One-party state

  (Redirected from One-party system)

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of sovereign state in which only one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.[1] All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning power.

World's states coloured by form of government1
     Full presidential republics2      Semi-presidential republics2
     Republics with an executive president elected by or nominated by the legislature that may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence.      Parliamentary republics2
     Parliamentary constitutional monarchies      Constitutional monarchies which have a separate head of government but where royalty holds significant executive and/or legislative power
     Absolute monarchies      One-party states
     Countries where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorships)      Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. provisional governments).
1 This map was compiled according to the Wikipedia list of countries by system of government. See there for sources.
2 Several states constitutionally deemed to be multiparty republics are broadly described by outsiders as authoritarian states. This map presents only the de jure form of government, and not the de facto degree of democracy.

The rule of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) in the Ottoman Empire following the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état is considered the first one-party state.[2]

ConceptEdit

One-party states explain themselves through various methods. Most often, proponents of a one-party state argue that the existence of separate parties runs counter to national unity. Others argue that the one party is the vanguard of the people, and therefore its right to rule cannot be legitimately questioned. The Soviet government argued that multiple parties represented the class struggle and because of this the Soviet Union legally authorized and recognized a single party leading the proletariat, namely the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Some one-party states only outlaw opposition parties, while allowing allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition such as a popular front. However, these parties are largely or completely subservient to the ruling party and must accept the ruling party's monopoly of power as a condition of their existence. Examples of this are the People's Republic of China under the United Front, the National Front in former East Germany and the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea in North Korea. Others may outlaw all other parties yet allow non-party members to run for legislative seats as independent, as was the case with Taiwan's Tangwai movement in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the elections in the former Soviet Union. Still others may both outlaw all other parties and include party membership as a prerequisite for holding public office, such as in Turkmenistan under the rule of Saparmurat Niyazov or Zaire under Mobutu Sese Seko.

Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over one-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; in reference to the pre-1991 Republic of Zambia, it referred to the United National Independence Party.

Most one-party states have been ruled by parties forming in one of the following three circumstances:

  1. An ideology of Marxism–Leninism and international solidarity (such as the Soviet Union for most of its existence);
  2. Some type of nationalist or fascist ideology (such as the Kingdom of Italy under the National Fascist Party or Germany under the Nazi Party);
  3. Parties that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because a single party gains an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles.

One-party states are usually considered to be authoritarian, to the extent that they are occasionally totalitarian. On the other hand, not all authoritarian or totalitarian states operate upon one-party rule. Some, especially amongst absolute monarchies and military dictatorships, have no need for a ruling party, and therefore make all political parties illegal.

The term "communist state" is sometimes used in the West to describe states in which the ruling party subscribes to a form of Marxism–Leninism. However, such states may not use that term themselves, seeing communism as a phase to develop after the full maturation of socialism, and instead use descriptions such as "people's republic", "socialist republic", or "democratic republic". One peculiar example is Cuba where, despite the role of the Communist Party being enshrined in the constitution, no party, including the Communist Party, is permitted to campaign or run candidates for elections. Candidates are elected on an individual referendum basis without formal party involvement, although elected assemblies predominantly consist of members of the Communist Party alongside non-affiliated candidates.[3]

Current one-party statesEdit

As of 2021 the following countries are legally constituted as one-party states:

Country Head of party Leader title Party Ideology Date of establishment Duration
  China Xi Jinping General Secretary   Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Socialism with Chinese characteristics, Xi Jinping Thought October 1, 1949 72 years, 61 days
  Cuba Miguel Díaz-Canel First Secretary   Communist Party of Cuba Marxism–Leninism, Castroism, Guevarism, left-wing nationalism January 1, 1959 62 years, 334 days
  Eritrea Isaias Afwerki Chairperson   People's Front for Democracy and Justice Eritrean nationalism, socialism May 24, 1993 28 years, 191 days
  Laos Thongloun Sisoulith General Secretary   Lao People's Revolutionary Party Kaysone Phomvihane Thought December 2, 1975 45 years, 364 days
  North Korea Kim Jong-un General Secretary   Workers' Party of Korea Juche October 10, 1945 76 years, 52 days
  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Brahim Ghali Secretary General   Polisario Front Sahrawi nationalism, social democracy February 27, 1976 45 years, 277 days
  Vietnam Nguyễn Phú Trọng General Secretary   Communist Party of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh Thought, socialist-oriented market economy September 2, 1945 76 years, 90 days

Former one-party statesEdit

Country Party Ideology Date of establishment Date of dissolution Continent
  Ottoman Empire Union and Progress Party[4] İttihadism June 11, 1913 1918 Asia/Europe
  Tinoquista Costa Rica Peliquista Party Liberalism 1917 1919 North America
  Turkey (one-party period)   Republican People's Party Kemalism 1923 1945 Asia/Europe
  Cambodia (Sangkum Era) Sangkum Khmer nationalism, National conservatism, Royalism, Statism, Buddhist socialism, Economic nationalism 1955 1970 Asia
  Cameroon Cameroon People's Democratic Movement Big tent, Nationalism, Francophilia 1975 1990 Africa
  Tunisia Neo Destour Tunisian nationalism, Bourguibism 1963 1964 Africa
  Tunisia Socialist Destourian Party Tunisian nationalism, Secularism, Bourguibism 1964 1981 Africa
  Turkmenistan Democratic Party of Turkmenistan Turkmen nationalism, Secularism, Social conservatism, Catch-all party 1992 2008 Asia
  Republic of China[Note 1]/Taiwan   Kuomintang Tridemism July 1, 1925 July 15, 1987 Asia
  Syrian Republic Arab Liberation Movement Pan-Arabism, Modernization, Pro-Western 1953 1954 Asia
  Republic of Afghanistan National Revolutionary Party Pashtun nationalism, Pashtunization, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Secularism February 14, 1977[5][6] April 28, 1978 Asia
  Algeria National Liberation Front Arab socialism, Algerian nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Anti-imperialism 1962 1989 Africa
  Bangladesh Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League Bengali nationalism, Socialism 1975 1975 Asia
  Burma   Burma Socialist Programme Party Burmese Way to Socialism 1962 1988 Asia
  Cape Verde   African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1975 1980 Africa
  Cape Verde African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1980 1990 Africa
  Central African Republic Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa African nationalism, Anti-colonialism, Progressivism, Anti-imperialism 1962 1980 Africa
  Djibouti People's Rally for Progress Afar interests, Third Way, Liberal socialism 1977 1992 Africa
  Equatorial Guinea United National Workers' Party African nationalism, Socialism, Personalism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-colonialism, Anti-racism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-intellectualism 1970 1979 Africa
  Egypt Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 1962 1976 Africa
  Eritrea   Eritrean People's Liberation Front Left-wing nationalism 1991 (Provisional government)

1993 (Recognized state)

1994 Africa
  Ghana Convention People's Party Nkrumaism, African socialism, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1964 1966 Africa
  Guinea Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, African socialism, Pan-Africanism 1958 1984 Africa
  Guinea-Bissau African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1974 1991 Africa
  Indonesia Indonesian National Party Nationalism, Marhaenism August 17, 1945 November 3, 1945 Asia
   Iraq Iraqi Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism 1964 1968 Asia
   Iraq   Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Saddamist Ba'athism 1968 2003 Asia
  Libya Libyan Arab Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism, Nasserism, Nationalism 1971 1977 Africa
  Democratic Republic of Madagascar National Front for the Defense of the Revolution Left-wing nationalism, Scientific socialism 1976 1989 Africa
   Mali Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, African socialism 1960 1968 Africa
  Mali Democratic Union of the Malian People Socialism, Democratic centralism 1976 1991 Africa
  Mauritania Mauritanian People's Party Nationalism, Centralism, Islamic socialism 1961 1978 Africa
  São Tomé and Príncipe Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1975 1990 Africa
  Senegal Socialist Party of Senegal African nationalism, African socialism 1966 1974 Africa
  Seychelles Seychelles People's Progressive Front Communism, Marxism-Leninism 1977 1991 Africa
  Sierra Leone All People's Congress African nationalism, Democratic socialism 1978 1991 Africa
  Democratic Republic of the Sudan   Sudanese Socialist Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Anti-communism 1971 1985 Africa
  Syria   Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (National Progressive Front) Neo-Ba'athism 1963 February 27, 2012[7][8] Asia
  Tanzania Chama Cha Mapinduzi Ujamaa, African socialism 1977 1992 Africa
  Tanganyika   Tanganyika African National Union African nationalism, African socialism, Ujamaa 1961 1977 Africa
  Uganda   Uganda People's Congress Social democracy, African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1969 1971 Africa
  United Arab Republic National Union Arab nationalism, Arab socialism, Pan-Arabism 1958 1961 Africa
  Xinjiang People's Anti-Imperialist Association Six Great Policies 1935 1942 Asia
  Zambia United National Independence Party African socialism, African nationalism 1972 1990 Africa
  Zanzibar Afro-Shirazi Party African nationalism, Marxism–Leninism 1964 1977 Africa
    Afghanistan   People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (National Fatherland Front) Communism (until 1990), Marxism–Leninism (until 1990), Afghan nationalism, Anti-imperialism December 24, 1980 July 27, 1990 Asia
   Democratic Government of Albania Party of Labour of Albania (National Liberation Movement) Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Hoxhaism, Anti-revisionism October 20, 1944 August 5, 1945 Europe
   Democratic Government of Albania Party of Labour of Albania (Democratic Front) August 5, 1945 January 11, 1946 Europe
  Albania January 11, 1946 December 11, 1990 Europe
  People's Republic of Angola   People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola Communism, Left-wing nationalism, Marxism–Leninism November 11, 1975 May 30, 1991 Africa
  Armenia Communist Party of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 2, 1920 December 30, 1922 Asia
    Azerbaijan Communist Party of Azerbaijan Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism April 30, 1920 December 30, 1922 Asia
  Benin   People's Revolutionary Party of Benin Communism, Marxism–Leninism November 30, 1975 March 1, 1990 Africa
     Bulgaria   Bulgarian Communist Party (Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism September 15, 1946 January 15, 1990 Europe
  Byelorussia Communist Party of Byelorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 31, 1920 December 30, 1922 Europe
  Chinese Soviet Republic Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1930 1937 Asia
  Czechoslovakia   Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (National Front) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Husakism February 25, 1948 November 30, 1989 Europe
  East Germany   Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Democratic Bloc) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism October 7, 1949 March 30, 1950 Europe
  East Germany   Socialist Unity Party of Germany (National Front of the German Democratic Republic) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 30, 1950 December 1, 1989 Europe
  Estonia Russian Communist Party (Central Committee of the Estonian Sections) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism November 29, 1918 June 5, 1919 Europe
  Estonia Communist Party of Estonia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940 August 9, 1940 Europe
  Ethiopia Workers' Party of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism September 12, 1984 February 22, 1987 Africa
  Ethiopia Workers' Party of Ethiopia Communism, Marxism–Leninism February 22, 1987 April 28, 1991 Africa
  Georgia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 Asia
  Grenada New Jewel Movement Communism, Marxism–Leninism March 13, 1979 October 25, 1983 Central America
Guangzhou Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1927 Asia
Hunan Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1927 Asia
    Hungary   Hungarian Working People's Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Stalinism August 20, 1949 October 30, 1956 Europe
    Hungary Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism November 4, 1956 October 7, 1989 Europe
Jinggang Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1927 1928 Asia
  Kampuchea   Communist Party of Kampuchea Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Agrarianism, Autarky, Khmer nationalism, Ultranationalism April 17, 1975 June 22, 1982 Asia
   Kampuchea Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Revisionism, Left-wing nationalism January 7, 1979 October 23, 1991 Asia
  Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 17, 1918 January 13, 1920 Europe
  Latvia Communist Party of Latvia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940 August 5, 1940 Europe
     Mongolia Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1921 July 29, 1990 Asia
     Mozambique   FRELIMO Marxism–Leninism June 25, 1975 December 1, 1990 Africa
  Vietnam (partially) Workers' Party of North Vietnam (League for the Independence of Vietnam) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought September 2, 1945 1946[citation needed] Asia
  North Vietnam Workers' Party of North Vietnam (Vietnamese Fatherland Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought 1955 July 2, 1976 Asia
  Lithuania Communist Party of Lithuania Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 21, 1940 August 3, 1940 Europe
  Lithuania–Byelorussia Communist Party of Lithuania and Belorussia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 17, 1919 July 17, 1919 Europe
   People's Republic of the Congo Congolese Party of Labour Communism, Marxism–Leninism January 31, 1969 1991 Africa
  Persia Communist Party of Persia Communism, Marxism–Leninism 1920 1921 Asia
   Poland   Polish United Workers' Party (Front of National Unity) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism February 5, 1947 July 1982 Europe
   Poland   Polish United Workers' Party (Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth) Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism July 1982 August 24, 1989 Europe
     Romania   Romanian Communist Party (People's Democratic Front) Communism, Marxism–Leninism February 5, 1948 1968 Europe
    Romania   Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 1968 1980 Europe
     Romania   Romanian Communist Party (Front of Socialist Unity and Democracy) Communism, Marxism–Leninism, National Communism 1980 December 29, 1989 Europe
   Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism January 19, 1918 March 8, 1918[9] Europe/Asia
   Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 8, 1918[9] December 30, 1922 Europe/Asia
  Somalia Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Islamic socialism, Marxism–Leninism, Pan-Somalism

Scientific socialism, Somali nationalism

July 1976 January 26, 1991 Africa
  South Yemen   Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism October 31, 1978 May 22, 1990 Asia
  South Yemen   National Liberation Front Arab nationalism, Arab socialism November 30, 1967 October 31, 1978 Asia
Southwest Jiangxi Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1930 1931 Asia
     Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Russian Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism December 30, 1922 December 31, 1925[9] Europe/Asia
     Union of Soviet Socialist Republics All-Union Communist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism, Stalinism December 31, 1925[9] October 13, 1952[9] Europe/Asia
    Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Communist Party of the Soviet Union Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism October 13, 1952[9] October 9, 1990[10] Europe/Asia
  Transcaucasia Communist Part of Armenia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922 December 30, 1922 Asia
  Transcaucasia Communist Party of Azerbaijan Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922 December 30, 1922 Asia
  Transcaucasia Communist Party of Georgia Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 12, 1922 December 30, 1922 Asia
        Tuva   Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism August 14, 1921 October 11, 1944 Asia
  Ukraine Communist Party of Ukraine Communism, Marxism–Leninism, democratic centralism, state socialism March 10, 1919 December 30, 1922 Europe
Yan'an Communist Party of China Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Chinese communism 1937 1949 Asia
  Yemen   Yemeni Socialist Party Communism, Marxism–Leninism May 21, 1994 July 7, 1994 Asia
   Yugoslavia   League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia) Marxism–Leninism, Titoism, Yugoslavism November 29, 1945 January 22, 1990 Europe
  Hawaii Reform Party Americanisation, Annexationism 1894 1898 North America
   Brazilian military regime   ARENA[Note 2] Militarism, Social conservatism, National conservatism, Brazilian nationalism, Anti-communism, National security 1964 1979 South America
  Gabon Gabonese Democratic Party Conservatism 1968 1990 Africa
  Ivory Coast Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Conservatism, Populism, Houphouëtism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1990 Africa
  Kingdom of Spain Spanish Patriotic Union Spanish nationalism, Political Catholicism, Monarchism, Conservatism 1924 1930 Europe
  Malawi Malawi Congress Party Ubuntu, Conservatism, African nationalism, Anti-colonialism 1964 1993 Africa
  Iran Islamic Republican Party Velyât-e Faqih, Anti-imperialism, Iranian nationalism, Shi'ite Islamism, Anti-Monarchism, Anti-Americanism, Anti-communism, Anti-Sovietism, Anti-Zionism, Islamic fundamentalism, Homophobia, Anti-Western sentiment 1981 1987 Asia
  Niger National Movement for the Development of Society Conservatism 1989 1991 Africa
  Albanian Kingdom   Albanian Fascist Party Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Fascism, Italophilia, Serbophobia, Hellenophobia June 2, 1939 July 27, 1943 Europe
  Albanian Kingdom Guard of Greater Albania Albanian nationalism, Fascism July 27, 1943 September 8, 1943 Europe
  Albanian Kingdom National Front Albanian nationalism, Greater Albania, Anti-communism, Republicanism, Big tent, Agrarian socialism September 14, 1943 November 29, 1943 Europe
  Federal State of Austria   Fatherland Front Clerical fascism May 1, 1934 March 13, 1938 Europe
   Republic of Burundi   Union for National Progress Burundian nationalism, Tutsi interests July 11, 1974 March 13, 1992 Africa
   Republic of Cameroon Cameroonian National Union Big tent September 1, 1966[11] March 24, 1985 Africa
  Central African Republic Central African Democratic Union African nationalism, Republicanism March 1, 1980 September 2, 1981 Africa
  Central African Republic Central African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Democratic socialism, Social democracy, Republicanism February 6, 1987 April 22, 1991[12] Africa
  Chad Chadian Progressive Party African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism April 16, 1962 April 6, 1973 Africa
  Chad National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution African nationalism, Pan-Africanism, Anti-imperialism, African socialism, Federalism April 6, 1973 April 13, 1975 Africa
  Chad National Union for Independence and Revolution Nationalism 1984 1990 Africa
  Comoros Comorian Union for Progress Nationalism 1982 1990 Africa
  Independent State of Croatia Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement Croatian irredentism, Croatian ultranationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Clerical fascism, Fascist corporatism, Political Catholicism, Anti-communism April 10, 1941 May 8, 1945 Europe
  Dahomey Dahomeyan Unity Party African nationalism, Republicanism 1961 1963 Africa
  Dahomey Dahomeyan Democratic Party African nationalism 1963 1965 Africa
  Dominican Republic Dominican Party Trujillism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism 1931 1961 Central America
  Egypt National Democratic Party Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent 1956 1958 Africa
  Egypt National Democratic Party Egyptian nationalism, Centrism, Big tent 1961 1962 Africa
  El Salvador National Pro Patria Party Fascism, Anti-communism, Conservatism, Agrarian oligarchy 1931 1944 South America
  Empire of Japan Imperial Rule Assistance Association Shōwa statism 1940 1945 Asia
  Equatorial Guinea Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea African nationalism, Militarism 1987 1991 Africa
  Estonia Patriotic League (National Front for the Implementation of the Constitution) Estonian nationalism, Personalism March 9, 1935 July 21, 1940 Europe
  Nazi Germany   National Socialist German Workers' Party Nazism July 14, 1933 May 23, 1945 Europe
  Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia National Partnership Nazism March 21, 1939 May 9, 1945 Europe
  Guatemala Progressive Liberal Party Ubicoism, Liberalism, Nationalism, Anti-communism 1931 1944 South America
  Haiti National Unity Party Black nationalism, Haitian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Anti-Americanism 1957 1985 Central America
  Government of National Unity   Arrow Cross Party Hungarism, Fascism, Collaborationism, Agrarianism October 16, 1944 May 7, 1945 Europe
  Imperial State of Iran Rastakhiz Party Monarchism, Fascism, Populism, Secularism, Democratic centralism, Third Position 1975 1978 Asia
  Kingdom of Italy   National Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism May 17, 1928[13]
  • January 9, 1939
July 27, 1943 Europe
  • Africa
  Italian Social Republic   Republican Fascist Party Fascism, Corporatism, Ultranationalism, Totalitarianism, Antisemitism, Collaborationism September 13, 1943 April 28, 1945 Europe
  Kenya Kenya African National Union Kenyan nationalism, Conservatism 1982 1991 Africa
  Lithuania Lithuanian Nationalist Union Lithuanian nationalism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Fascist corporatism, Right-wing populism, Anti-communism, Antisemitism 1927 1940 Europe
  Manchukuo   Concordia Association Fascism, Monarchism, Manchurian nationalism, Pan-Asianism, Anti-communism, Personalism, collaborationism April 1, 1932[14] May 1, 1945[14] Asia
  Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories   National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands Nazism, collaborationism December 14, 1941 May 6, 1945 Europe
  Niger Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1974 Africa
  North Yemen   General People's Congress Yemeni nationalism, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism, Big tent 1982 1988 Asia
  National Government   National Rally Fascism, Nazism, Fascist corporatism, Anti-communism, Collaborationism September 25, 1940 May 8, 1945 Europe
  Paraguay   Colorado Party Conservatism, national conservatism 1947 1962 South America
  Philippine Executive Commission   Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism December 8, 1942 October 14, 1943 Asia
  Republic of the Philippines   Association for Service to the New Philippines Filipino nationalism, National conservatism, Fascism, Pro-Japan, collaborationism October 14, 1943 August 17, 1945 Asia
  Portugal   National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano July 30, 1930[15] October 8, 1945[15] Europe
  Portugal   National Union Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano January 31, 1948[16] September 1969[17] Europe
  Portugal   People's National Action (formerly National Union) Salazarism, corporatism, Integralismo Lusitano 1970 April 25, 1974 Europe
  Romania   Party of the Nation Big tent, Romanian nationalism, Monarchism December 16, 1938 September 6, 1940 Europe
   National Legionary State   Iron Guard Legionarism, clerical fascism, Christian nationalism September 6, 1940 January 23, 1941 Europe
  Rwanda Parmehutu Hutu Power 1965 1973 Africa
  Rwanda   National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development Hutu Power, Ultranationalism, Social conservatism, Anti-communism 1978 1991 Africa
  San Marino Sammarinese Fascist Party Italian Fascism, Corporatism 1926 1943 Europe
  San Marino Republican Fascist Party of San Marino Italian Fascism 1943 1944 Europe
  Slovak Republic   Hlinka's Slovak People's Party – Party of Slovak National Unity Clerical fascism, Slovak nationalism, March 14, 1939 May 8, 1945 Europe
  Spanish State   FET y de las JONS Francoism, Falangism, Spanish nationalism, traditionalism, National Catholicism, anti-liberalism, corporatism April 19, 1937 July 6, 1976[18] Europe
  Sudan National Congress Party Islamism, Arab nationalism, Salafism, Social conservatism 1989 2005 Africa
  Togo Party of Togolese Unity African nationalism 1962 1963 Africa
  Togo Rally of the Togolese People African nationalism, Right-wing populism 1969 1991 Africa
  Upper Volta Voltaic Democratic Union-African Democratic Rally African nationalism, Pan-Africanism 1960 1966 Africa
  Yugoslavia Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy Royalism, Yugoslav nationalism, Agrarianism, Centralism, Anti-liberalism, 1929 1931 Europe
  Zaire Popular Movement of the Revolution Mobutism, Zairean nationalism, Authenticité, 1970 1990 Africa

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Republic of China controlled the mainland from 1912 to 1949 and the island of Taiwan since 1945, in which the ROC currently administers the Free area. This government served China in the United Nations from 1945 to 1971. See Political status of Taiwan and the One-China policy for various viewpoints.
  2. ^ Although there was an official democratic opposition, the MDB, ARENA was de facto the only governing party.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Clark, William Roberts; Golder, Matt; Golder, Sona Nadenichek (2012-03-23). Principles of Comparative Politics. SAGE. ISBN 9781608716791.
  2. ^ Bozarslan, Hamit (2019). "Afterword: Talaat's Empire: A Backward Country, but a State Well Ahead of Its Time". End of the Ottomans - The Genocide of 1915 and the Politics of Turkish Nationalism. I. B. Tauris. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-7867-3604-8.
  3. ^ Cuba: Elections and Events 1991–2001 Archived 2007-03-01 at the Wayback Machine Latin American Election Statistics Home
  4. ^ Bozarslan, Hamit (2019). "Afterword: Talaat's Empire: A Backward Country, but a State Well Ahead of Its Time". End of the Ottomans - The Genocide of 1915 and the Politics of Turkish Nationalism. I. B. Tauris. p. 330. ISBN 978-1-7867-3604-8.
  5. ^ Afghanistan: A Country Study
  6. ^ Afghanistan 1977
  7. ^ "Presidential Decree on Syria's New Constitution". Syrian Arab News Agency. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  8. ^ Chulov, Martin (27 February 2012). "Syrian regime rockets bombard Homs". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d e f The Constitution of the Russian Federation: A Contextual Analysis By Jane Henderson
  10. ^ Ideology And Political System By Kundan Kumar
  11. ^ The Search for a Cameroonian Model of Democracy or the Search for the Domination of the State Party: 1966-2006
  12. ^ Central African Republic Unions Strike for Democracy 1990-1993
  13. ^ Mediterranean Fascism 1919–1945
  14. ^ a b China at War: Regions of China, 1937-1945
  15. ^ a b 12th Period - Second Republic of Portugal
  16. ^ Fascism and Resistance in Portugal: Communists, Liberals and Military
  17. ^ Following the appointment of Marcelo Caetano as Prime Minister in 1968, the opposition was allowed to run to the 1969 Portuguese legislative election, before being banned
  18. ^ Law 21/1976, of June 14, on the Right of Political Association.

External linksEdit