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Swimming at the 2012 Summer Olympics

The swimming competitions at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London took place from 28 July to 4 August at the Aquatics Centre. The open-water competition took place from 9 to 10 August in Hyde Park.[1]

Swimming
at the Games of the XXX Olympiad
Swimming, London 2012.png
Venue Aquatics Centre (pool)
Hyde Park (open water)
Dates 28 July – 4 August 2012 (pool)
9–10 August (open water)
Competitors 900 (pool), 50 (open water) from 166 nations
← 2008
2016 →

Swimming featured 34 events (17 male, 17 female), including two 10 km open-water marathons in Hyde Park's Serpentine lake. The remaining 32 were contested in a 50 m long course pool within the Olympic Park.

United States claimed a total of 31 medals (16 golds, 9 silver, and 6 bronze) in the leaderboard to maintain its supremacy as the most successful nation in swimming.[2] Brought by an unprecedented sporting domination, Michael Phelps emerged as the most decorated Olympian of all time after winning six more medals at these Games to bring his total after the 2012 games to 22 (18 golds, 2 silver, and 2 bronze).[3][4] Battling against the Americans for an overall medal count, China mounted to an unexpected second-place effort on the leaderboard with a tally of 10 medals (five golds, three silver, and bronze) after striking a superb double from Sun Yang in long-distance freestyle (both 400 and 1500 m) and Ye Shiwen in the individual medley (both 200 and 400 m).[5] Meanwhile, France ended on a spectacular fashion in third spot with a total of seven medals (four golds, two silver, and one bronze), followed by the Netherlands with four, including two golds from Ranomi Kromowidjojo in sprint freestyle (both 50 and 100 m), and South Africa with three.[2]

For the first time since 1992, Australia delivered an underwhelming performance with only a single triumph in the freestyle relay, but managed to bring home a total of ten medals.[6] After not winning a gold in swimming since 2004, Japan produced the most medals in the post-war era to build a tally of eleven (three silver and eight bronze).[7]

In the post-techsuit era, a total of nine world records and twenty five Olympic records were set during the competition.

Contents

EventsEdit

 
The London Aquatics Centre, designed by famed architect Zaha Hadid, hosted the swimming events during the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Similar to the program's format in 2008, swimming featured a total of 34 events (17 each for men and women) including two 10 km open-water marathons. The following events were contested (all pool events were long course, and distances are in metres unless stated):

ScheduleEdit

Similar to the previous Olympics since 2000, with the exception of 2008, swimming program schedule occurred in two segments. For the pool events, prelims were held in the morning, with semifinals and final in the following evening session.


H Heats ½ Semifinals F Final
Men[8]
Date → Sat 28 Sun 29 Mon 30 Tue 31 Wed 1 Thu 2 Fri 3 Sat 4 Fri 10
Event ↓ M E M E M E M E M E M E M E M E M E
50 m freestyle H ½ F
100 m freestyle H ½ F
200 m freestyle H ½ F
400 m freestyle H F
1500 m freestyle H F
100 m backstroke H ½ F
200 m backstroke H ½ F
100 m breaststroke H ½ F
200 m breaststroke H ½ F
100 m butterfly H ½ F
200 m butterfly H ½ F
200 m individual medley H ½ F
400 m individual medley H F
4×100 m freestyle relay H F
4×200 m freestyle relay H F
4×100 m medley relay H F
10 km open water F
Women[8]
Date → Sat 28 Sun 29 Mon 30 Tue 31 Wed 1 Thu 2 Fri 3 Sat 4 Thu 9
Event ↓ M E M E M E M E M E M E M E M E M E
50 m freestyle H ½ F
100 m freestyle H ½ F
200 m freestyle H ½ F
400 m freestyle H F
800 m freestyle H F
100 m backstroke H ½ F
200 m backstroke H ½ F
100 m breaststroke H ½ F
200 m breaststroke H ½ F
100 m butterfly H ½ F
200 m butterfly H ½ F
200 m individual medley H ½ F
400 m individual medley H F
4×100 m freestyle relay H F
4×200 m freestyle relay H F
4×100 m medley relay H F
10 km open water F
M = Morning session, E = Evening session


QualificationEdit

FINA By-Law BL 9.3.6.4 (swimming) and BL 9.3.7.5.3 (open water) lays out the qualification procedures for the "Swimming" competition at the Olympics.[9] Each country is allowed to enter up to two swimmers per individual event (provided they qualify), and one entry per relay; and a country may not have more than 26 males and 26 females (52 total) on its team.

Swimming – individual eventsEdit

On 11 November 2010, FINA posted the qualifying times for individual events for the 2012 Olympics.[10] The time standards consist of two time standards, an "Olympic Qualifying Time" and an "Olympic invitation time". Each country was able to enter up to two swimmers per event, provided both swimmers met the (faster) qualifying time. A country was able to enter one swimmer per event that met the invitation standard. Any swimmer who met the "qualifying" time was entered in the event for the Games; a swimmer meeting the "invitation" standard was eligible for entry, and their entry was allotted/filled in by ranking.

If a country has no swimmers meeting either qualifying standard, it may enter one male and one female. A country that does not receive an allocation spot but has at least one swimmer who meets a qualifying standard may enter the swimmer with the highest ranking.

Swimming – relay eventsEdit

Each relay event featured 16 teams, composed of:

  • 12: the top-12 finishers at the 2011 World Championships in each relay event.
  • 4: the 4 fastest non-qualified teams, based on times in the 15-months preceding the Olympics.

Open-water swimmingEdit

The men's and women's 10 km races at the 2012 Olympics each featured 25 swimmers:

  • 10: the top-10 finishers in the 10 km races at the 2011 World Championships
  • 9: the top-9 finishers at the 2012 Olympic Marathon Swim Qualifier (8–9 June 2012 in Setúbal, Portugal[11]).
  • 5: one representative from each FINA continent (Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania). (These were selected based on the finishes at the qualifying race in Setúbal.)
  • 1: from the host nation (Great Britain) if not qualified by other means. If Great Britain already had a qualifier in the race, this spot was allocated back into the general pool from the 2012 qualifying race.

Participating nationsEdit

FINA announced in early July 2012 that 631 athletes from 166 nations would compete in swimming events at the 2012 Olympics (note: all nations qualified for the 10 km races also had at least 1 swimmer qualified for the pool portion). 59 nations qualified via the A cut (OQT), 12 via the B cut (OST) and 95 via Universality.[12] Brunei, Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Togo, and Tonga made their official debut in swimming. Meanwhile, Grenada, Iraq, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines returned to the sport after an eight-year absence. Nations with swimmers at the Games are (team size in parentheses):

Medal summaryEdit

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1   United States (USA) 16 9 6 31
2   China (CHN) 5 2 3 10
3   France (FRA) 4 2 1 7
4   Netherlands (NED) 2 1 1 4
5   South Africa (RSA) 2 1 0 3
6   Hungary (HUN) 2 0 1 3
7   Australia (AUS) 1 6 3 10
8   Tunisia (TUN) 1 0 1 2
9   Lithuania (LTU) 1 0 0 1
10   Japan (JPN) 0 3 8 11
11   Russia (RUS) 0 2 2 4
12   Belarus (BLR) 0 2 0 2
  Spain (ESP) 0 2 0 2
  South Korea (KOR) 0 2 0 2
15   Great Britain (GBR) 0 1 2 3
  Canada (CAN) 0 1 2 3
17   Brazil (BRA) 0 1 1 2
18   Germany (GER) 0 1 0 1
19   Italy (ITA) 0 0 1 1
Total 34 36 32 102

Note: There were ties for silver in the men's 200 m freestyle and men's 100 m butterfly events.

ResultsEdit

Men's eventsEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
50 m freestyle
details
Florent Manaudou
  France
21.34 Cullen Jones
  United States
21.54 César Cielo
  Brazil
21.59
100 m freestyle
details
Nathan Adrian
  United States
47.52 James Magnussen
  Australia
47.53 Brent Hayden
  Canada
47.80
200 m freestyle
details
Yannick Agnel
  France
1:43.14 NR Sun Yang
  China
Park Tae-Hwan
  South Korea
1:44.93 NR
1:44.93
Not awarded
as there was a tie for silver.
400 m freestyle
details
Sun Yang
  China
3:40.14 OR, AS Park Tae-Hwan
  South Korea
3:42.06 Peter Vanderkaay
  United States
3:44.69
1500 m freestyle
details
Sun Yang
  China
14:31.02 WR Ryan Cochrane
  Canada
14:39.63 AM Oussama Mellouli
  Tunisia
14:40.31
100 m backstroke
details
Matt Grevers
  United States
52.16 OR Nick Thoman
  United States
52.92 Ryosuke Irie
  Japan
52.97
200 m backstroke
details
Tyler Clary
  United States
1:53.41 OR Ryosuke Irie
  Japan
1:53.78 Ryan Lochte
  United States
1:53.94
100 m breaststroke
details
Cameron van der Burgh
  South Africa
58.46 WR Christian Sprenger
  Australia
58.93 Brendan Hansen
  United States
59.49
200 m breaststroke
details
Dániel Gyurta
  Hungary
2:07.28 WR Michael Jamieson
  Great Britain
2:07.43 NR Ryo Tateishi
  Japan
2:08.29
100 m butterfly
details
Michael Phelps
  United States
51.21 Chad le Clos
  South Africa
Yevgeny Korotyshkin
  Russia
51.44 Not awarded
as there was a tie for silver.
200 m butterfly
details
Chad le Clos
  South Africa
1:52.96 AF Michael Phelps
  United States
1:53.01 Takeshi Matsuda
  Japan
1:53.21
200 m individual medley
details
Michael Phelps
  United States
1:54.27 Ryan Lochte
  United States
1:54.90 László Cseh
  Hungary
1:56.22
400 m individual medley
details
Ryan Lochte
  United States
4:05.18 Thiago Pereira
  Brazil
4:08.86 =NR Kosuke Hagino
  Japan
4:08.94 AS
4 × 100 m freestyle relay
details
  France (FRA)
Amaury Leveaux (48.13)
Fabien Gilot (47.67)
Clément Lefert (47.39)
Yannick Agnel (46.74)
Alain Bernard[a]
Jérémy Stravius[a]
3:09.93   United States (USA)
Nathan Adrian (47.89)
Michael Phelps (47.15)
Cullen Jones (47.60)
Ryan Lochte (47.74)
Jimmy Feigen[a]
Matt Grevers[a]
Ricky Berens[a]
Jason Lezak[a]
3:10.38   Russia (RUS)
Andrey Grechin (48.57)
Nikita Lobintsev (47.39)
Vladimir Morozov (47.85)
Danila Izotov (47.60)
Yevgeny Lagunov[a]
Sergey Fesikov[a]
3:11.41
4 × 200 m freestyle relay
details
  United States (USA)
Ryan Lochte (1:45.15)
Conor Dwyer (1:45.23)
Ricky Berens (1:45.27)
Michael Phelps (1:44.05)
Charlie Houchin[a]
Matt McLean[a]
Davis Tarwater[a]
6:59.70   France (FRA)
Amaury Leveaux (1:46.70)
Grégory Mallet (1:46.83)
Clément Lefert (1:46.00)
Yannick Agnel (1:43.24)
Jérémy Stravius[a]
7:02.77 NR   China (CHN)
Hao Yun (1:47.12)
Li Yunqi (1:46.46)
Jiang Haiqi (1:47.17)
Sun Yang (1:45.55)
Lü Zhiwu[a]
Dai Jun[a]
7:06.30
4 × 100 m medley relay
details
  United States (USA)
Matt Grevers (52.58)
Brendan Hansen (59.19)
Michael Phelps (50.73)
Nathan Adrian (46.85)
Nick Thoman[a]
Eric Shanteau[a]
Tyler McGill[a]
Cullen Jones[a]
3:29.35   Japan (JPN)
Ryosuke Irie (52.92)
Kosuke Kitajima (58.64)
Takeshi Matsuda (51.20)
Takuro Fujii (48.50)
3:31.26   Australia (AUS)
Hayden Stoeckel (53.71)
Christian Sprenger (59.05)
Matt Targett (51.60)
James Magnussen (47.22)
Brenton Rickard[a]
Tommaso D'Orsogna[a]
3:31.58
10 km open water
details
Oussama Mellouli
  Tunisia
1:49:55.1 Thomas Lurz
  Germany
1:49:58.5 Richard Weinberger
  Canada
1:50:00.3

AF African record | AM Americas record | AS Asian record | ER European record | OC Oceania record | OR Olympic record | WJR World Junior record | WR World record
NR National record (Any world record is necessarily also an Olympic, area, and national record. Area records (for continental regions) are also national records.)

a Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals.

Women's eventsEdit

Event Gold Silver Bronze
50 m freestyle
details
Ranomi Kromowidjojo
  Netherlands
24.05 OR Aliaksandra Herasimenia
  Belarus
24.28 NR Marleen Veldhuis
  Netherlands
24.39
100 m freestyle
details
Ranomi Kromowidjojo
  Netherlands
53.00 OR Aliaksandra Herasimenia
  Belarus
53.38 Tang Yi
  China
53.44
200 m freestyle
details
Allison Schmitt
  United States
1:53.61 OR, AM Camille Muffat
  France
1:55.58 Bronte Barratt
  Australia
1:55.81
400 m freestyle
details
Camille Muffat
  France
4:01.45 OR Allison Schmitt
  United States
4:01.77 AM Rebecca Adlington
  Great Britain
4:03.01
800 m freestyle
details
Katie Ledecky
  United States
8:14.63 AM Mireia Belmonte García
  Spain
8:18.76 NR Rebecca Adlington
  Great Britain
8:20.32
100 m backstroke
details
Missy Franklin
  United States
58.33 AM Emily Seebohm
  Australia
58.68 Aya Terakawa
  Japan
58.83 AS
200 m backstroke
details
Missy Franklin
  United States
2:04.06 WR Anastasia Zuyeva
  Russia
2:05.92 Elizabeth Beisel
  United States
2:06.55
100 m breaststroke
details
Rūta Meilutytė
  Lithuania
1:05.47 Rebecca Soni
  United States
1:05.55 Satomi Suzuki
  Japan
1:06.46
200 m breaststroke
details
Rebecca Soni
  United States
2:19.59 WR Satomi Suzuki
  Japan
2:20.72 =AS Yuliya Yefimova
  Russia
2:20.92 EU
100 m butterfly
details
Dana Vollmer
  United States
55.98 WR Lu Ying
  China
56.87 Alicia Coutts
  Australia
56.94
200 m butterfly
details
Jiao Liuyang
  China
2:04.06 OR Mireia Belmonte García
  Spain
2:05.25 NR Natsumi Hoshi
  Japan
2:05.48
200 m individual medley
details
Ye Shiwen
  China
2:07.57 OR, AS Alicia Coutts
  Australia
2:08.15 Caitlin Leverenz
  United States
2:08.95
400 m individual medley
details
Ye Shiwen
  China
4:28.43 WR Elizabeth Beisel
  United States
4:31.27 Li Xuanxu
  China
4:32.91
4 × 100 m freestyle relay
details
  Australia (AUS)
Alicia Coutts (53.90)
Cate Campbell (53.19)
Brittany Elmslie (53.41)
Melanie Schlanger (52.65)
Emily Seebohm[b]
Yolane Kukla[b]
Libby Trickett[b]
3:33.15 OR   Netherlands (NED)
Inge Dekker (54.67)
Marleen Veldhuis (53.80)
Femke Heemskerk (53.39)
Ranomi Kromowidjojo (51.93)
Hinkelien Schreuder[b]
3:33.79   United States (USA)
Missy Franklin (53.52)
Jessica Hardy (53.53)
Lia Neal (53.65)
Allison Schmitt (53.54)
Amanda Weir[b]
Natalie Coughlin[b]
3:34.24 AM
4 × 200 m freestyle relay
details
  United States (USA)
Missy Franklin (1:55.96)
Dana Vollmer (1:56.02)
Shannon Vreeland (1:56.85)
Allison Schmitt (1:54.09)
Lauren Perdue[b]
Alyssa Anderson[b]
7:42.92 OR, AM   Australia (AUS)
Bronte Barratt (1:55.76)
Melanie Schlanger (1:55.62)
Kylie Palmer (1:56.91)
Alicia Coutts (1:56.12)
Brittany Elmslie[b]
Angie Bainbridge[b]
Jade Neilsen[b]
Blair Evans[b]
7:44.41   France (FRA)
Camille Muffat (1:55.51)
Charlotte Bonnet (1:57.78)
Ophélie-Cyrielle Étienne (1:58.05)
Coralie Balmy (1:56.15)
Margaux Farrell[b]
Mylène Lazare[b]
7:47.49 NR
4 × 100 m medley relay
details
  United States (USA)
Missy Franklin (58.50)
Rebecca Soni (1:04.82)
Dana Vollmer (55.48)
Allison Schmitt (53.25)
Rachel Bootsma[b]
Breeja Larson[b]
Claire Donahue[b]
Jessica Hardy[b]
3:52.05 WR   Australia (AUS)
Emily Seebohm (59.01)
Leisel Jones (1:06.06)
Alicia Coutts (56.41)
Melanie Schlanger (52.54)
Brittany Elmslie[b]
3:54.02   Japan (JPN)
Aya Terakawa (58.99)
Satomi Suzuki (1:05.96)
Yuka Kato (57.36)
Haruka Ueda (53.42)
3:55.73
10 km open water
details
Éva Risztov
  Hungary
1:57:38.2 Haley Anderson
  United States
1:57:38.6 Martina Grimaldi
  Italy
1:57:41.8

AF African record | AM Americas record | AS Asian record | ER European record | OC Oceania record | OR Olympic record | WJR World Junior record | WR World record
NR National record (Any world record is necessarily also an Olympic, area, and national record. Area records (for continental regions) are also national records.)

b Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals.

Olympic and world records brokenEdit

MenEdit

Event Date Round Name Nationality Time Record Day
Men's 400 m freestyle 28 July Final Sun Yang   China 3:40.14 OR 1
Men's 100 m breaststroke 28 July Semifinal Cameron van der Burgh   South Africa 58.83 OR 1
Men's 100 m breaststroke 29 July Final Cameron van der Burgh   South Africa 58.46 WR 2
Men's 100 m backstroke 30 July Final Matt Grevers   United States 52.16 OR 3
Men's 200 m breaststroke 1 August Final Dániel Gyurta   Hungary 2:07.28 WR 5
Men's 200 m backstroke 2 August Final Tyler Clary   United States 1:53.41 OR 6
Men's 1500 m freestyle 4 August Final Sun Yang   China 14:31.02 WR 8

WomenEdit

Event Date Round Name Nationality Time Record Day
Women's 100 m butterfly 28 July Heats Dana Vollmer   United States 56.25 OR 1
Women's 400 m individual medley 28 July Final Ye Shiwen   China 4:28.43 WR 1
Women's 4 × 100 m freestyle relay 28 July Final Alicia Coutts (53.90)
Cate Campbell (53.19)
Brittany Elmslie (53.41)
Melanie Schlanger (52.65)
  Australia 3:33.15 OR 1
Women's 100 m backstroke 29 July Heats Emily Seebohm   Australia 58.23 OR 2
Women's 100 m butterfly 29 July Final Dana Vollmer   United States 55.98 WR 2
Women's 400 m freestyle 29 July Final Camille Muffat   France 4:01.45 OR 2
Women's 200 m individual medley 30 July Semifinal Ye Shiwen   China 2:08.39 OR 3
Women's 200 m freestyle 31 July Final Allison Schmitt   United States 1:53.61 OR 4
Women's 200 m individual medley 31 July Final Ye Shiwen   China 2:07.57 OR 4
Women's 100 m freestyle 1 August Semifinal Ranomi Kromowidjojo   Netherlands 53.05 OR 5
Women's 200 m butterfly 1 August Final Jiao Liuyang   China 2:04.06 OR 5
Women's 200 m breaststroke 1 August Semifinal Rebecca Soni   United States 2:20.00 WR 5
Women's 4 × 200 m freestyle relay 1 August Final Missy Franklin (1:55.96)
Dana Vollmer (1:56.02)
Shannon Vreeland (1:56.85)
Allison Schmitt (1:54.09)
  United States 7:42.92 OR 5
Women's 200 m breaststroke 2 August Final Rebecca Soni   United States 2:19.59 WR 6
Women's 100 m freestyle 2 August Final Ranomi Kromowidjojo   Netherlands 53.00 OR 6
Women's 200 m backstroke 3 August Final Missy Franklin   United States 2:04.06 WR 7
Women's 50 m freestyle 4 August Final Ranomi Kromowidjojo   Netherlands 24.05 OR 8
Women's 4 × 100 m medley relay 4 August Final Missy Franklin (58.50)
Rebecca Soni (1:04.82)
Dana Vollmer (55.48)
Allison Schmitt (53.25)
  United States 3:52.05 WR 8
  • All world records (WR) are subsequently Olympic records (OR).

Derya Büyükuncu and Lars Frölander were the first swimmers to participate in six consecutive Olympic Games (1992-2012).

ControversiesEdit

In the women's 400-metre individual medley, Chinese Ye Shiwen won in a world-record time of 4:28.43. After the race, Ye had allegations against her suggesting the use of drugs that drew comment from the International Olympic Committee and FINA who defended Ye. Ye has never tested positive of any performance-enhancing drugs. Some claim the accusations were a result of xenophobia towards the Chinese.

In the final of the 100-metre breaststroke, South African Cameron van der Burgh won in a world-record time of 58.46, bettering the previous record of 58.58 held by Brenton Rickard of Australia. After the race however, underwater camera footage showed winner van der Burgh did three illegal butterfly kicks on the underwater pullout (rules allow for one kick).[13] Van der Burgh later admitted to the illegal move and justified the act by saying if he was not doing it, "you are falling behind or giving yourself a disadvantage."[14]

Gallery of the medalistsEdit

Some of the Olympic medalists in London:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "London 2012: Swimming". London 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Adrega, Pedro; Chiarello, Sarah (4 August 2012). "Swimming day 8 – USA end on a high note, Phelps retires with 22 medals!". London 2012. FINA. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "2012 London Olympics: Michael Phelps Leads All Swimmers With Six Medals". Swimming World Magazine. 5 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Nye, James (3 July 2013). "Greatest Olympian of all time bows out with gold: Michael Phelps wins 18th race as U.S. swim team dominates last day in the pool". Mail Online. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  5. ^ Tan, Jingjing (3 July 2013). "Great breakthrough for Chinese swimming in Olympic pool". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Hoy, Greg (3 July 2013). "Swimmers outraged over pre-Games treatment". ABC News Australia. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Akutsu, Atsushi (3 July 2013). "Olympics/Swimming: Japan fails to strike gold but medal haul points to bright future". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "Swimming: Results and Schedule". London 2012. NBC Olympics. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "FINA By Law 9". London 2012. FINA. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  10. ^ "764 Qualifying times for London Olympic Games 2012". London 2012. FINA. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  11. ^ "FINA Press Release 2010–79: FINA Bureau Meeting in Dubai (UAE)". London 2012. FINA. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  12. ^ "London 2012 – Swimming – Qualified Swimmers". London 2012. FINA. 6 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  13. ^ "Illegal Triple-Dolphin Kicks Seen in World Record Breaststroke Swim". SwimSwam. 31 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  14. ^ "South African Cameron van der Burgh admits using illegal dolphin kicks to win gold medal". The Australian. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 

External linksEdit