Poland left London with a total of 11 Olympic medals (2 gold, 2 silver, and 7 bronze), tying with Beijing for the nation's highest overall number of medals. Two of the medals were awarded to the team in athletics, sailing, and weightlifting. Among the nation's medalists were shot putter Tomasz Majewski, who successfully defended his Olympic title from Beijing, and double sculls pair Magdalena Fularczyk and Julia Michalska, who became the first Polish women to claim an Olympic rowing medal in 32 years. Windsurfers Przemysław Miarczyński and Zofia Klepacka recaptured their nation's success in sailing, as they each won the bronze medal.
Several Polish athletes, however, suffered setbacks at these Olympic games. Tennis player Agnieszka Radwańska, who ranked second by the Women's Tennis Association, was surprisingly eliminated in the first round of women's singles. Meanwhile, the men's indoor volleyball team, champions of the 2012 FIVB World League, failed to advance into the semi-finals for the third consecutive time, after losing to Russia in the quarterfinals. Star sailor and double Olympic medalist Mateusz Kusznierewicz, and the men's quadruple sculls team, led by Michał Jeliński, finished outside of the medal standings in the final race.
Polski Komitet Olimpijski (POK) selected a team of 218 athletes, 130 men and 88 women, to compete in 22 sports; it was the nation's fourth-largest team sent to the Olympics. Men's volleyball was the only team-based sport in which Poland had its representation in these Olympic games. There was only a single competitor in boxing, equestrian eventing, rhythmic gymnastics, and taekwondo. Athletics was the largest team by sport, with a total of 60 competitors.
Qualification Legend: FA=Final A (medal); FB=Final B (non-medal); FC=Final C (non-medal); FD=Final D (non-medal); FE=Final E (non-medal); FF=Final F (non-medal); SA/B=Semifinals A/B; SC/D=Semifinals C/D; SE/F=Semifinals E/F; QF=Quarterfinals; R=Repechage
Polish swimmers have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following events (up to a maximum of 2 swimmers in each event at the Olympic Qualifying Time (OQT), and 1 at the Olympic Selection Time (OST)):