List of wars involving India

This is a list of wars involving the Republic of India and its predecessor states.

It is a list of wars and conflicts that were fought in the historic Indian subcontinent.

Maurya Empire (322 BCE–185 BCE)

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Conquest of the Nanda Empire
(321 BCE–320 BCE)
Maurya Empire Nanda Empire Maurya victory
Seleucid–Mauryan war
(305 BCE–303 BCE)
Maurya Empire Seleucid Empire Maurya victory
  • Maurya annexation of all of the Macedonian Satrapies in the Indus River Valley
  • 500 war elephants given to Seleucus
  • Marriage between Mauryan and Seleucid families
Kalinga War
(262 BCE–261 BCE)
Maurya Empire Kalinga Maurya victory
  • Maurya annexation of Kalinga

Medieval India

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Umayyad campaigns in India
(712 - 740)
Gurjara-Pratihara Umayyad Caliphate Victory
Chola invasion of Srivijaya
(1025)
Chola Empire Srivijaya Victory

Mughal Empire (1526–1857)

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Mughal-Rajput Wars
(1525–1750)
Mughal Empire Rajputs Mughal victory
  • Expansion of Mughal influence in Northern India.
  • Rajputs gain influence in Mughal politics.
  • After 1707, Rajputs have a stream of success and gain their independence and stop paying taxes.
First Battle of Panipat
(1526)
Mughal Empire Delhi Sultanate Mughal victory
  • Delhi Sultanate annexed by Mughals
  • Foundation of the Mughal Empire
Battle of Ghaghra
(1529)
Mughal Empire Sultanate of Bengal Mughal victory
  • Bihar annexed by the Mughals
Ahom–Mughal conflicts
(1615–1682)
Mughal Empire   Ahom kingdom Ahom victory
  • Extension of Ahom influence to the Manas river
Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23)
(1622–1623)
Mughal Empire   Safavid Empire Persian victory
Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53)
(1649–1653)
Mughal Empire   Safavid Empire Persian victory
  • Safavid/Persian re-annexation of Kandahar
Mughal conquest of Chittagong
(1665–1666)
Mughal Empire Kingdom of Mrauk U Mughal naval and military victory
  • Mughal annexation of southeastern Bengal
Tibet-Ladakh-Mughal war of 1679-1684
(1679–1684)
Ladakh
Mughal Empire
Tibet
Zungar Empire
Mughal military victory
  • Mughal withdrawal after signing a treaty with the Ladakhis

Tibetan victory in another attack in 1684 with the assistance of reinforcements from the Zungar Empire

  • Treaty of Tingmosgang
Deccan Wars
(1681–1707)
Mughal Empire   Maratha Empire Maratha victory
  • Permanent end to Mughal expansion in Deccan/Peninsular India
Child's War
(1686–1690)
Mughal Empire   East India Company Mughal victory
  • British conclusion of peace with the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1689
Nadir Shah's invasion of India
(1738–1739)
Mughal Empire   Afsharid dynasty Persian victory
  • Persian occupation and plundering of Delhi
Battle of Karnal
(1739–February 13, 1739)
Mughal Empire   Persian Afsharid Empire Persian victory
Siege of Trichinopoly (1741)
(1741)
Mughal Empire   Maratha Empire Maratha victory
Expeditions in Bengal
(1741–1748)
Mughal Empire   Maratha Empire Maratha victory
  • Maratha annexation of the territory up to the river Suvarnarekha from Bengal
Seven Years' War
(1754–1763)
  France

  Austria
  Russia (until 1762)
  Spanish Empire (from 1761)
  Sweden (1757–62)
  Saxony
  Mughal Empire (from 1757)

  Prussia

  Great Britain
  Hanover
  Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
  Iroquois Confederacy
  Portugal (from 1761)
  Hesse-Kassel
  Schaumburg-Lippe

Status quo ante in Europe, but transfer of colonial possessions between Britain, France and Spain
  • French cession of New France (excluding Louisiana) to Britain and recognition of British supremacy in Bengal
  • Spanish cession of Florida to Britain
  • French cession of Louisiana to Spain
  • British cession of Cuba and Manilla (Philippine Islands) to Spain
Indian Rebellion of 1857
(1857–1858)
Mughal Empire
  Maratha Empire
  Company Raj British victory
  • Suppression of the rebellions
  • End of Mughal, Company and Maratha rule in India
  • Formation of the British Raj/Empire of India

Maratha Empire (1674–1818, 1857)

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Deccan Wars
(1681–1707)
  Maratha Empire Mughal Empire Maratha victory
  • Permanent end to Mughal expansion in Deccan/Peninsular India
Battle of Vasai
(1739)
  Maratha Empire   Portuguese Empire Maratha victory
Siege of Trichinopoly (1741)
(1741)
  Maratha Empire Mughal Empire Maratha victory
Expeditions in Bengal
(1741–1748)
  Maratha Empire Mughal Empire Maratha victory
  • Maratha annexation of the territory up to the river Suvarnarekha from Bengal
Maratha conquest of North-west India
(1757–1758)
  Maratha Empire   Durrani Empire Maratha victory
First Anglo-Mysore War
(1767–1769)
  Company Raj
  Maratha Empire
  Nawab of the Carnatic
  Hyderabad
  Mysore Mysore victory
First Anglo-Maratha War
(1775–1782)
  Maratha Empire   Company Raj Maratha victory
Maratha-Mysore War
(1785–1787)
  Maratha Empire   Mysore Maratha victory
  • Treaty of Gajendragad
Third Anglo-Mysore War
(1789–1792)
  Company Raj
  Maratha Empire
  Hyderabad
 Travancore
  Mysore Maratha-Hyderabad-British victory
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
(1798–1799)
  Company Raj
  Maratha Empire
  Hyderabad
 Travancore
  Mysore Maratha-Hyderabad-British victory
Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1803–1805)
  Maratha Empire   Company Raj British victory
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–1818)
  Maratha Empire   Company Raj British victory
Indian Rebellion of 1857
(1857–1858)
Mughal Empire
  Maratha Empire
  Company Raj British victory
  • Suppression of the rebellions
  • End of Mughal, Company and Maratha rule in India
  • Formation of the British Raj

Company rule in India (1757–1858)

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Battle of Plassey
(1757)
  Company rule in India   Nawab of Bengal
  French East India
Company Victory
Battle of Buxar
(1764)
  Company rule in India Mughal Empire Company Victory
First Anglo-Mysore War
(1767–1769)
  Company rule in India
  Maratha
  Nawab of the Carnatic
  Hyderabad
  Mysore Stalemate
First Anglo-Maratha War
(1775–1782)
  Company rule in India   Maratha Maratha Victory
Second Anglo-Mysore War
(1779–1784)
  Great Britain

  Hanover

  Mysore
  France
  Dutch Republic
Mysore Victory
Third Anglo-Mysore War
(1789–1792)
  Company rule in India
  Maratha Empire
  Hyderabad
  Travancore
  Mysore Company Victory
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
(1798–1799)
  Company rule in India   Mysore Company Victory
Second Anglo-Maratha War
(1803–1805)
  Company rule in India   Maratha Company Victory
Anglo-Nepalese War
(1814–1816)
  Company rule in India
  Garhwal Kingdom
  Patiala State
  Nepal Company Victory
Capture of East India Company ship Nautilus
(1815)
  Company rule in India   United States American Victory
  • Capture of Nautilus by American forces
Third Anglo-Maratha War
(1817–1818)
  Company rule in India   Maratha Company Victory
First Anglo-Burmese War
(1824–1826)
  Company rule in India   Burmese Empire Company Victory
First Anglo-Afghan War
(1839–1842)
  Company rule in India   Emirate of Afghanistan Afghan Victory
First Opium War
(1839–1842)
  Great Britain   Qing dynasty Company Victory
First Anglo-Sikh War
(1845–1846)
  Company rule in India
  Patiala
 Sikh Empire Company Victory
Second Anglo-Sikh War
(1848–1849)
  Company rule in India  Sikh Empire Company Victory
Second Anglo-Burmese War
(1852)
  Company rule in India   Burmese Empire Company Victory
Anglo-Persian War
(1856–1857)
  United Kingdom

  Afghanistan

  Iran Company Victory
Indian Rebellion of 1857
(1857–1858)
  Company rule in India
  British Army
Mughal Empire
  Maratha
Company Victory
  • Suppression of the rebellions
  • End of Mughal, Company and Maratha rule in India
  • Formation of the British Raj

British India (1858–1947)

Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India company came to end and the British crown now began to rule over India directly as per the Government of India Act 1858 through the British Raj. India was now a single empire comprising British India and the Princely states.

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Second Opium War
(1856–1860)
  British Empire

  French Empire

  China Victory
Ambela Campaign
(1863–1864)
  India Afghan Pashtuns
Yusufzai tribes
Victory
  • Bunerwals surrender.
  • Malka burned.
Bhutan War
(1864–1865)
  India   Bhutan Victory
  • Bhutanese territorial cessions to India.
British Expedition to Abyssinia
(1867–1868)
  United Kingdom   Ethiopian Empire Victory
  • British victory at the Battle of Magdala, Theodore II commits suicide.
Second Anglo-Afghan War
(1878–1880)
  United Kingdom   Afghanistan Victory
  • Treaty of Gandamak, British objectives attained.
  • Afghanistan's tribal frontier areas annexed into British India.
  • Afghanistan becomes a British Protectorate.
Mahdist War
(1881–1899)
  United Kingdom

  Egypt
  Ethiopia

  Mahdist Sudan Victory
Anglo-Egyptian War
(1882)
  United Kingdom

  Tewfik Pasha

  Ahmed Orabi Victory
Third Anglo-Burmese War
(1885)
  India   Burmese Empire Victory
Third Black Mountain Expedition
(1888)
  India Hassanzai and Akazai tribes. Victory
  • Allaiwal village of Pokal occupied and destroyed.
Sikkim Expedition
(1888)
  India   Tibet Victory
  • Tibetan forces expelled from Sikkim.
Hunza-Nagar Campaign
(1891)
  India Hunza
Nagar
Victory
Chitral Expedition
(1895)
  India Chitralis Bajouri and Afghan Tribesmen Victory
  • Fort of Chitral relieved.
Anglo-Zanzibar War
(1896)
  British Empire   Zanzibar Sultanate Victory
Tochi Expedition
(1896)
  India Waziris Victory
  • Rebellion put down.
Siege of Malakand
(1897)
  India پشتون Pashtun tribes Victory
  • Siege successful.
First Mohmand Campaign
(1897–1898)
  India Mohmands Victory
Tirah Campaign
(1897–1898)
  India Afridis
Orakzais
Chamkanis
Victory
  • Negotiations for peace were then begun with the Afridis.
Boxer Rebellion
(1899–1901)
  Empire of Japan
  Russia
  United Kingdom

  France
  United States
  Germany
  Austria-Hungary
  Italy

  Yihetuan Movement
  China
Victory
  • The rebellion was suppressed.
  • Signing of the Boxer Protocol.
  • Provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing.
Second Boer War
(1899–1902)
  United Kingdom   Orange Free State
  South African Republic
Victory
British expedition to Tibet
(1903–1904)
  India   Tibet Victory
Bambatha Rebellion
(1906)
  United Kingdom Zulu people Victory
  • Rebellion suppressed
Bazar Valley Campaign
(1908)
  India Zakka Khel clan of the Afridi Victory
  • Rebellion suppressed
World War I
(1914–1918)
  France
  United Kingdom

  Russia
  Italy
  United States
  Serbia
  Montenegro
  Belgium
  Japan
  Romania
  Portugal
  Hejaz
  China
  Greece
  Brazil

  Germany
  Austria-Hungary
  Ottoman Empire
  Bulgaria
Victory
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
(1918–1920)
  White Movement
  British Empire

  Japan
  Czechoslovakia
  Greece
  Poland
  United States
  France
  Romania
  Serbia
  Italy
  China

  Russian SFSR
  Far Eastern Republic
  Latvian SSR
  Ukrainian SSR
  Commune of Estonia
  Mongolian communists
Withdrawal
  • Allied withdrawal from Russia.
  • Bolshevik victory over White Army.
Turkish War of Independence
(1919–1923)
  Greece

  France

  Armenia
  United Kingdom

  Istanbul Government

  Italy
  Georgia

  Ankara Government

  Kuva-yi Milliye

Defeat[1]
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919)
  United Kingdom   Afghanistan Armistice
  • Treaty of Rawalpindi
  • Afghan invasion repelled.
  • Afghanistan regains control of external affairs.
  • Reaffirmation of the Durand Line.
First Waziristan Campaign
(1919)
  India   Waziristan Victory
  • Suppression of insurrection by independent Wazir tribes.
Kuwait–Najd War
(1919–1920)
  United Kingdom

  Kuwait

  Sultanate of Nejd Victory
  • Ikhawan retreat.
Iraqi revolt
(1920)
  United Kingdom   Iraqi rebels Victory
Malabar rebellion
(1921)
  India Mappila Muslims Victory
  • Rebellion suppressed.
Pink's War
(1925)
  India Mahsud tribesmen Victory
  • Tribal leaders accept terms.
Second Mohmand Campaign
(1935)
  India Mohmands Victory
Second Waziristan Campaign
(1936–1939)
  India   Waziri tribesmen Victory
  • Suppression of insurrection by independent Wazir tribes.
World War II
(1939–1945)
  Soviet Union
  United States
  United Kingdom
  China
  France
  Poland
  Yugoslavia
  Greece
  Netherlands
  Belgium
  Luxembourg
  Denmark
  Norway
  Czechoslovakia
  Canada
  Australia
  New Zealand
  India
  South Africa
  Philippines
  Ethiopia
  Brazil
  Mexico
  Mongolia
  Germany
  Japan
  Italy
  Romania
  Hungary
  Bulgaria
  Slovakia
  Croatia
  Finland
  Thailand
  Iraq
Victory
Indonesian National Revolution
(1945–1947)
  Netherlands
  United Kingdom
  Indonesia Withdrawal
  • Indian withdrawal after independence in 1947.
  • The Netherlands recognises Indonesian independence.
Operation Masterdom
(1945–1946)
  United Kingdom

  France
  Japan

  Viet Minh Victory

Dominion of India (1947–1950)

Following Indian independence, merger of the princely states remained a major question. The partition resulted in the creation of Pakistan.

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
(1947–1948)
  India   Pakistan
  Furqan Force
Ceasefire
Integration of Junagadh
(1947)
  India   Junagadh Victory
  • Incorporation of Junagadh into India
Operation Polo
(1948)
  India   Hyderabad Victory
  • Incorporation of Hyderabad into India

Republic of India (1950–present)

India has fought many wars and minor conflicts during its period as a republic.

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome
Allies Opponent(s)
Integration of Dadra and Nagar Haveli
(1954)
  India   Portugal Victory
Congo Crisis
(1960–1964)
1960–63:

  Republic of the Congo
Supported by:
  Soviet Union (1960)
  ONUC[a]

1960–63:

  Katanga
  South Kasai
Supported by:
  Belgium[b]


1960–62:
  Stanleyville government
Supported by:
  Soviet Union

Victory
Annexation of Goa
(1961)
  India   Portugal Victory
Sino-Indian War of 1962
(1962)
  India   China Defeat
Insurgency in Northeast India
(1954–)
  India
  Bhutan
  Bangladesh (joined in 1971)
Ongoing
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
(1965)
  India   Pakistan Inconclusive
Naxalite-Maoist insurgency
(1967–)
  India Ongoing
Nathu La and Cho La clashes
(1967)
  India   China Victory
Bangladesh Liberation War
(incl. Indo-Pakistani War of 1971)

(1971)
  India
  Bangladesh
  Pakistan Victory
Siachen conflict
(1984–2003)
  India   Pakistan Victory
Insurgency in Punjab
(incl. Operation Blue Star)

(1984–1995)
  India Khalistani militants Victory
Operation Flowers are Blooming
(1986)
  India
  Seychelles
  Military of Seychelles Victory
  • Aversion of the coup
  • Resignation of Berlouis
Sri Lankan Civil War
(1987–1990)
  India
  Sri Lanka
  Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Withdrawal
Operation Cactus
(1988)
  India
  Maldives
  PLOTE
  Maldivian rebels
Victory
  • Restoration of government rule in Maldives
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
(1989–)
  India   Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami

  Lashkar-e-Taiba
  Jaish-e-Mohammed
  Hizbul Mujahideen
  Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
  Al-Badr
  Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front


Supported by:
  Pakistan[8]
  Taliban[9]
  al-Qaeda[9]

Ongoing
Kargil War
(1999)
  India   Pakistan

Victory

2001 Bangladesh–India border clashes   India   Bangladesh

No territorial changes

  • Bangladesh-India relations strained
Operation Ocean Shield
(2009-2016)
  NATO

Non-NATO:

Pirates

Victory

  • Number of Somali pirate attacks have been reduced dramatically.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ONUC, the United Nations Operation in the Congo, included troops from Ghana, Tunisia, Morocco, Ethiopia, Ireland, Guinea, Sweden, Mali, Sudan, Liberia, Canada, India, Indonesia and the United Arab Republic among others.[2]
  2. ^ The secession of Katanga and South Kasai was also supported by South Africa, France and the neighbouring Central African Federation.[3] However, it was never officially recognised by any other state.[4]

References

  1. ^ Chester Neal Tate, Governments of the world: a global guide to citizens' rights and responsibilities, Macmillan Reference USA/Thomson Gale, 2006, p. 205.
  2. ^ Haskin 2005, pp. 24–5.
  3. ^ Nzongola-Ntalaja 2007, p. 101.
  4. ^ Nugent 2004, p. 97.
  5. ^ http://www.asianage.com/debate/age-debate-after-tripura-it-time-revoke-afspa-jammu-and-kashmir-922
  6. ^ https://www.msn.com/en-in/news/newsindia/afspa-removed-from-meghalaya-eight-police-stations-in-arunachal-pradesh/ar-AAwdEbV?li=AAaeRVN&ocid=spartandhp
  7. ^ Asia Times Online :: Southeast Asia news and business from Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam. Atimes.com (2010-04-22). Retrieved on 2014-05-21.
  8. ^ Ganguly, Sumit; Paul Kapur (7 August 2012). India, Pakistan, and the Bomb: Debating Nuclear Stability in South Asia. Columbia University Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-231-14375-2.
  9. ^ a b Gall, Carlotta (21 January 2007). "At Border, Signs of Pakistani Role in Taliban Surge – New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  10. ^ "Pakistani opposition presses for Sharif's resignation". Wsws.org. 7 August 1999. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  11. ^ "New Zealand joins NATO's counter-piracy mission Ocean Shield". NATO. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.