details [h]
Elena Lashmanova
  Russia
1:25:02
(WR)
Qieyang Shenjie
  China
1:25:16 Liu Hong
  China
1:26:00
High jump
details
Anna Chicherova
  Russia
2.05 Brigetta Barrett
  United States
2.03 Svetlana Shkolina
  Russia
2.03
Pole vault
details
Jenn Suhr
  United States
4.75 Yarisley Silva
  Cuba
4.75 Yelena Isinbayeva
  Russia
4.70
Long jump
details
Brittney Reese
  United States
7.12 Yelena Sokolova
  Russia
7.07 Janay DeLoach
  United States
6.89
Triple jump
details
Olga Rypakova
  Kazakhstan
14.98 Caterine Ibargüen
  Colombia
14.80 Olha Saladukha
  Ukraine
14.79
Shot put
details [i]
Valerie Adams
  New Zealand
20.70 Gong Lijiao
  China
20.22 Li Ling
  China
19.63
Discus throw
details [j]
Sandra Perković
  Croatia
69.11 Li Yanfeng
  China
67.22 Yarelys Barrios
  Cuba
66.38
Hammer throw
details [k]
Anita Włodarczyk
  Poland
77.60 Betty Heidler
  Germany
77.13 Zhang Wenxiu
  China
76.34
Javelin throw
details
Barbora Špotáková
  Czech Republic
69.55 Christina Obergföll
  Germany
65.16 Linda Stahl
  Germany
64.91
Heptathlon
details [l]
Jessica Ennis
  Great Britain
6955 Lilli Schwarzkopf
  Germany
6649 Vacant
*Indicates the athlete only competed in the preliminary heats.
  • 800 metres On 10 February 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld a four-year ban that effectively stripped of the gold medal of Mariya Savinova, based upon her biological passport.[17] Caster Semenya of South Africa was advanced to gold, and Ekaterina Poistogova of Russia to silver. In the case of bronze medal reallocation the bronze medal will be awarded to Pamela Jelimo of Kenya.
  • 1500 metres On 17 August 2015, the Court of Arbitration for Sport says it approved a settlement agreed to by Turkish athlete Aslı Çakır Alptekin and the IAAF. Alptekin has agreed to forfeit her 1500 metres Olympic title and serve an eight-year ban for blood doping.[18][19] On 29 March 2017, Turkish athlete Gamze Bulut was banned for doping and lost her Olympic silver medal.[20] Maryam Yusuf Jamal of Bahrain was advanced to gold. In the case of silver and bronze medals reallocation the silver medal could be awarded to Tatyana Tomashova of Russia, and the bronze medal could be awarded to Abeba Aregawi of Ethiopia. However when reallocating medals, the IOC has previously elected not to advance athletes with a history of doping violations. Both Tatyana Tomashova and Abeba Aregawi had doping violations in the past. Therefore, it is possible that runners from the United States (Shannon Rowbury) and Slovakia (Lucia Klocová) in the original sixth and seventh positions could be awarded medals.
  • 3000 metres steeplechase On 30 January 2015, the Russian Anti-Doping Agency confirmed that runner Yuliya Zaripova will be stripped of her gold medal in the 3,000 metres steeplechase after testing positive for anabolic steroids.[21] On 4 June 2016, the gold medal was officially reallocated to second place Habiba Ghribi from Tunisia by the IOC[22] and IAAF updated the results.
  • 4 x 400 relay On 1 February 2017, the International Olympic Committee stripped the silver medal of the Russian team due to doping of Antonina Krivoshapka [23] Medals were reallocated.
  • 20 kilometres walk On 24 March 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport has issued decision that all competitive results obtained by Olga Kaniskina from 15 August 2009 to 15 October 2012 are disqualified.[11][24] Qieyang Shenjie of China was advanced to silver, and Liu Hong of China to bronze.
  • shot put The original winner, Nadzeya Ostapchuk of Belarus, was stripped of her gold medal shortly after the event after failing a doping test. The rest of the competitors were elevated by one position accordingly. On 20 August 2016, Yevgeniya Kolodko of Russia was also stripped of her silver medal after retested samples from the competition returned a positive doping result.[25] Gong Lijiao of China was advanced to silver, and Li Ling of China to bronze.
  • discus throw The original silver medalist, Darya Pishchalnikova of Russia, was stripped of her silver medal after failing drugs tests. The rest of the competitors were elevated by one position accordingly.[26]
  • hammer throw The original gold medalist, Tatyana Lysenko of Russia, was stripped of her gold medal after failing drugs tests.[27] Medals were reallocated.
  • heptathlon On 29 November 2016, the Court of Arbitration for Sport has issued decision that all competitive results of original bronze medalist Tatyana Chernova of Russia between 15 August 2011 and 22 July 2013 are annulled.[28][29]

Medal tableEdit

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1   United States 9 12 7 28
2   Jamaica 4 5 3 12
3   Russia 4 2 3 9
4   Great Britain 4 1 1 6
5   Ethiopia 3 2 2 7
6   Kenya 2 4 6 12
7   Australia 2 1 0 3
8   Poland 2 0 0 2
9   Germany 1 5 2 8
10   China 1 4 4 9
11   Trinidad and Tobago 1 1 2 4
12   France 1 1 1 3
13   Dominican Republic 1 1 0 2
14   Czech Republic 1 0 2 3
15   Algeria 1 0 0 1
  Bahamas 1 0 0 1
  Bahrain 1 0 0 1
  Croatia 1 0 0 1
  Grenada 1 0 0 1
  Hungary 1 0 0 1
  Kazakhstan 1 0 0 1
  New Zealand 1 0 0 1
  South Africa 1 0 0 1
  Tunisia 1 0 0 1
  Uganda 1 0 0 1
26   Cuba 0 1 2 3
27   Botswana 0 1 0 1
  Colombia 0 1 0 1
  Finland 0 1 0 1
  Guatemala 0 1 0 1
  Iran 0 1 0 1
  Slovenia 0 1 0 1
33   Ukraine 0 0 3 3
34   Canada 0 0 1 1
  Estonia 0 0 1 1
  Ireland 0 0 1 1
  Italy 0 0 1 1
  Japan 0 0 1 1
  Morocco 0 0 1 1
  Puerto Rico 0 0 1 1
  Qatar 0 0 1 1
Total 47 46 46 139

Note: Three competitors tied for bronze in the men's high jump event.

RecordsEdit

World and Olympic recordsEdit

A total of four world records in athletics and eleven Olympic records were broken during the competition. This was fewer than were set at the Beijing Olympics (5 world, 17 Olympic records) but greater than the number set at the 2004 Games in Athens (2 world, 10 Olympic records).

China's Chen Ding was the first Olympic record breaker, improving the men's 20 km walk record.[30] All three Olympic walk records were broken in London as Sergey Kirdyapkin bettered the Olympic 50 km walk time and Elena Lashmanova set a new world record in the women's 20 km walk.[31][32]

Usain Bolt was the first track athlete to improve an Olympic record as he defended his 100 m title with a run of 9.63 s.[33] He later joined the Jamaican 4 × 100 metres relay team (featuring Nesta Carter, Michael Frater and Yohan Blake) to set a world record time of 36.84 s.[34] The women's 4 × 100 metres relay event also saw a world record: an American team of Tianna Madison, Allyson Felix, Bianca Knight and Carmelita Jeter ran 40.82 seconds to take half a second off a record which had stood for nearly 27 years.[35][36] Further women's Olympic records were set by Ethiopia's Tiki Gelana in the marathon and Sally Pearson in the 100 metres hurdles.

David Rudisha improved his own 800 metres world record to 1:40.91 minutes, becoming the first man to break that record at the Olympics since Ralph Doubell did so at the 1968 Games.[37] Renaud Lavillenie was the only man to break a field event record, as he cleared an Olympic best of 5.97 m to win the pole vault competition.[38]

Event Date Name Nationality Result Type
Men's 100 metres 5 August Usain Bolt   Jamaica 9.63 OR
Men's 800 metres 9 August David Rudisha   Kenya 1:40.91 WR OR
Men's 4 × 100 metres relay 11 August Nesta Carter
Michael Frater
Yohan Blake
Usain Bolt
  Jamaica 36.84 WR OR
Men's 20 kilometres walk 4 August Chen Ding   China 1:18:46 OR
Men's 50 kilometres walk 11 August Jared Tallent   Australia 3:36:53 OR
Men's pole vault 10 August Renaud Lavillenie   France 5.97 m OR
Women's 100 metres hurdles 7 August Sally Pearson   Australia 12.35 OR
Women's marathon 5 August Tiki Gelana   Ethiopia 2:23:07 OR
Women's 20 kilometres walk 11 August Elena Lashmanova   Russia 1:25:02 WR OR
Women's 4 × 100 metres relay 10 August Tianna Madison
Allyson Felix
Bianca Knight
Carmelita Jeter
  United States 40.82 WR OR

DopingEdit

Prior to the Olympic competition, several prominent athletes were ruled out of the competition due to failed tests. World indoor medallists Dimitrios Chondrokoukis, Debbie Dunn, and Mariem Alaoui Selsouli were withdrawn from their Olympic teams in July for doping, as was 2004 Olympic medallist Zoltán Kővágó.[39][40][41] At the Olympic competition, Tameka Williams admitted to taking a banned stimulant and was removed from the games.[42] Ivan Tsikhan did not compete in the hammer throw as a re-test of his sample from the 2004 Athens Olympics, where he won silver, was positive.[43]Hassan Hirt,[44] Amine Laâlou,[45] Marina Marghieva,[46] Diego Palomeque,[47] and defending 50 km walk champion Alex Schwazer were also suspended before taking part in their events.[48]

Syrian hurdler Ghfran Almouhamad became the first track-and-field athlete to be suspended following a positive in-competition doping sample.[49] Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent metenolone.[50] Karin Melis Mey was withdrawn before the long jump final when an earlier failed doping test was confirmed.[51]

Multiple medalists were found guilty of doping after the Olympics. Russia has the most (9) medals stripped.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Number of Entries By Event Archived 4 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. IAAF (27 July 2012). Retrieved on 29 July 2012.
  2. ^ Number of athlete totals based upon information available on 27 July 2012. Totals include reserve athletes (back-ups for injuries/non-starters etc).
  3. ^ "Marathon Venue". London 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Athletics at the 2012 London Summer Games. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  5. ^ "Oscar Pistorius makes Olympic history in 400m at London 2012". BBC News. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  6. ^ "London 2012 Athletics - Results & Videos". 10 August 2016. 
  7. ^ Olympic sport competition schedule.
  8. ^ "US Track & Field Athlete, Gay, Accepts Sanction For Anti-Doping Rule Violation". United States Anti-Doping Agency. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "France relay team finally gets Olympic bronze medal". USA Today. 4 July 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "2012 Olympic 4x100m relay medals officially reallocated after U.S. team stripped of silver". NBS Sports. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  11. ^ a b The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) Upholds Six Appeals Filed by the IAAF Against Russian Athlete.
  12. ^ Press, Australian Associated (17 June 2016). "Jared Tallent finally awarded his 2012 Olympic gold medal in Melbourne". theguardian.com. Retrieved 17 June 2016. 
  13. ^ IOC sanctions 4 athletes for failing anti-doping tests. from Olympic.org
  14. ^ "London 2012 javelin throw men - Olympic Athletics". 10 August 2016. 
  15. ^ http://www.kaleva.fi/urheilu/antti-ruuskanen-saa-olympiahopeansa-lahden-mm-kisojen-yhteydessa/752403/
  16. ^ http://sport.idnes.cz/atletika-vitezslav-vesely-vracena-medaile-bronz-z-londyna-zlata-tretra-2017-156-/atletika.aspx?c=A170628_141012_atletika_mne
  17. ^ http://www.bbc.com/sport/athletics/38931007
  18. ^ Association, Press (17 August 2015). "Turkey's Asli Cakir Alptekin stripped of Olympic 1500m title for doping" – via The Guardian. 
  19. ^ "London 2012 1500m women - Olympic Athletics". 9 August 2016. 
  20. ^ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/sport/news/article.cfm?c_id=4&objectid=11828609
  21. ^ "Russian set to be stripped of London 2012 Olympic title after doping ban". Insidethegames.biz. 30 January 2015. 
  22. ^ "Ghribi receives Olympic and world gold medals". Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 July 2016. 
  23. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-three-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-london-2012
  24. ^ "London 2012 20km race walk women - Olympic Athletics". 9 August 2016. 
  25. ^ "IOC sanctions Evgeniia Kolodko for failing anti-doping test at London 2012". 20 August 2016. 
  26. ^ "Russian stripped of Olympic medal in discus for doping". CBCsports. 1 May 2013. 
  27. ^ IOC sanctions Tatyana Lysenko for failing anti-doping test at London 2012
  28. ^ The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) issues decisions in the cases of Tatyana Chernova, Ekaterina Sharmina and Kristina Ugarova
  29. ^ Russian heptathlete Tatyana Chernova stripped of medals in doping case
  30. ^ Chen Race Walks home to gold. London 2012. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  31. ^ Sergey Kirdyapkin wins Olympics 50km walk gold in record time. BBC Sport (11 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  32. ^ Aspin, Guy (11 August 2011). Russia's Elena Lashmanova sets new world record in thrilling finish to women's 20km race walk . The Independent. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  33. ^ Hayward, Paul (6 August 2012). Usain Bolt wins men's 100m Olympic final in 9.63 seconds to seal legacy. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  34. ^ Garside, Kevin (12 August 2012). Brilliant Usain Bolt leads Jamaica quartet to world record in 4 × 100 m relay. The Independent. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  35. ^ 40.82! USA shatters women’s 4 × 100 m relay World Record in London!. IAAF (10 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  36. ^ 4x100 Metres Relay All Time. IAAF. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  37. ^ IAAF Statistics Handbook. Berlin 2009 Archived 6 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. IAAF. (pages 546, 548). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  38. ^ Rowbottom, Mike (10 August 2012). Lavillenie – doing his best to continue the story of French vault success. IAAF. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  39. ^ Debbie Dunn withdraws from Olympics after positive drugs test. The Guardian (14 July 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  40. ^ London 2012: Two more athletes withdrawn over anti-doping tests. The Guardian (26 July 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  41. ^ London 2012: Selsouli to miss Games after failed drugs test. BBC Sport (25 July 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  42. ^ London 2012 Olympics: Sprinter Tameka Williams sent home over drugs . Scotsman (30 July 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  43. ^ Ivan Tsikhan tests positive. ESPN (3 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  44. ^ French runner Hirt fails EPO test - source[permanent dead link]. Reuters (10 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  45. ^ London 2012: Amine Laalou, Moroccan 1500m runner, fails doping test. The Guardian (3 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  46. ^ Moldova hammer thrower tossed for doping test. Sports Illustrated (4 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  47. ^ Olympics 400m: Colombian Diego Palomeque fails drugs test. BBC Sport (12 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  48. ^ Anzolin, Elisa (8 August 2012). Athletics - Tearful Schwazer relieved by doping ban. Reuters. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  49. ^ London 2012: Positive doping test for Syrian athlete Ghfran Almouhamad. The Guardian (11 August 2012). Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  50. ^ Bryant, Tom (13 August 2012). Belarus shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk stripped of gold for doping. The Guardian. Retrieved on 13 August 2012.
  51. ^ Two Olympians banned over doping[permanent dead link]. Sky News Australia (19 December 2012) Retrieved on 3 March 2012

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